Abstract

Eu3+ doped fiber-based germanotellurite (NZPGT) glasses with medium-low maximum phonon energy of 782 cm−1 have been fabricated and characterized. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2 (6.25 × 10−20 cm2) and Ω4 (1.77 × 10−20 cm2) indicate a high asymmetrical and covalent environment around Eu3+ in the optical glasses. The spontaneous emission probability of the dominant transition 5D07F2 peaking at 612.5 nm and the corresponding maximum stimulated emission cross-section were derived to be 445.7 s−1 and 2.05 × 10−21 cm2, respectively, confirming the effectiveness of the red fluorescence emission. The quantum yield was derived to be 12% under 391 nm LED excitation, and approximately 88% photons have been demonstrated in wavelength range of 600−720 nm, indicating that Eu3+ doped NZPGT glasses under proper excitation conditions are promising optical materials for fiber-based irradiation light sources that are competent to activate diverse photodynamic therapy photosensitizers.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. V. P. Tuyen, T. Hayakawa, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, and P. Thomas, “Fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy of Eu3+ in zinc-thallium-tellurite glass,” J. Solid State Chem. 183(11), 2714–2719 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  38. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. IV. Eu3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4450–4455 (1968).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  43. K. Linganna and C. K. Jayasankar, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in phosphate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 97, 788–797 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  44. A. Ivankov, J. Seekamp, and W. Bauhofer, “Optical properties of Eu3+-doped zinc borate glasses,” J. Lumin. 121(1), 123–131 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  45. K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfluoroborate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(4), 979–985 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. V. R. Kumar and N. Veeraiah, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped ZnF2−PbO−TeO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(10), 2659–2662 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  47. C. A. Morton, “Methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) photodynamic therapy - practical pearls,” J. Dermatolog. Treat. 14(Suppl 3), 23–26 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  48. M. Khurana, H. A. Collins, A. Karotki, H. L. Anderson, D. T. Cramb, and B. C. Wilson, “Quantitative in vitro demonstration of two-photon photodynamic therapy using photofrin and visudyne,” Photochem. Photobiol. 83(6), 1441–1448 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

J. Yang, B. J. Chen, E. Y. B. Pun, B. Zhai, and H. Lin, “Pr3+-doped heavy metal germanium tellurite glasses for irradiative light source in minimally invasive photodynamic therapy surgery,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1030–1040 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Secu, R. F. Negrea, and M. Secu, “Eu3+ probe ion for rare-earth dopant site structure in sol-gel derived LiYF4 oxyfluoride glass-ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2456–2460 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lakshminarayana, E. M. Weis, A. C. Lira, U. Caldiño, D. J. Williams, and M. P. Hehlen, “Cross relaxation in rare-earth-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 139, 132–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hehlen, M. G. Brik, and K. W. Krämer, “50th anniversary of the Judd-Ofelt theory: An experimentalist's view of the formalism and its application,” J. Lumin. 136, 221–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. G. V. M. Rao, A. Rupesh Kumar, K. Neeraja, N. Veeraiah, and M. Rami Reddy, “Optical and structural investigation of Eu3+ ions in Nd3+ co-doped magnesium lead borosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 557, 209–217 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

K. Linganna and C. K. Jayasankar, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in phosphate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 97, 788–797 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Manikandan, A. Ryasnyanskiy, and J. Toulouse, “Thermal and optical properties of TeO2−ZnO−BaO glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 947–951 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, G. Guery, J. Boerstler, J. D. Musgraves, D. Vanderveer, P. Wachtel, and K. Richardson, “Influence of Bi2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of TeO2−Bi2O3−ZnO glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 952–958 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Chen, L. F. Shen, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Sm3+-doped germanate glass channel waveguide as light source for minimally invasive photodynamic therapy surgery,” Opt. Express 20(2), 879–889 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Yano, S. Hirohara, M. Obata, Y. Hagiya, S.- Ogura, A. Ikeda, H. Kataoka, M. Tanaka, and T. Joh, “Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 12(1), 46–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Monteiro, L. F. Santos, J. C. G. Pereira, and R. M. Almeida, “Optical and spectroscopic properties of germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(14), 2695–2701 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Babu, B. C. Jamalaiah, T. Suhasini, T. S. Rao, and L. R. Moorthy, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in lead tungstate tellurite glasses,” Solid State Sci. 13(3), 574–578 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (8)

M. A. K. Elfayoumi, M. Farouk, M. G. Brik, and M. M. Elokr, “Spectroscopic studies of Sm3+ and Eu3+ co-doped lithium borate glass,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 712–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Gai, T. Han, A. Prasad, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, R. Wang, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Progress in optical waveguides fabricated from chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26635–26646 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. G. Rivera, S. P. A. Osorio, Y. Ledemi, D. Manzani, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. O. Nunes, and E. Marega., “Localized surface plasmon resonance interaction with Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25321–25328 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wojciechowski, I. V. Kityk, G. Lakshminarayana, I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Berdowski, E. Berdowska, and Z. Tylczyński, “Laser-induced optical effects in triglycine-zinc chloride single crystals,” Physica B 405(13), 2827–2830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Gandhi, I. V. Kityk, M. G. Brik, P. R. Rao, and N. Veeraiah, “Influence of tungsten on the emission features of Nd3+, Sm3+ and Eu3+ ions in ZnF2−WO3−TeO2 glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 508(2), 278–291 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. P. Tuyen, T. Hayakawa, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, and P. Thomas, “Fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy of Eu3+ in zinc-thallium-tellurite glass,” J. Solid State Chem. 183(11), 2714–2719 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. P. Celli, B. Q. Spring, I. Rizvi, C. L. Evans, K. S. Samkoe, S. Verma, B. W. Pogue, and T. Hasan, “Imaging and photodynamic therapy: mechanisms, monitoring, and optimization,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2795–2838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, R. Mahiou, and P. Boutinaud, “Luminescence properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 crystals activated with Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+ or Dy3+ ions,” J. Lumin. 130(4), 733–736 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. E. Secu, D. Predoi, M. Secu, M. Cernea, and G. Aldica, “Structural investigations of sol-gel derived silicate gels using Eu3+ ion-probe luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1745–1748 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ozdanova, H. Ticha, and L. Tichy, “Optical band gap and Raman spectra in some (Bi2O3)x(WO3)y(TeO2)100−x−y and (PbO)x(WO3)y(TeO2)100−x−y glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2318–2322 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. H. Krumpel, E. V. D. Kolk, P. Dorenbos, P. Boutinaud, E. Cavalli, and M. Bettinelli, “Energy level diagram for lanthanide-doped lanthanum orthovanadate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. 146, 114–120 (2008).

