Abstract

The authors report the use of InN/GaN alternative structure to replace the thick InGaN well layers in the InGaN/GaN multiquantum well (MQW) and the fabrication of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Using this method, it was found that we could achieve InGaN “well layers” with high crystal quality due to the enhanced migration of adatoms during the growth. It was also found that indium composition in the InGaN “well layers” and the thickness of the InGaN “well layers” both depend strongly on the growth time of InN and GaN. It was also found that we could achieve stronger electroluminescence (EL) intensities with narrower full-width-half-maxima (FWHMs) from the LEDs with InN/GaN alternative growth InGaN “well layers”. Furthermore, it was found that we could achieve better ideality factors and smaller reverse leakage currents from the proposed devices.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. J. Lee, Y. C. Chen, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, S. W. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Stable temperature characteristics and suppression of efficiency droop in InGaN green light-emitting diodes using pre-TMIn flow treatment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1279–1281 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth325(1), 41–45 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “Influence of growth temperature and V/III ratio on the optical characteristics of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN grown on GaN/sapphire using pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4947–4953 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “MOVPE and photoluminescence of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN on GaN/sapphire by pulsed growth mode,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2886–2891 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, and T. K. Lin, “GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1809–1811 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, and T. K. Lin, “GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1809–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y. J. Lee, Y. C. Chen, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, S. W. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Stable temperature characteristics and suppression of efficiency droop in InGaN green light-emitting diodes using pre-TMIn flow treatment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1279–1281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. S. Kumar, J. Y. Park, Y. S. Lee, S. J. Chung, C. H. Hong, and E. K. Suh, “Improved internal quantum efficiency of green emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by In preflow for InGaN well growth,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(2), 839–842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 161113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “Influence of growth temperature and V/III ratio on the optical characteristics of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN grown on GaN/sapphire using pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4947–4953 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “MOVPE and photoluminescence of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN on GaN/sapphire by pulsed growth mode,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2886–2891 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. C. Johnsona, S. L. Konseka, A. Zettla, and E. D. Bourret-Courchesne, “Nucleation and growth of InN thin films using conventional and pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1–4), 400–406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. J. Leem, M. H. Kim, J. Shin, Y. Choi, and J. Jeong, “The effects of In flow during growth interruption on the optical properties of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 4B), L371–L373 (2001).

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(9), 1274–1277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Asif Khan, M.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bourret-Courchesne, E. D.

M. C. Johnsona, S. L. Konseka, A. Zettla, and E. D. Bourret-Courchesne, “Nucleation and growth of InN thin films using conventional and pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1–4), 400–406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bykhovski, A. D.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, and T. K. Lin, “GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1809–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, and T. K. Lin, “GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1809–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. F.

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. W.

Y. J. Lee, Y. C. Chen, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, S. W. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Stable temperature characteristics and suppression of efficiency droop in InGaN green light-emitting diodes using pre-TMIn flow treatment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1279–1281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. J. Lee, Y. C. Chen, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, S. W. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Stable temperature characteristics and suppression of efficiency droop in InGaN green light-emitting diodes using pre-TMIn flow treatment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1279–1281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. M.

Y. J. Lee, Y. C. Chen, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, S. W. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Stable temperature characteristics and suppression of efficiency droop in InGaN green light-emitting diodes using pre-TMIn flow treatment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1279–1281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

S. J. Leem, M. H. Kim, J. Shin, Y. Choi, and J. Jeong, “The effects of In flow during growth interruption on the optical properties of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 4B), L371–L373 (2001).

Chung, S. J.

M. S. Kumar, J. Y. Park, Y. S. Lee, S. J. Chung, C. H. Hong, and E. K. Suh, “Improved internal quantum efficiency of green emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by In preflow for InGaN well growth,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(2), 839–842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 161113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deguchi, K.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elsass, C. R.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S. W.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Graff, J. W.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, J. B.

M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “Influence of growth temperature and V/III ratio on the optical characteristics of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN grown on GaN/sapphire using pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4947–4953 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “MOVPE and photoluminescence of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN on GaN/sapphire by pulsed growth mode,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2886–2891 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

M. S. Kumar, J. Y. Park, Y. S. Lee, S. J. Chung, C. H. Hong, and E. K. Suh, “Improved internal quantum efficiency of green emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by In preflow for InGaN well growth,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(2), 839–842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. L.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C.

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(9), 1274–1277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Jamil, M.

M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “Influence of growth temperature and V/III ratio on the optical characteristics of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN grown on GaN/sapphire using pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4947–4953 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “MOVPE and photoluminescence of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN on GaN/sapphire by pulsed growth mode,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2886–2891 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

S. J. Leem, M. H. Kim, J. Shin, Y. Choi, and J. Jeong, “The effects of In flow during growth interruption on the optical properties of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 4B), L371–L373 (2001).

Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnsona, M. C.

