Abstract

Highly transparent Cr, Tm, Ho triple-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) ceramics were prepared using advanced ceramic technology and their spectroscopic properties were studied for infrared laser applications. 2.09 μm emission was observed by exciting at 430 nm, which indicated the realization of energy transition from Cr3+ to Ho3+ with Tm3+ acted as an intermediate media. The efficiency between the energy transfer (Tm3+) 3F4→ (Ho3+) 5I7 and its back-transfer process was 7.87, which was comparable to that of YAG single crystal and YLF. Studies on the optical gain and stimulated emission characteristics suggested that this triple-doped YAG ceramic could be an appropriate material for 2.09 μm laser application.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  29. X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singly- and Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids195(1-2), 113–124 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Tang, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, W. C. Wang, B. J. Fei, and Y. G. Cao, “Photoluminescence and laser behavior of Yb:YAG ceramic,” Opt. Mater.34(5), 757–760 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. R. W. Herrmann, E. N. Liatsikos, U. Nagele, O. Traxer, A. S. Merseburger, and EAU Guidelines Panel on Lasers, Technologies, “EAU guidelines on laser technologies,” Eur. Urol.61(4), 783–795 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Gao, J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, J. Zhang, D. W. Luo, H. Yang, D. Y. Tang, J. Ma, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Highly efficient 2 μm Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1076–1078 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. Chen, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, H. Yang, D. Y. Tang, T. Zhao, and X. F. Yang, “In-band pumped highly efficient Ho:YAG ceramic laser with 21 W output power at 2097 nm,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1575–1577 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2008 (1)

A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 721–727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

N. Karadimitriou, B. Klinkenberg, D. N. Papadopoulos, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Development and performance characteristics of flash lamp pumped Yb:YAG, Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG, Er:Tm:Ho:YLF laser sources and investigation of their potential biological applications,” SPIE-OSA6633, 66331H, 66331H-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and E. Bovero, “Spectroscopy and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.30(1), 129–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, “Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(6), 1945–1950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3+: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kuntz, “Current role of lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),” Eur. Urol.49(6), 961–969 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. S. Lim, C. W. Lee, S. T. Kim, H. J. Seo, and C. D. Kim, “Infrared to visible up-conversion in Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG,” J. Lumin.87-89(9), 1008–1010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. P. Bartolo, “On the distribution of energy between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds in Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence,” J. Lumin.75(2), 89–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.3(1), 82–89 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, and M. G. Jani, “Flash-lamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF lasers: modeling of a single, long pulse length comparison,” Appl. Opt.36(15), 3363–3374 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singly- and Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids195(1-2), 113–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm to Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter4(44), 8525–8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. Kalisky, J. Kagan, D. Sagie, A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, and G. Boulon, “Spectroscopic properties, energy-transfer, and laser operation of pulsed holmium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4095–4100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho-Yag,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of Phonon-Terminated Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev.134(2A), A299–A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys.21(5), 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Aguilo, M.

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aung, Y. L.

A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 721–727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, and M. G. Jani, “Flash-lamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF lasers: modeling of a single, long pulse length comparison,” Appl. Opt.36(15), 3363–3374 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. P. Bartolo, “On the distribution of energy between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds in Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence,” J. Lumin.75(2), 89–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartolo, B. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. P. Bartolo, “On the distribution of energy between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds in Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence,” J. Lumin.75(2), 89–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, K.

Bigotta, S.

S. Bigotta, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and E. Bovero, “Spectroscopy and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.30(1), 129–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

Y. Kalisky, J. Kagan, D. Sagie, A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, and G. Boulon, “Spectroscopic properties, energy-transfer, and laser operation of pulsed holmium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4095–4100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bovero, E.

S. Bigotta, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and E. Bovero, “Spectroscopy and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.30(1), 129–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

Y. Kalisky, J. Kagan, D. Sagie, A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, and G. Boulon, “Spectroscopic properties, energy-transfer, and laser operation of pulsed holmium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4095–4100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bromberger, H.

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho-Yag,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y. G.

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Tang, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, W. C. Wang, B. J. Fei, and Y. G. Cao, “Photoluminescence and laser behavior of Yb:YAG ceramic,” Opt. Mater.34(5), 757–760 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Castillo, V.