Y. Dwivedi and S. B. Rai, “Optical properties of Eu3+ in oxyfluoroborate glass and its nanocrystalline glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 87–93 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Uma Maheswari, J. Suresh Kumar, L. R. Moorthy, K. Jang, and M. Jayasimhadri, “Emission properties of Eu3+ ions in alkali tellurofluorophosphate glasses,” Physica B 403(10-11), 1690–1694 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. Khurana, H. A. Collins, A. Karotki, H. L. Anderson, D. T. Cramb, and B. C. Wilson, “Quantitative in vitro demonstration of two-photon photodynamic therapy using photofrin and visudyne,” Photochem. Photobiol. 83(6), 1441–1448 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chakrabarti, M. Das, B. Karmakar, K. Annapurna, and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Eu3+:CaO−La2O3−B2O3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(13-15), 1422–1426 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, and C. Görller-Walrand, “Eu3+ as a probe for rare-earth dopant site structure in nano-glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024312–024317 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

P. Babilas, E. Kohl, T. Maisch, H. Bäcker, B. Gross, A. L. Branzan, W. Bäumler, M. Landthaler, S. Karrer, and R. M. Szeimies, “In vitro and in vivo comparison of two different light sources for topical photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(4), 712–718 (2006).
[PubMed]

A. P. Castano, P. Mroz, and M. R. Hamblin, “Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 6(7), 535–545 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ivankov, J. Seekamp, and W. Bauhofer, “Optical properties of Eu3+-doped zinc borate glasses,” J. Lumin. 121(1), 123–131 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. A. Weiss, D. H. McDaniel, R. G. Geronemus, M. A. Weiss, K. L. Beasley, G. M. Munavalli, and S. G. Bellew, “Clinical experience with light-emitting diode (LED) photomodulation,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(9 Pt 2), 1199–1205 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. S. Mang, “Lasers and light sources for PDT: past, present and future,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. 1(1), 43–48 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfluoroborate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(4), 979–985 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. A. Morton, “Methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) photodynamic therapy - practical pearls,” J. Dermatolog. Treat. 14(Suppl 3), 23–26 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. Brancaleon and H. Moseley, “Laser and non-laser light sources for photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 17(3), 173–186 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. Le Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(1), 76–88 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, J. Kucharski, S. Benet, and H. Kaddouri, “PbO−Bi2O3−Ga2O3−BaO glasses doped by Er3+ as novel materials for IR emission,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(7), 511–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, and J. Kucharski, “Eu3+-doped glass materials for red luminescence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(3), 157–160 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

V. R. Kumar and N. Veeraiah, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped ZnF2−PbO−TeO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(10), 2659–2662 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47(1), 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, “Blue, green and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 65(5), 227–245 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

I. Amato, “Cancer therapy. Hope for a magic bullet that moves at the speed of light,” Science 262(5130), 32–33 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
[Crossref]

1968 (2)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[Crossref]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. IV. Eu3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4450–4455 (1968).
[Crossref]

Aldica, G.

C. E. Secu, D. Predoi, M. Secu, M. Cernea, and G. Aldica, “Structural investigations of sol-gel derived silicate gels using Eu3+ ion-probe luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1745–1748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Almeida, R. M.

G. Monteiro, L. F. Santos, J. C. G. Pereira, and R. M. Almeida, “Optical and spectroscopic properties of germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(14), 2695–2701 (2011).
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I. Amato, “Cancer therapy. Hope for a magic bullet that moves at the speed of light,” Science 262(5130), 32–33 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, H. L.

M. Khurana, H. A. Collins, A. Karotki, H. L. Anderson, D. T. Cramb, and B. C. Wilson, “Quantitative in vitro demonstration of two-photon photodynamic therapy using photofrin and visudyne,” Photochem. Photobiol. 83(6), 1441–1448 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annapurna, K.

R. Chakrabarti, M. Das, B. Karmakar, K. Annapurna, and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Eu3+:CaO−La2O3−B2O3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(13-15), 1422–1426 (2007).
[Crossref]

Babilas, P.

P. Babilas, E. Kohl, T. Maisch, H. Bäcker, B. Gross, A. L. Branzan, W. Bäumler, M. Landthaler, S. Karrer, and R. M. Szeimies, “In vitro and in vivo comparison of two different light sources for topical photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(4), 712–718 (2006).
[PubMed]

Babu, A. M.

A. M. Babu, B. C. Jamalaiah, T. Suhasini, T. S. Rao, and L. R. Moorthy, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in lead tungstate tellurite glasses,” Solid State Sci. 13(3), 574–578 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bäcker, H.