M. C. Johnsona, S. L. Konseka, A. Zettla, and E. D. Bourret-Courchesne, “Nucleation and growth of InN thin films using conventional and pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1–4), 400–406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kameshima, M.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, Y.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. H.

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

S. J. Leem, M. H. Kim, J. Shin, Y. Choi, and J. Jeong, “The effects of In flow during growth interruption on the optical properties of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 4B), L371–L373 (2001).

Kim, T.

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kisielowski, C.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Konseka, S. L.

M. C. Johnsona, S. L. Konseka, A. Zettla, and E. D. Bourret-Courchesne, “Nucleation and growth of InN thin films using conventional and pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1–4), 400–406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M. S.

M. S. Kumar, J. Y. Park, Y. S. Lee, S. J. Chung, C. H. Hong, and E. K. Suh, “Improved internal quantum efficiency of green emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by In preflow for InGaN well growth,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(2), 839–842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

Kuo, C. H.

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

Y. J. Lee, Y. C. Chen, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, S. W. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Stable temperature characteristics and suppression of efficiency droop in InGaN green light-emitting diodes using pre-TMIn flow treatment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1279–1281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, Y. C. Chen, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, S. W. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Stable temperature characteristics and suppression of efficiency droop in InGaN green light-emitting diodes using pre-TMIn flow treatment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1279–1281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

M. S. Kumar, J. Y. Park, Y. S. Lee, S. J. Chung, C. H. Hong, and E. K. Suh, “Improved internal quantum efficiency of green emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by In preflow for InGaN well growth,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(2), 839–842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leem, S. J.

S. J. Leem, M. H. Kim, J. Shin, Y. Choi, and J. Jeong, “The effects of In flow during growth interruption on the optical properties of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 4B), L371–L373 (2001).

Li, S. G.

C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, and T. K. Lin, “GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1809–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, X. H.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, U. H.

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liliental-Weber, Z.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. C.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 161113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. S.

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 161113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. K.

C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, and T. K. Lin, “GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1809–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. R.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. H.

C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, and T. K. Lin, “GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1809–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, Y. C. Chen, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, S. W. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Stable temperature characteristics and suppression of efficiency droop in InGaN green light-emitting diodes using pre-TMIn flow treatment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1279–1281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mack, M.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitani, T.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morita, D.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murazaki, Y.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Nakamura, S.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nau, T.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, A.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. Y.

M. S. Kumar, J. Y. Park, Y. S. Lee, S. J. Chung, C. H. Hong, and E. K. Suh, “Improved internal quantum efficiency of green emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by In preflow for InGaN well growth,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(2), 839–842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. C.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, S. J.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. F.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, N.

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(9), 1274–1277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

S. J. Leem, M. H. Kim, J. Shin, Y. Choi, and J. Jeong, “The effects of In flow during growth interruption on the optical properties of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 4B), L371–L373 (2001).

Shioji, S.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, D.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

Sonobe, S.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

M. S. Kumar, J. Y. Park, Y. S. Lee, S. J. Chung, C. H. Hong, and E. K. Suh, “Improved internal quantum efficiency of green emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by In preflow for InGaN well growth,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(2), 839–842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. J.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, H.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes by Using 2-D Close-Packed TiO2 Microsphere Arrays,” J. Display Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “Influence of growth temperature and V/III ratio on the optical characteristics of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN grown on GaN/sapphire using pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4947–4953 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamil, H. Zhao, J. B. Higgins, and N. Tansu, “MOVPE and photoluminescence of narrow band gap (0.77 eV) InN on GaN/sapphire by pulsed growth mode,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(12), 2886–2891 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P.

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(9), 1274–1277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tricker, D.

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(9), 1274–1277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. Y.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. C.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wen, T. C.

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. W.

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, and J. M. Tsai, “400-nm InGaN-GaN and InGaN-AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4), 744–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, H. X.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Yamamoto, S.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yanamoto, T.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

C. J. Sun, M. Zubair Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Asif Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. W.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zettla, A.

M. C. Johnsona, S. L. Konseka, A. Zettla, and E. D. Bourret-Courchesne, “Nucleation and growth of InN thin films using conventional and pulsed MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1–4), 400–406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Zhao, H.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the source switching sequences of MQW growth conditions of (a) LED I and (b) LED II, LED III, and LED IV. Axis scales are not in proportion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray θ–2θ diffraction (XRD) spectra of all LEDs. X-ray diffraction peaks of the SRMQW and the Mg-doped Al0.1Ga0.9N layer are marked as square (■) and triangle (▲) respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM images of the InGaN/GaN MQWs for (a) LED I, (b) LED II, (c) LED III, and (d) LED IV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EL spectra of all fabricated LEDs measured at 60 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission wavelength at a forward current of 60 mA, and the In composition in the InGaN/GaN MQWs of fabricated LEDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Forward I–V characteristics and (b) Reverse I–V characteristics of all the fabricated LEDs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Curves of measured output power and EQE as a function of the injection current for all the LEDs.

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