Abstract

The size, shape and composition of nanoparticles in a composite become design parameters that can be manipulated to enhance the third-order nonlinear response of the composite. In this work we report the study of the nonlinear response of a composite material consisting of elongated silver nanoparticles that are aligned in a preferential direction. The absorptive and refractive contributions to the nonlinear response of the sample were studied using the Z-scan technique with 80 fs pulses at 825 nm. The nonlinear response was studied as a function of the intensity, and the polarization angle of the light. A large anisotropy was observed in both the refractive and absorptive contributions to the nonlinearity. The fast electronic, and slow thermal contributions to the nonlinear response were resolved by conducting experiments using a chopper to change the thermal load to the sample, while maintaining a constant peak irradiance. The results were compared with the nonlinear optical response of spherical silver nanoparticles.

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    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

I. Rocha-Mendoza, R. Rangel-Rojo, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, and A. Oliver, “Second-order nonlinear response of composites containing aligned elongated silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express19(22), 21575–21587 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of implanted metal nanoparticles in various transparent matrixes: a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci.27, 115–145 (2011).

2010

A. Meldrum, R. Lopez, R. Magruder, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Structure and properties of nanoparticles formed by ion implantation,” Topics Appl. Physics116, 255–285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Manjunatha, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiphene (methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B97(1), 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 3806–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzelczak, J. Prez-Juste, F. J. Garca de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzn, “Optical properties of platinumcoated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 6183–6188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nanoletters7, 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, “Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects,” Opt. Express13(20), 7976–7981, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Podlipensky, J. Lange, G. Seifert, H. Graener, and I. Cravetchi, “Second-harmonic generation from ellipsoidal silver nanoparticles embedded in silica glass,” Opt. Lett.28(9), 716–718 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, N. Hayashi, and S. Omi, “Dispersion curves of complex third-order optical susceptibilities around the surface plasmon resonance in Ag nanocrystal-glass composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(6), 1227–1232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M. P. Pileni, “Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 107, 2466–2470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 107, 668–677 (2003).

2001

A. Meldrum, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: recent developments and future oportunities,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B178, 7–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B73, 383–390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.1, 662–667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, T. T. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van-Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a simple beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

Adhikari, A. V.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Manjunatha, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiphene (methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B97(1), 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R.

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L.

A. Meldrum, R. Lopez, R. Magruder, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Structure and properties of nanoparticles formed by ion implantation,” Topics Appl. Physics116, 255–285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Meldrum, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: recent developments and future oportunities,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B178, 7–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bukasov, R.

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nanoletters7, 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cattaruzza, E.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheang-Wong, J. C.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birrefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express16(2), 710–717 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. J.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 107, 668–677 (2003).

Cravetchi, I.

Crespo-Sosa, A.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birrefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express16(2), 710–717 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Del Fatti, N.

N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B73, 383–390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dorsinville, R.

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.1, 662–667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J. Y.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

Garca de Abajo, F. J.

M. Grzelczak, J. Prez-Juste, F. J. Garca de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzn, “Optical properties of platinumcoated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 6183–6188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giorgio, S.

M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M. P. Pileni, “Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 107, 2466–2470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gnoli, A.

Gonella, F.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H. M.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graener, H.

Grzelczak, M.

M. Grzelczak, J. Prez-Juste, F. J. Garca de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzn, “Optical properties of platinumcoated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 6183–6188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, T. T. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van-Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a simple beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. J.

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, Y.

Han, J. B.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, N.

Hegde, P. K.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Manjunatha, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiphene (methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B97(1), 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 107, 668–677 (2003).

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Springer series in materials science (Springer, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Lange, J.

Liz-Marzn, L. M.

M. Grzelczak, J. Prez-Juste, F. J. Garca de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzn, “Optical properties of platinumcoated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 6183–6188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

A. Meldrum, R. Lopez, R. Magruder, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Structure and properties of nanoparticles formed by ion implantation,” Topics Appl. Physics116, 255–285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Suares, A.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Magruder, R.

A. Meldrum, R. Lopez, R. Magruder, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Structure and properties of nanoparticles formed by ion implantation,” Topics Appl. Physics116, 255–285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Magruder, R. I.

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maillard, M.

M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M. P. Pileni, “Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 107, 2466–2470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manjunatha, K. B.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Manjunatha, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiphene (methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B97(1), 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manjunatha, M. G.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Manjunatha, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiphene (methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B97(1), 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, J.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meldrum, A.

A. Meldrum, R. Lopez, R. Magruder, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Structure and properties of nanoparticles formed by ion implantation,” Topics Appl. Physics116, 255–285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Meldrum, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: recent developments and future oportunities,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B178, 7–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, S.

Nakamura, A.

Noguez, C.

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birrefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express16(2), 710–717 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 3806–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, A.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, R. Rangel-Rojo, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, and A. Oliver, “Second-order nonlinear response of composites containing aligned elongated silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express19(22), 21575–21587 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birrefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express16(2), 710–717 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Omi, S.

Pileni, M. P.

M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M. P. Pileni, “Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 107, 2466–2470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A.