P. Babilas, E. Kohl, T. Maisch, H. Bäcker, B. Gross, A. L. Branzan, W. Bäumler, M. Landthaler, S. Karrer, and R. M. Szeimies, “In vitro and in vivo comparison of two different light sources for topical photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(4), 712–718 (2006).
[PubMed]

Bauhofer, W.

A. Ivankov, J. Seekamp, and W. Bauhofer, “Optical properties of Eu3+-doped zinc borate glasses,” J. Lumin. 121(1), 123–131 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bäumler, W.

P. Babilas, E. Kohl, T. Maisch, H. Bäcker, B. Gross, A. L. Branzan, W. Bäumler, M. Landthaler, S. Karrer, and R. M. Szeimies, “In vitro and in vivo comparison of two different light sources for topical photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(4), 712–718 (2006).
[PubMed]

Beasley, K. L.

R. A. Weiss, D. H. McDaniel, R. G. Geronemus, M. A. Weiss, K. L. Beasley, G. M. Munavalli, and S. G. Bellew, “Clinical experience with light-emitting diode (LED) photomodulation,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(9 Pt 2), 1199–1205 (2005).
[PubMed]

Belletti, A.

E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, R. Mahiou, and P. Boutinaud, “Luminescence properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 crystals activated with Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+ or Dy3+ ions,” J. Lumin. 130(4), 733–736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bellew, S. G.

R. A. Weiss, D. H. McDaniel, R. G. Geronemus, M. A. Weiss, K. L. Beasley, G. M. Munavalli, and S. G. Bellew, “Clinical experience with light-emitting diode (LED) photomodulation,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(9 Pt 2), 1199–1205 (2005).
[PubMed]

Benet, S.

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, J. Kucharski, S. Benet, and H. Kaddouri, “PbO−Bi2O3−Ga2O3−BaO glasses doped by Er3+ as novel materials for IR emission,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(7), 511–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

Berdowska, E.

A. Wojciechowski, I. V. Kityk, G. Lakshminarayana, I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Berdowski, E. Berdowska, and Z. Tylczyński, “Laser-induced optical effects in triglycine-zinc chloride single crystals,” Physica B 405(13), 2827–2830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berdowski, J.

A. Wojciechowski, I. V. Kityk, G. Lakshminarayana, I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Berdowski, E. Berdowska, and Z. Tylczyński, “Laser-induced optical effects in triglycine-zinc chloride single crystals,” Physica B 405(13), 2827–2830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

A. H. Krumpel, E. V. D. Kolk, P. Dorenbos, P. Boutinaud, E. Cavalli, and M. Bettinelli, “Energy level diagram for lanthanide-doped lanthanum orthovanadate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. 146, 114–120 (2008).

Boerstler, J.

X. Hu, G. Guery, J. Boerstler, J. D. Musgraves, D. Vanderveer, P. Wachtel, and K. Richardson, “Influence of Bi2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of TeO2−Bi2O3−ZnO glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 952–958 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bolin, F.

Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
[Crossref]

Boulon, G.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. Le Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(1), 76–88 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boutinaud, P.

E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, R. Mahiou, and P. Boutinaud, “Luminescence properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 crystals activated with Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+ or Dy3+ ions,” J. Lumin. 130(4), 733–736 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. H. Krumpel, E. V. D. Kolk, P. Dorenbos, P. Boutinaud, E. Cavalli, and M. Bettinelli, “Energy level diagram for lanthanide-doped lanthanum orthovanadate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. 146, 114–120 (2008).

Brancaleon, L.

L. Brancaleon and H. Moseley, “Laser and non-laser light sources for photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 17(3), 173–186 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Branzan, A. L.

P. Babilas, E. Kohl, T. Maisch, H. Bäcker, B. Gross, A. L. Branzan, W. Bäumler, M. Landthaler, S. Karrer, and R. M. Szeimies, “In vitro and in vivo comparison of two different light sources for topical photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(4), 712–718 (2006).
[PubMed]

Brik, M. G.

M. P. Hehlen, M. G. Brik, and K. W. Krämer, “50th anniversary of the Judd-Ofelt theory: An experimentalist's view of the formalism and its application,” J. Lumin. 136, 221–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. K. Elfayoumi, M. Farouk, M. G. Brik, and M. M. Elokr, “Spectroscopic studies of Sm3+ and Eu3+ co-doped lithium borate glass,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 712–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Gandhi, I. V. Kityk, M. G. Brik, P. R. Rao, and N. Veeraiah, “Influence of tungsten on the emission features of Nd3+, Sm3+ and Eu3+ ions in ZnF2−WO3−TeO2 glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 508(2), 278–291 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buddhudu, S.

R. Chakrabarti, M. Das, B. Karmakar, K. Annapurna, and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Eu3+:CaO−La2O3−B2O3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(13-15), 1422–1426 (2007).
[Crossref]

Buffeteau, T.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. Le Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(1), 76–88 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bulla, D.

Caldiño, U.

G. Lakshminarayana, E. M. Weis, A. C. Lira, U. Caldiño, D. J. Williams, and M. P. Hehlen, “Cross relaxation in rare-earth-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 139, 132–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cardinal, T.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. Le Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(1), 76–88 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[Crossref]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. IV. Eu3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4450–4455 (1968).
[Crossref]

Castano, A. P.

A. P. Castano, P. Mroz, and M. R. Hamblin, “Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 6(7), 535–545 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavalli, E.

E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, R. Mahiou, and P. Boutinaud, “Luminescence properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 crystals activated with Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+ or Dy3+ ions,” J. Lumin. 130(4), 733–736 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. H. Krumpel, E. V. D. Kolk, P. Dorenbos, P. Boutinaud, E. Cavalli, and M. Bettinelli, “Energy level diagram for lanthanide-doped lanthanum orthovanadate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. 146, 114–120 (2008).