S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, “Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(6), 1945–1950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

S. Bigotta, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and E. Bovero, “Spectroscopy and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.30(1), 129–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X. J.

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys.21(5), 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, F.

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3+: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dumm, J. Q.

S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, “Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(6), 1945–1950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho-Yag,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fei, B. J.

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Tang, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, W. C. Wang, B. J. Fei, and Y. G. Cao, “Photoluminescence and laser behavior of Yb:YAG ceramic,” Opt. Mater.34(5), 757–760 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W. L.

Grimm, C. V. B.

Guo, J. K.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Tang, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, W. C. Wang, B. J. Fei, and Y. G. Cao, “Photoluminescence and laser behavior of Yb:YAG ceramic,” Opt. Mater.34(5), 757–760 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

Herrmann, T. R. W.

T. R. W. Herrmann, E. N. Liatsikos, U. Nagele, O. Traxer, A. S. Merseburger, and EAU Guidelines Panel on Lasers, Technologies, “EAU guidelines on laser technologies,” Eur. Urol.61(4), 783–795 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. Q.

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Tang, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, W. C. Wang, B. J. Fei, and Y. G. Cao, “Photoluminescence and laser behavior of Yb:YAG ceramic,” Opt. Mater.34(5), 757–760 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q. F.

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. D.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho-Yag,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 721–727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jani, M. G.

Jiang, B. X.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kagan, J.

Y. Kalisky, J. Kagan, D. Sagie, A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, and G. Boulon, “Spectroscopic properties, energy-transfer, and laser operation of pulsed holmium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4095–4100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kalisky, Y.

Y. Kalisky, J. Kagan, D. Sagie, A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, and G. Boulon, “Spectroscopic properties, energy-transfer, and laser operation of pulsed holmium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4095–4100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3+: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karadimitriou, N.

N. Karadimitriou, B. Klinkenberg, D. N. Papadopoulos, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Development and performance characteristics of flash lamp pumped Yb:YAG, Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG, Er:Tm:Ho:YLF laser sources and investigation of their potential biological applications,” SPIE-OSA6633, 66331H, 66331H-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. D.

K. S. Lim, C. W. Lee, S. T. Kim, H. J. Seo, and C. D. Kim, “Infrared to visible up-conversion in Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG,” J. Lumin.87-89(9), 1008–1010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

K. S. Lim, C. W. Lee, S. T. Kim, H. J. Seo, and C. D. Kim, “Infrared to visible up-conversion in Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG,” J. Lumin.87-89(9), 1008–1010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klinkenberg, B.

N. Karadimitriou, B. Klinkenberg, D. N. Papadopoulos, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Development and performance characteristics of flash lamp pumped Yb:YAG, Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG, Er:Tm:Ho:YLF laser sources and investigation of their potential biological applications,” SPIE-OSA6633, 66331H, 66331H-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kochawattana, S.

S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, “Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(6), 1945–1950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm to Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter4(44), 8525–8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. A.

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuntz, R. M.

R. M. Kuntz, “Current role of lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),” Eur. Urol.49(6), 961–969 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Künzel, H.

Kurkov, A. S.

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm to Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter4(44), 8525–8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

K. S. Lim, C. W. Lee, S. T. Kim, H. J. Seo, and C. D. Kim, “Infrared to visible up-conversion in Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG,” J. Lumin.87-89(9), 1008–1010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, “Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(6), 1945–1950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liatsikos, E. N.

T. R. W. Herrmann, E. N. Liatsikos, U. Nagele, O. Traxer, A. S. Merseburger, and EAU Guidelines Panel on Lasers, Technologies, “EAU guidelines on laser technologies,” Eur. Urol.61(4), 783–795 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, K. S.

K. S. Lim, C. W. Lee, S. T. Kim, H. J. Seo, and C. D. Kim, “Infrared to visible up-conversion in Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG,” J. Lumin.87-89(9), 1008–1010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. B.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lopez de Miguel, M.

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, D. W.

Ma, J.

Marakulin, A. V.

Martin, M. J.

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of Phonon-Terminated Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev.134(2A), A299–A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Merseburger, A. S.