Polloni, R.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poornesh, P.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Manjunatha, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiphene (methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B97(1), 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prez-Juste, J.

M. Grzelczak, J. Prez-Juste, F. J. Garca de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzn, “Optical properties of platinumcoated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 6183–6188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, R. Rangel-Rojo, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, and A. Oliver, “Second-order nonlinear response of composites containing aligned elongated silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express19(22), 21575–21587 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

Ren, J. J.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Esqueda, J. A.

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birrefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express16(2), 710–717 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

Righini, M.

Rocha-Mendoza, I.

Rodriguez-Fernandez, L.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, R. Rangel-Rojo, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, and A. Oliver, “Second-order nonlinear response of composites containing aligned elongated silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express19(22), 21575–21587 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birrefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express16(2), 710–717 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Iglesias, V.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romn-Velasquez, C. E.

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Said, T. T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, T. T. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van-Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a simple beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 107, 668–677 (2003).

Scremin, B.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, G.

Seman, J. A.

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, T. T. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van-Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a simple beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van-Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials,M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, Eds. (Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1998) 655–692.

Shumaker-Parry, J. S.

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nanoletters7, 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silva-Pereyra, H. G.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of implanted metal nanoparticles in various transparent matrixes: a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci.27, 115–145 (2011).

Torres-Torres, C.

Umesh, G.

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Manjunatha, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiphene (methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B97(1), 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, F.

N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B73, 383–390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van-Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, T. T. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van-Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a simple beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van-Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials,M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, Eds. (Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1998) 655–692.

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Springer series in materials science (Springer, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Q.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, T. T. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van-Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a simple beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

White, C.

A. Meldrum, R. Lopez, R. Magruder, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Structure and properties of nanoparticles formed by ion implantation,” Topics Appl. Physics116, 255–285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Meldrum, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: recent developments and future oportunities,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B178, 7–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 107, 668–677 (2003).

Zhao, X. J.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zuhr, R.

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

P. Poornesh, G. Umesh, P. K. Hegde, M. G. Manjunatha, K. B. Manjunatha, and A. V. Adhikari, “Studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties and reverse saturable absorption in polythiphene (methylmethacrylate) composites,” Appl. Phys. B97(1), 117–124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B73, 383–390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Applied Surface Science

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, R. Polloni, and B. Scremin, “Fast third-order optical nonlinearities in metal alloy nanocluster composite glass: negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index,” Applied Surface Science247, 390–395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, T. T. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van-Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a simple beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.1, 662–667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M. P. Pileni, “Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 107, 2466–2470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C.

M. Grzelczak, J. Prez-Juste, F. J. Garca de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzn, “Optical properties of platinumcoated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 6183–6188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C.111, 3806–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanoletters

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nanoletters7, 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B

A. Meldrum, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: recent developments and future oportunities,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B178, 7–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Haglund, L. Yang, R. I. Magruder, C. White, R. Zuhr, L. Yang, R. Dorsinville, and R. Alfano, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal-quantum-dot composites synthesized by ion implantation,” Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Reserch B91, 493–504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suares, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun.282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Romn-Velasquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B74, 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci.

A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of implanted metal nanoparticles in various transparent matrixes: a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci.27, 115–145 (2011).

Topics Appl. Physics

A. Meldrum, R. Lopez, R. Magruder, L. Boatner, and C. White, “Structure and properties of nanoparticles formed by ion implantation,” Topics Appl. Physics116, 255–285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Springer series in materials science (Springer, 1995).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van-Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials,M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, Eds. (Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1998) 655–692.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

High resolution TEM micrograph of the elongated nanoparticles aligned in a preferential direction. The inset shows the morphology of a single nanoparticle in detail

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of (a) spherical, and (b) aligned elongated silver nanoparticles for two different polarizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Z-scan setup. The λ/2 plate and the linear polarization combination allows the selection of any linear polarization state with constant peak irradiance. The combination of the beam splitter BS and detector D1 monitors the input average power, while the D2 detector measures the Z-scan signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Open (a), and closed-aperture (b) Z-scan results for the spherical nanoparticles. The results were obtained for a pulse energy Ep = 1.17 nJ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Open and closed-aperture Z-scan results for two different input polarization: (a) for polarization with θ = 0° (along the long axis) and (b) for polarization θ = 90°. For both cases the black squares represent the closed aperture data (left scale), and the red circles the open aperture data (right scale). Also shown are the fits to the data in (a) as continuos lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ΔTpv as function of the input polarization angle from de closed aperture Z-scan data for the elongated nanoparticles at 830 nm. A cosine square line is used as a guide to the experimental results, confirming the large anisotropy observed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Tp −1 and ΔTpv as a function of the peak irradiance for the open and closed Z-scan data of Ag elongated nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 media at 830 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of the posfocal maximum transmittance Tp, and prefocal minimum transmittance Tv values, as function of the chopping frequency.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε met ( ω s p ) + 2 ε d ( ω s p ) = 0 ,
χ ( 3 ) = p [ 3 ε d ε met + 2 ε d ] 4 χ met ( 3 ) p f 1 2 | f 1 | 2 χ met ( 3 ) ,

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