Celli, J. P.

J. P. Celli, B. Q. Spring, I. Rizvi, C. L. Evans, K. S. Samkoe, S. Verma, B. W. Pogue, and T. Hasan, “Imaging and photodynamic therapy: mechanisms, monitoring, and optimization,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2795–2838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cernea, M.

C. E. Secu, D. Predoi, M. Secu, M. Cernea, and G. Aldica, “Structural investigations of sol-gel derived silicate gels using Eu3+ ion-probe luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1745–1748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cerny, J. C.

Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarti, R.

R. Chakrabarti, M. Das, B. Karmakar, K. Annapurna, and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Eu3+:CaO−La2O3−B2O3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(13-15), 1422–1426 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. J.

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.-Y.

Collins, H. A.

M. Khurana, H. A. Collins, A. Karotki, H. L. Anderson, D. T. Cramb, and B. C. Wilson, “Quantitative in vitro demonstration of two-photon photodynamic therapy using photofrin and visudyne,” Photochem. Photobiol. 83(6), 1441–1448 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. Le Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(1), 76–88 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cramb, D. T.

M. Khurana, H. A. Collins, A. Karotki, H. L. Anderson, D. T. Cramb, and B. C. Wilson, “Quantitative in vitro demonstration of two-photon photodynamic therapy using photofrin and visudyne,” Photochem. Photobiol. 83(6), 1441–1448 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, M.

R. Chakrabarti, M. Das, B. Karmakar, K. Annapurna, and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Eu3+:CaO−La2O3−B2O3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(13-15), 1422–1426 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dejneka, M.

M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, “Blue, green and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 65(5), 227–245 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dolmans, D. E. J. G. J.

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorenbos, P.

A. H. Krumpel, E. V. D. Kolk, P. Dorenbos, P. Boutinaud, E. Cavalli, and M. Bettinelli, “Energy level diagram for lanthanide-doped lanthanum orthovanadate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. 146, 114–120 (2008).

Dorosz, D.

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, and J. Kucharski, “Eu3+-doped glass materials for red luminescence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(3), 157–160 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, J. Kucharski, S. Benet, and H. Kaddouri, “PbO−Bi2O3−Ga2O3−BaO glasses doped by Er3+ as novel materials for IR emission,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(7), 511–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

Driesen, K.

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, and C. Görller-Walrand, “Eu3+ as a probe for rare-earth dopant site structure in nano-glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024312–024317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Duclère, J. R.

V. P. Tuyen, T. Hayakawa, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, and P. Thomas, “Fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy of Eu3+ in zinc-thallium-tellurite glass,” J. Solid State Chem. 183(11), 2714–2719 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dwivedi, Y.

Y. Dwivedi and S. B. Rai, “Optical properties of Eu3+ in oxyfluoroborate glass and its nanocrystalline glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 87–93 (2008).
[Crossref]

Elfayoumi, M. A. K.

M. A. K. Elfayoumi, M. Farouk, M. G. Brik, and M. M. Elokr, “Spectroscopic studies of Sm3+ and Eu3+ co-doped lithium borate glass,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 712–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elokr, M. M.

M. A. K. Elfayoumi, M. Farouk, M. G. Brik, and M. M. Elokr, “Spectroscopic studies of Sm3+ and Eu3+ co-doped lithium borate glass,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 712–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Evans, C. L.

J. P. Celli, B. Q. Spring, I. Rizvi, C. L. Evans, K. S. Samkoe, S. Verma, B. W. Pogue, and T. Hasan, “Imaging and photodynamic therapy: mechanisms, monitoring, and optimization,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2795–2838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farouk, M.

M. A. K. Elfayoumi, M. Farouk, M. G. Brik, and M. M. Elokr, “Spectroscopic studies of Sm3+ and Eu3+ co-doped lithium borate glass,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 712–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. IV. Eu3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4450–4455 (1968).
[Crossref]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[Crossref]

Fuks-Janczarek, I.

A. Wojciechowski, I. V. Kityk, G. Lakshminarayana, I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Berdowski, E. Berdowska, and Z. Tylczyński, “Laser-induced optical effects in triglycine-zinc chloride single crystals,” Physica B 405(13), 2827–2830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fukumura, D.

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gai, X.

Gandhi, Y.

Y. Gandhi, I. V. Kityk, M. G. Brik, P. R. Rao, and N. Veeraiah, “Influence of tungsten on the emission features of Nd3+, Sm3+ and Eu3+ ions in ZnF2−WO3−TeO2 glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 508(2), 278–291 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geronemus, R. G.

R. A. Weiss, D. H. McDaniel, R. G. Geronemus, M. A. Weiss, K. L. Beasley, G. M. Munavalli, and S. G. Bellew, “Clinical experience with light-emitting diode (LED) photomodulation,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(9 Pt 2), 1199–1205 (2005).
[PubMed]

Görller-Walrand, C.

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, and C. Görller-Walrand, “Eu3+ as a probe for rare-earth dopant site structure in nano-glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024312–024317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gross, B.

P. Babilas, E. Kohl, T. Maisch, H. Bäcker, B. Gross, A. L. Branzan, W. Bäumler, M. Landthaler, S. Karrer, and R. M. Szeimies, “In vitro and in vivo comparison of two different light sources for topical photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(4), 712–718 (2006).
[PubMed]

Guery, G.

X. Hu, G. Guery, J. Boerstler, J. D. Musgraves, D. Vanderveer, P. Wachtel, and K. Richardson, “Influence of Bi2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of TeO2−Bi2O3−ZnO glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 952–958 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guyot, Y.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. Le Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(1), 76–88 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hagiya, Y.