T. R. W. Herrmann, E. N. Liatsikos, U. Nagele, O. Traxer, A. S. Merseburger, and EAU Guidelines Panel on Lasers, Technologies, “EAU guidelines on laser technologies,” Eur. Urol.61(4), 783–795 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messing, G. L.

S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, “Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(6), 1945–1950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitzscherlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho-Yag,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Murray, K. E.

Nagele, U.

T. R. W. Herrmann, E. N. Liatsikos, U. Nagele, O. Traxer, A. S. Merseburger, and EAU Guidelines Panel on Lasers, Technologies, “EAU guidelines on laser technologies,” Eur. Urol.61(4), 783–795 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuhaus, J.

Pan, Y. B.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, D. N.

N. Karadimitriou, B. Klinkenberg, D. N. Papadopoulos, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Development and performance characteristics of flash lamp pumped Yb:YAG, Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG, Er:Tm:Ho:YLF laser sources and investigation of their potential biological applications,” SPIE-OSA6633, 66331H, 66331H-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm to Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter4(44), 8525–8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, C.

Y. Kalisky, J. Kagan, D. Sagie, A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, and G. Boulon, “Spectroscopic properties, energy-transfer, and laser operation of pulsed holmium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4095–4100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pokhrel, M.

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L. J.

Quarles, G.

S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, “Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(6), 1945–1950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roura, P.

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruf, H.

Rustad, G.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.3(1), 82–89 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sagie, D.

Y. Kalisky, J. Kagan, D. Sagie, A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, and G. Boulon, “Spectroscopic properties, energy-transfer, and laser operation of pulsed holmium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4095–4100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, P.

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sardar, D. K.

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, H.

Seo, H. J.

K. S. Lim, C. W. Lee, S. T. Kim, H. J. Seo, and C. D. Kim, “Infrared to visible up-conversion in Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG,” J. Lumin.87-89(9), 1008–1010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Serafetinides, A. A.

N. Karadimitriou, B. Klinkenberg, D. N. Papadopoulos, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Development and performance characteristics of flash lamp pumped Yb:YAG, Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG, Er:Tm:Ho:YLF laser sources and investigation of their potential biological applications,” SPIE-OSA6633, 66331H, 66331H-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

Shirakawa, A.

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3+: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm to Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter4(44), 8525–8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sole, R.

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stenersen, K.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.3(1), 82–89 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, F.

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Tang, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, W. C. Wang, B. J. Fei, and Y. G. Cao, “Photoluminescence and laser behavior of Yb:YAG ceramic,” Opt. Mater.34(5), 757–760 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J. B.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm to Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter4(44), 8525–8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

S. Bigotta, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and E. Bovero, “Spectroscopy and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.30(1), 129–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

S. Bigotta, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and E. Bovero, “Spectroscopy and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.30(1), 129–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, H.

X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singly- and Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids195(1-2), 113–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Traxer, O.

T. R. W. Herrmann, E. N. Liatsikos, U. Nagele, O. Traxer, A. S. Merseburger, and EAU Guidelines Panel on Lasers, Technologies, “EAU guidelines on laser technologies,” Eur. Urol.61(4), 783–795 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, K.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K. I.

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3+: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. P. Bartolo, “On the distribution of energy between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds in Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence,” J. Lumin.75(2), 89–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. A.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Tang, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, W. C. Wang, B. J. Fei, and Y. G. Cao, “Photoluminescence and laser behavior of Yb:YAG ceramic,” Opt. Mater.34(5), 757–760 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, J. Q.

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, H.

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3+: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yanagitani, T.

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3+: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Yang, K. J.

Yang, X. F.

Yuan, P.

Zaldo, C.

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W. X.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X. L.

X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singly- and Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids195(1-2), 113–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3+: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Int. (1)

J. Zhou, W. X. Zhang, T. D. Huang, L. A. Wang, J. Li, W. B. Liu, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, and J. K. Guo, “Optical properties of Er, Yb co-doped YAG transparent ceramics,” Ceram. Int.37(2), 513–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Urol. (2)

T. R. W. Herrmann, E. N. Liatsikos, U. Nagele, O. Traxer, A. S. Merseburger, and EAU Guidelines Panel on Lasers, Technologies, “EAU guidelines on laser technologies,” Eur. Urol.61(4), 783–795 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Kuntz, “Current role of lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),” Eur. Urol.49(6), 961–969 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho-Yag,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.3(1), 82–89 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