S. Yano, S. Hirohara, M. Obata, Y. Hagiya, S.- Ogura, A. Ikeda, H. Kataoka, M. Tanaka, and T. Joh, “Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 12(1), 46–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hamblin, M. R.

A. P. Castano, P. Mroz, and M. R. Hamblin, “Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 6(7), 535–545 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, T.

Hasan, T.

J. P. Celli, B. Q. Spring, I. Rizvi, C. L. Evans, K. S. Samkoe, S. Verma, B. W. Pogue, and T. Hasan, “Imaging and photodynamic therapy: mechanisms, monitoring, and optimization,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2795–2838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayakawa, T.

V. P. Tuyen, T. Hayakawa, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, and P. Thomas, “Fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy of Eu3+ in zinc-thallium-tellurite glass,” J. Solid State Chem. 183(11), 2714–2719 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heads, L.

Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. P. Hehlen, M. G. Brik, and K. W. Krämer, “50th anniversary of the Judd-Ofelt theory: An experimentalist's view of the formalism and its application,” J. Lumin. 136, 221–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lakshminarayana, E. M. Weis, A. C. Lira, U. Caldiño, D. J. Williams, and M. P. Hehlen, “Cross relaxation in rare-earth-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 139, 132–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hetzel, F. W.

Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hirohara, S.

S. Yano, S. Hirohara, M. Obata, Y. Hagiya, S.- Ogura, A. Ikeda, H. Kataoka, M. Tanaka, and T. Joh, “Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 12(1), 46–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, G. Guery, J. Boerstler, J. D. Musgraves, D. Vanderveer, P. Wachtel, and K. Richardson, “Influence of Bi2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of TeO2−Bi2O3−ZnO glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 952–958 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, A.

S. Yano, S. Hirohara, M. Obata, Y. Hagiya, S.- Ogura, A. Ikeda, H. Kataoka, M. Tanaka, and T. Joh, “Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 12(1), 46–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ivankov, A.

A. Ivankov, J. Seekamp, and W. Bauhofer, “Optical properties of Eu3+-doped zinc borate glasses,” J. Lumin. 121(1), 123–131 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jain, R. K.

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jamalaiah, B. C.

A. M. Babu, B. C. Jamalaiah, T. Suhasini, T. S. Rao, and L. R. Moorthy, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in lead tungstate tellurite glasses,” Solid State Sci. 13(3), 574–578 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, K.

D. Uma Maheswari, J. Suresh Kumar, L. R. Moorthy, K. Jang, and M. Jayasimhadri, “Emission properties of Eu3+ ions in alkali tellurofluorophosphate glasses,” Physica B 403(10-11), 1690–1694 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jayasankar, C. K.

K. Linganna and C. K. Jayasankar, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in phosphate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 97, 788–797 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jayasimhadri, M.

D. Uma Maheswari, J. Suresh Kumar, L. R. Moorthy, K. Jang, and M. Jayasimhadri, “Emission properties of Eu3+ ions in alkali tellurofluorophosphate glasses,” Physica B 403(10-11), 1690–1694 (2008).
[Crossref]

Joh, T.

S. Yano, S. Hirohara, M. Obata, Y. Hagiya, S.- Ogura, A. Ikeda, H. Kataoka, M. Tanaka, and T. Joh, “Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 12(1), 46–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kaddouri, H.

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, J. Kucharski, S. Benet, and H. Kaddouri, “PbO−Bi2O3−Ga2O3−BaO glasses doped by Er3+ as novel materials for IR emission,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(7), 511–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

Karmakar, B.

R. Chakrabarti, M. Das, B. Karmakar, K. Annapurna, and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Eu3+:CaO−La2O3−B2O3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(13-15), 1422–1426 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karotki, A.

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T. G. V. M. Rao, A. Rupesh Kumar, K. Neeraja, N. Veeraiah, and M. Rami Reddy, “Optical and structural investigation of Eu3+ ions in Nd3+ co-doped magnesium lead borosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 557, 209–217 (2013).
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A. M. Babu, B. C. Jamalaiah, T. Suhasini, T. S. Rao, and L. R. Moorthy, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in lead tungstate tellurite glasses,” Solid State Sci. 13(3), 574–578 (2011).
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M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, “Blue, green and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 65(5), 227–245 (1995).
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Rupesh Kumar, A.

T. G. V. M. Rao, A. Rupesh Kumar, K. Neeraja, N. Veeraiah, and M. Rami Reddy, “Optical and structural investigation of Eu3+ ions in Nd3+ co-doped magnesium lead borosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 557, 209–217 (2013).
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N. Manikandan, A. Ryasnyanskiy, and J. Toulouse, “Thermal and optical properties of TeO2−ZnO−BaO glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 947–951 (2012).
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J. P. Celli, B. Q. Spring, I. Rizvi, C. L. Evans, K. S. Samkoe, S. Verma, B. W. Pogue, and T. Hasan, “Imaging and photodynamic therapy: mechanisms, monitoring, and optimization,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2795–2838 (2010).
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G. Monteiro, L. F. Santos, J. C. G. Pereira, and R. M. Almeida, “Optical and spectroscopic properties of germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(14), 2695–2701 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
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C. E. Secu, R. F. Negrea, and M. Secu, “Eu3+ probe ion for rare-earth dopant site structure in sol-gel derived LiYF4 oxyfluoride glass-ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2456–2460 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. E. Secu, D. Predoi, M. Secu, M. Cernea, and G. Aldica, “Structural investigations of sol-gel derived silicate gels using Eu3+ ion-probe luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1745–1748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Secu, M.

C. E. Secu, R. F. Negrea, and M. Secu, “Eu3+ probe ion for rare-earth dopant site structure in sol-gel derived LiYF4 oxyfluoride glass-ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2456–2460 (2013).
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C. E. Secu, D. Predoi, M. Secu, M. Cernea, and G. Aldica, “Structural investigations of sol-gel derived silicate gels using Eu3+ ion-probe luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1745–1748 (2009).
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Shetty, S. D.

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Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
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Snitzer, E.

M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, “Blue, green and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 65(5), 227–245 (1995).
[Crossref]

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J. P. Celli, B. Q. Spring, I. Rizvi, C. L. Evans, K. S. Samkoe, S. Verma, B. W. Pogue, and T. Hasan, “Imaging and photodynamic therapy: mechanisms, monitoring, and optimization,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2795–2838 (2010).
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Suhasini, T.

A. M. Babu, B. C. Jamalaiah, T. Suhasini, T. S. Rao, and L. R. Moorthy, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in lead tungstate tellurite glasses,” Solid State Sci. 13(3), 574–578 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suresh Kumar, J.

D. Uma Maheswari, J. Suresh Kumar, L. R. Moorthy, K. Jang, and M. Jayasimhadri, “Emission properties of Eu3+ ions in alkali tellurofluorophosphate glasses,” Physica B 403(10-11), 1690–1694 (2008).
[Crossref]

Szeimies, R. M.

P. Babilas, E. Kohl, T. Maisch, H. Bäcker, B. Gross, A. L. Branzan, W. Bäumler, M. Landthaler, S. Karrer, and R. M. Szeimies, “In vitro and in vivo comparison of two different light sources for topical photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(4), 712–718 (2006).
[PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

S. Yano, S. Hirohara, M. Obata, Y. Hagiya, S.- Ogura, A. Ikeda, H. Kataoka, M. Tanaka, and T. Joh, “Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 12(1), 46–67 (2011).
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V. P. Tuyen, T. Hayakawa, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, and P. Thomas, “Fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy of Eu3+ in zinc-thallium-tellurite glass,” J. Solid State Chem. 183(11), 2714–2719 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ticha, H.

J. Ozdanova, H. Ticha, and L. Tichy, “Optical band gap and Raman spectra in some (Bi2O3)x(WO3)y(TeO2)100−x−y and (PbO)x(WO3)y(TeO2)100−x−y glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2318–2322 (2009).
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Tichy, L.

J. Ozdanova, H. Ticha, and L. Tichy, “Optical band gap and Raman spectra in some (Bi2O3)x(WO3)y(TeO2)100−x−y and (PbO)x(WO3)y(TeO2)100−x−y glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2318–2322 (2009).
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V. P. Tuyen, T. Hayakawa, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, and P. Thomas, “Fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy of Eu3+ in zinc-thallium-tellurite glass,” J. Solid State Chem. 183(11), 2714–2719 (2010).
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A. Wojciechowski, I. V. Kityk, G. Lakshminarayana, I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Berdowski, E. Berdowska, and Z. Tylczyński, “Laser-induced optical effects in triglycine-zinc chloride single crystals,” Physica B 405(13), 2827–2830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uma Maheswari, D.

D. Uma Maheswari, J. Suresh Kumar, L. R. Moorthy, K. Jang, and M. Jayasimhadri, “Emission properties of Eu3+ ions in alkali tellurofluorophosphate glasses,” Physica B 403(10-11), 1690–1694 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vanderveer, D.

X. Hu, G. Guery, J. Boerstler, J. D. Musgraves, D. Vanderveer, P. Wachtel, and K. Richardson, “Influence of Bi2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of TeO2−Bi2O3−ZnO glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 952–958 (2012).
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Veeraiah, N.

T. G. V. M. Rao, A. Rupesh Kumar, K. Neeraja, N. Veeraiah, and M. Rami Reddy, “Optical and structural investigation of Eu3+ ions in Nd3+ co-doped magnesium lead borosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 557, 209–217 (2013).
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Y. Gandhi, I. V. Kityk, M. G. Brik, P. R. Rao, and N. Veeraiah, “Influence of tungsten on the emission features of Nd3+, Sm3+ and Eu3+ ions in ZnF2−WO3−TeO2 glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 508(2), 278–291 (2010).
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J. P. Celli, B. Q. Spring, I. Rizvi, C. L. Evans, K. S. Samkoe, S. Verma, B. W. Pogue, and T. Hasan, “Imaging and photodynamic therapy: mechanisms, monitoring, and optimization,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2795–2838 (2010).
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L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. Le Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(1), 76–88 (2002).
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Wachtel, P.

X. Hu, G. Guery, J. Boerstler, J. D. Musgraves, D. Vanderveer, P. Wachtel, and K. Richardson, “Influence of Bi2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of TeO2−Bi2O3−ZnO glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 952–958 (2012).
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Wang, R.

Wasylak, J.

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, and J. Kucharski, “Eu3+-doped glass materials for red luminescence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(3), 157–160 (2001).
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I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, J. Kucharski, S. Benet, and H. Kaddouri, “PbO−Bi2O3−Ga2O3−BaO glasses doped by Er3+ as novel materials for IR emission,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(7), 511–514 (2001).
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G. Lakshminarayana, E. M. Weis, A. C. Lira, U. Caldiño, D. J. Williams, and M. P. Hehlen, “Cross relaxation in rare-earth-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 139, 132–142 (2013).
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Weiss, M. A.