W. X. Zhang, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, B. X. Jiang, Y. B. Pan, X. J. Cheng, and J. Q. Xu, “Fabrication, properties and laser performance of Ho:YAG transparent ceramic,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(2), 745–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, “Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(6), 1945–1950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kalisky, J. Kagan, D. Sagie, A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, and G. Boulon, “Spectroscopic properties, energy-transfer, and laser operation of pulsed holmium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4095–4100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys.21(5), 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (3)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. P. Bartolo, “On the distribution of energy between the Tm 3F4 and Ho 5I7 manifolds in Tm-sensitized Ho luminescence,” J. Lumin.75(2), 89–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Fei, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, Q. F. Huang, J. Chen, F. Tang, W. C. Wang, and Y. G. Cao, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Tm:YAG ceramics,” J. Lumin.142, 189–195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lim, C. W. Lee, S. T. Kim, H. J. Seo, and C. D. Kim, “Infrared to visible up-conversion in Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG,” J. Lumin.87-89(9), 1008–1010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singly- and Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids195(1-2), 113–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, and W. F. Krupke, “The mechanism of Tm to Ho energy transfer in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter4(44), 8525–8542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 721–727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (3)

C. Zaldo, M. J. Martin, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, P. Roura, and M. Lopez de Miguel, “Optical spectroscopy of Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions in KTiOPO4 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.10(1), 29–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Tang, J. Q. Huang, W. Guo, W. C. Wang, B. J. Fei, and Y. G. Cao, “Photoluminescence and laser behavior of Yb:YAG ceramic,” Opt. Mater.34(5), 757–760 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and E. Bovero, “Spectroscopy and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped Ba2NaNb5O15 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.30(1), 129–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Sci. Adv. Mater. (1)

G. A. Kumar, M. Pokhrel, D. K. Sardar, P. Samuel, K. I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and H. Yagi, “2.1 mum emission spectral properties of Tm and Ho doped transparent YAG ceramic,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(5), 617–622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

SPIE-OSA (1)

N. Karadimitriou, B. Klinkenberg, D. N. Papadopoulos, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Development and performance characteristics of flash lamp pumped Yb:YAG, Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG, Er:Tm:Ho:YLF laser sources and investigation of their potential biological applications,” SPIE-OSA6633, 66331H, 66331H-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, and X. Y. Chen, Spectroscopy of Solid-State Laser and Luminescent Materials (Nova Science Publishers, 2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of the starting oxide powders. (a) Cr2O3; (b) Tm2O3; (c) Ho2O3; (d) Y2O3; (e) Al2O3; (f) mixed powders after ball milling for 24 h.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The XRD pattern of the Cr, Tm, Ho triple-doped YAG ceramic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmittance spectrum and (b) SEM image of the transparent ceramic. The inset in (a) is the photograph of the sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical absorption spectrum of the mirror polished Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG ceramic. The detail of absorption positions range from 372 nm to 850 nm is shown in the inset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectrum of Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG ceramic obtained by exciting the Cr3+ at 430 nm. The decay profile of this emission is shown in the inset.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scheme of the energy transfer processes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

YAG-based Emission cross section of Tm3+ 3F4 manifold and Absorption cross section of Ho3+ 5I7 manifold relevant to energy transfer parameters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Absorption and emission cross section spectra of Ho3+ in YAG ceramic corresponding to the transition from 5I7 to 5I8 level. (b) Simulated optical gain spectra for this transition under various population inversion (P) conditions.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the transfer coefficient between Tm3+ and Ho3+ in our ceramic and in other laser hosts.

Equations (5)

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C T m H o = 9 χ 2 c 16 π 4 n 2 σ a b s , H o ( λ ) σ e m , T m ( λ ) d λ ,
C H o T m = C T m H o exp ( E z l : H o E z l : T m k T ) ,
σ E M ( λ ) = A ( J J ) λ 5 I ( λ ) 8 π n 2 c I ( λ ) λ d λ ,
σ e ( λ ) = σ a ( λ ) Z l Z u exp [ ε E k T ]
G(λ)=N[ P σ e ( λ )(1P) σ a (λ) ]

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