R. A. Weiss, D. H. McDaniel, R. G. Geronemus, M. A. Weiss, K. L. Beasley, G. M. Munavalli, and S. G. Bellew, “Clinical experience with light-emitting diode (LED) photomodulation,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(9 Pt 2), 1199–1205 (2005).
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R. A. Weiss, D. H. McDaniel, R. G. Geronemus, M. A. Weiss, K. L. Beasley, G. M. Munavalli, and S. G. Bellew, “Clinical experience with light-emitting diode (LED) photomodulation,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(9 Pt 2), 1199–1205 (2005).
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G. Lakshminarayana, E. M. Weis, A. C. Lira, U. Caldiño, D. J. Williams, and M. P. Hehlen, “Cross relaxation in rare-earth-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 139, 132–142 (2013).
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M. Khurana, H. A. Collins, A. Karotki, H. L. Anderson, D. T. Cramb, and B. C. Wilson, “Quantitative in vitro demonstration of two-photon photodynamic therapy using photofrin and visudyne,” Photochem. Photobiol. 83(6), 1441–1448 (2007).
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Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
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Wojciechowski, A.

A. Wojciechowski, I. V. Kityk, G. Lakshminarayana, I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Berdowski, E. Berdowska, and Z. Tylczyński, “Laser-induced optical effects in triglycine-zinc chloride single crystals,” Physica B 405(13), 2827–2830 (2010).
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S. Yano, S. Hirohara, M. Obata, Y. Hagiya, S.- Ogura, A. Ikeda, H. Kataoka, M. Tanaka, and T. Joh, “Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 12(1), 46–67 (2011).
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J. P. Celli, B. Q. Spring, I. Rizvi, C. L. Evans, K. S. Samkoe, S. Verma, B. W. Pogue, and T. Hasan, “Imaging and photodynamic therapy: mechanisms, monitoring, and optimization,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2795–2838 (2010).
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Dermatol. Surg. (1)

R. A. Weiss, D. H. McDaniel, R. G. Geronemus, M. A. Weiss, K. L. Beasley, G. M. Munavalli, and S. G. Bellew, “Clinical experience with light-emitting diode (LED) photomodulation,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(9 Pt 2), 1199–1205 (2005).
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Y. Gandhi, I. V. Kityk, M. G. Brik, P. R. Rao, and N. Veeraiah, “Influence of tungsten on the emission features of Nd3+, Sm3+ and Eu3+ ions in ZnF2−WO3−TeO2 glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 508(2), 278–291 (2010).
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M. A. K. Elfayoumi, M. Farouk, M. G. Brik, and M. M. Elokr, “Spectroscopic studies of Sm3+ and Eu3+ co-doped lithium borate glass,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 712–716 (2010).
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T. G. V. M. Rao, A. Rupesh Kumar, K. Neeraja, N. Veeraiah, and M. Rami Reddy, “Optical and structural investigation of Eu3+ ions in Nd3+ co-doped magnesium lead borosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 557, 209–217 (2013).
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K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, and C. Görller-Walrand, “Eu3+ as a probe for rare-earth dopant site structure in nano-glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024312–024317 (2007).
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J. Chem. Phys. (2)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
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A. Ivankov, J. Seekamp, and W. Bauhofer, “Optical properties of Eu3+-doped zinc borate glasses,” J. Lumin. 121(1), 123–131 (2006).
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M. P. Hehlen, M. G. Brik, and K. W. Krämer, “50th anniversary of the Judd-Ofelt theory: An experimentalist's view of the formalism and its application,” J. Lumin. 136, 221–239 (2013).
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G. Lakshminarayana, E. M. Weis, A. C. Lira, U. Caldiño, D. J. Williams, and M. P. Hehlen, “Cross relaxation in rare-earth-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 139, 132–142 (2013).
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M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, “Blue, green and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 65(5), 227–245 (1995).
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E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, R. Mahiou, and P. Boutinaud, “Luminescence properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 crystals activated with Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+ or Dy3+ ions,” J. Lumin. 130(4), 733–736 (2010).
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J. Mater. Sci. (1)

V. R. Kumar and N. Veeraiah, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped ZnF2−PbO−TeO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(10), 2659–2662 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (6)

X. Hu, G. Guery, J. Boerstler, J. D. Musgraves, D. Vanderveer, P. Wachtel, and K. Richardson, “Influence of Bi2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of TeO2−Bi2O3−ZnO glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 952–958 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Monteiro, L. F. Santos, J. C. G. Pereira, and R. M. Almeida, “Optical and spectroscopic properties of germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(14), 2695–2701 (2011).
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R. Chakrabarti, M. Das, B. Karmakar, K. Annapurna, and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Eu3+:CaO−La2O3−B2O3 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(13-15), 1422–1426 (2007).
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L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, G. Le Flem, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Effect of the introduction of Na2B4O7 on erbium luminescence in tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(1), 76–88 (2002).
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J. Ozdanova, H. Ticha, and L. Tichy, “Optical band gap and Raman spectra in some (Bi2O3)x(WO3)y(TeO2)100−x−y and (PbO)x(WO3)y(TeO2)100−x−y glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2318–2322 (2009).
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N. Manikandan, A. Ryasnyanskiy, and J. Toulouse, “Thermal and optical properties of TeO2−ZnO−BaO glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(5), 947–951 (2012).
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J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. (1)

S. Yano, S. Hirohara, M. Obata, Y. Hagiya, S.- Ogura, A. Ikeda, H. Kataoka, M. Tanaka, and T. Joh, “Current states and future views in photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 12(1), 46–67 (2011).
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J. Solid State Chem. (1)

V. P. Tuyen, T. Hayakawa, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, and P. Thomas, “Fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy of Eu3+ in zinc-thallium-tellurite glass,” J. Solid State Chem. 183(11), 2714–2719 (2010).
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Nat. Rev. Cancer (2)

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, J. Kucharski, S. Benet, and H. Kaddouri, “PbO−Bi2O3−Ga2O3−BaO glasses doped by Er3+ as novel materials for IR emission,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(7), 511–514 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. V. Kityk, J. Wasylak, D. Dorosz, and J. Kucharski, “Eu3+-doped glass materials for red luminescence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(3), 157–160 (2001).
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Opt. Mater. (3)

C. E. Secu, R. F. Negrea, and M. Secu, “Eu3+ probe ion for rare-earth dopant site structure in sol-gel derived LiYF4 oxyfluoride glass-ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2456–2460 (2013).
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C. E. Secu, D. Predoi, M. Secu, M. Cernea, and G. Aldica, “Structural investigations of sol-gel derived silicate gels using Eu3+ ion-probe luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1745–1748 (2009).
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Y. Dwivedi and S. B. Rai, “Optical properties of Eu3+ in oxyfluoroborate glass and its nanocrystalline glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 87–93 (2008).
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Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

M. Khurana, H. A. Collins, A. Karotki, H. L. Anderson, D. T. Cramb, and B. C. Wilson, “Quantitative in vitro demonstration of two-photon photodynamic therapy using photofrin and visudyne,” Photochem. Photobiol. 83(6), 1441–1448 (2007).
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Photodiagn. Photodyn. (1)

T. S. Mang, “Lasers and light sources for PDT: past, present and future,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. 1(1), 43–48 (2004).
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Physica B (2)

A. Wojciechowski, I. V. Kityk, G. Lakshminarayana, I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Berdowski, E. Berdowska, and Z. Tylczyński, “Laser-induced optical effects in triglycine-zinc chloride single crystals,” Physica B 405(13), 2827–2830 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Uma Maheswari, J. Suresh Kumar, L. R. Moorthy, K. Jang, and M. Jayasimhadri, “Emission properties of Eu3+ ions in alkali tellurofluorophosphate glasses,” Physica B 403(10-11), 1690–1694 (2008).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

Q. Chen, S. D. Shetty, L. Heads, F. Bolin, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, L. T. Sirls Ii, D. Schultz, J. C. Cerny, and F. W. Hetzel, “Photodynamic therapy in prostate cancer: optical dosimetry and response of normal tissue,” Proc. SPIE 1881, 231–235 (1993).
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Science (1)

I. Amato, “Cancer therapy. Hope for a magic bullet that moves at the speed of light,” Science 262(5130), 32–33 (1993).
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Solid State Sci. (1)

A. M. Babu, B. C. Jamalaiah, T. Suhasini, T. S. Rao, and L. R. Moorthy, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in lead tungstate tellurite glasses,” Solid State Sci. 13(3), 574–578 (2011).
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Spectrochim. Acta [A] (1)

K. Linganna and C. K. Jayasankar, “Optical properties of Eu3+ ions in phosphate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 97, 788–797 (2012).
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Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfluoroborate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(4), 979–985 (2004).
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Other (1)

E. Friedman and J. L. Miller, Photonics Rules of Thumb: Optics, Electro-Optics, Fiber Optics, and Lasers (McGraw-Hill, 2004), Chap. 10.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for quantum yield measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DTA curve of 0.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses. Inset: FTIR spectrum of 0.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses with a thickness of 2.28 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectrum, (b) Excitation spectrum, (c) Emission spectrum, (d) Emission cross-section profiles of 1.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminescence pictures of (a) 0.2wt% and (b) 1.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses under 365 nm UV lamp radiation, and 1.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses under (c) 391 and (d) 456 nm LED excitations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral power distributions (curve 1: Pon, the sample on the tops of the LEDs; curve 2: Pside, the sample aside the LEDs) of 1.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses under (a) 391 and (b) 456 nm LED excitations. Inset of (a) and (b): details of spectral power distributions in wavelength range of 570−720 nm. Net absorption and emission photon distributions of 1.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses under (c) 391 and (d) 456 nm LED excitations. Inset of (c) and (d): details of emission photon distributions in wavelength range of 570−720 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption cross-section profiles of 7F05L6 and 7F05D2 transitions in 1.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses. Inset: net absorption and emission photon number stack column distributions of 1.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses under 391 and 456 nm LED excitations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photon number percentages of 1.2wt% Eu2O3 doped NZPGT glasses under (a) 391 and (b) 456 nm LED excitations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 J-O intensity parameters Ωt (10−20 cm2) of Eu3+ in various optical glasses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spontaneous transition probabilities Aij, branching ratios βij, calculated radiative lifetime τrad, and maximum stimulated emission cross-sections σem-max of 5D0 in Eu3+ doped NZPGT glasses

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C J C 0 = g J g 0 exp ( ( E J E 0 ) / k T ) ,
A ed = 64 π 4 e 2 v 3 3h(J+1) n ( n 2 +2) 2 9 t=2,4,6 Ω t <ΨJ|| U (t) || Ψ J > 2 ,
A md = 64 π 4 v 3 3h(2J+1) n 3 S md ,
A md = ( n n ) 3 A md ,
I J (v) dv I md (v) dv = A J A md = 64 π 4 e 2 v 3 3h(2J+1) n ( n 2 +2) 2 9 A md Ω t <ΨJ|| U (t) || Ψ J > 2 .
σ em = A ij 8πc n 2 × λ 5 ij I( λ ij ) λ ij I( λ ij )dλ ,
Φ E = P(λ) dλ.
N(v) = λ 3 hc P(λ),
QY=emitted photons/ absorbed photons=( E on E side )/( L side L on ),
σ abs ( v )=2.303E( v )/ N 0 d,

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