Abstract

In this paper, we introduce a novel method to organize gold nanorods (GNRs) on a large scale by means of nematic lyotropic liquid crystal (LC) and surface-induced bulk alignment. LC is unidirectionally aligned via surface-treatment, and then gets GNRs organized with a negative order parameter in bulk through elastic force. The self-assembled GNRs (with a considerable high concentration of about 6 wt%) in LC exhibit a strong polarization-dependent localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Polarized optical microscopic imaging, polarization-dependent extinction and scattering spectra of LSPR are utilized to characterize the spatial orientation of GNRs. This method is compatible with the state-of-the-art LC display technique and allows for large-scale fabrication of optical metamaterials, plasmonic polarizers comprised of self-aligned anisometric nanoparticles with extremely low cost.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Kao, K. Thorkelsson, P. Bai, B. J. Rancatore, and T. Xu, “Toward functional nanocomposites: taking the best of nanoparticles, polymers, and small molecules,” Chem. Soc. Rev.42(7), 2654–2678 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. Kuemin, L. Nowack, L. Bozano, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Oriented assembly of gold nanorods on the single-particle level,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(4), 702–708 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, B. Senyuk, J. Tang, T. Lee, J. Qian, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Plasmonic Complex fluids of nematiclike and helicoidal self-assemblies of gold nanorods with a negative order parameter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 088301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

Q. Liu, C. Beier, J. Evans, T. Lee, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of dye molecules in micelles and lamellae for three-dimensional imaging of lyotropic liquid crystals,” Langmuir27(12), 7446–7452 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, M. R. Jones, N. Harris, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle superlattice engineering with DNA,” Science334(6053), 204–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Jones, K. D. Osberg, R. J. Macfarlane, M. R. Langille, and C. A. Mirkin, “Templated techniques for the synthesis and assembly of plasmonic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3736–3827 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hur, Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, R. G. Hennig, and U. Wiesner, “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(50), 11985–11989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

G. von Maltzahn, A. Centrone, J.-H. Park, R. Ramanathan, M. J. Sailor, T. A. Hatton, and S. N. Bhatia, “SERS-coded gold nanorods as a multifunctional platform for densely multiplexed near-infrared imaging and photothermal heating,” Adv. Mater.21(31), 3175–3180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pratibha, K. Park, I. I. Smalyukh, and W. Park, “Tunable optical metamaterial based on liquid crystal-gold nanosphere composite,” Opt. Express17(22), 19459–19469 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Stebe, E. Lewandowski, and M. Ghosh, “Materials science. Oriented assembly of metamaterials,” Science325(5937), 159–160 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. S. Kumar, S. K. Pal, S. Kumar, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Dispersion of thiol stabilized gold nanoparticles in lyotropic liquid crystalline systems,” Langmuir23(6), 3445–3449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Wu, K. C. Chu, C. Y. Chao, Y. F. Chen, C. W. Lai, C. C. Kang, and P. T. Chou, “CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystal cells for smart optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1908–1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal–carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys.97(4), 044309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Shenhar, T. B. Norsten, and V. M. Rotello, “Polymer-mediated nanoparticle assembly: structural control and applications,” Adv. Mater.17(6), 657–669 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Perez-Juste, B. Rodrigues-Gonzalez, P. Mulvaney, and L. Liz-Marzan, “Optical control and patterning of gold-nanorod–poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1065–1071 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Pérez -Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric-field-directed growth of gold nanorods in aqueous surfactant solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(6), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. H. Bechtold, M. L. Vega, E. A. Oliveira, and J. J. Bonvent, “Surface treatments for lyotropic liquid crystals alignment,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)391(1), 95–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. H. Bechtold, J. J. Bonvent, and E. A. Oliveira, “Dynamical behavior of a nematic lyotropic liquid crystal in flat confined samples,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(1 Pt 1), 011704 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. Yeh and M. Paukshto, “Molecular crystalline thin-film E-polarizer,” Mol. Mater.14, 1–19 (2001).

2000 (1)

O. O. Ramdane, P. Auroy, S. Forget, E. Raspaud, P. Martinot-Lagarde, and I. Dozov, “Memory-free conic anchoring of liquid crystals on a solid substrate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(17), 3871–3874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. J. Pidduck, S. D. Haslam, G. P. Bryan-Brown, R. Bannister, and I. D. Kitely, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by polyimide surface modification using atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2907–2909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. J. Liebert, “Microscopical structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics,” Chem. Phys.87, 1851–1857 (1987).

1986 (1)

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, “Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions: Local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(5), 3534–3537 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

R. Bartolino, T. Chiaranza, M. Meuti, and R. Compagnoni, “Uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A26(2), 1116–1119 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. J. Yu and A. Saupe, “Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate-1-decanol-water mixtures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.45(12), 1000–1003 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Auroy, P.

O. O. Ramdane, P. Auroy, S. Forget, E. Raspaud, P. Martinot-Lagarde, and I. Dozov, “Memory-free conic anchoring of liquid crystals on a solid substrate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(17), 3871–3874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, P.

J. Kao, K. Thorkelsson, P. Bai, B. J. Rancatore, and T. Xu, “Toward functional nanocomposites: taking the best of nanoparticles, polymers, and small molecules,” Chem. Soc. Rev.42(7), 2654–2678 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bannister, R.

A. J. Pidduck, S. D. Haslam, G. P. Bryan-Brown, R. Bannister, and I. D. Kitely, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by polyimide surface modification using atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2907–2909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartolino, R.

R. Bartolino, T. Chiaranza, M. Meuti, and R. Compagnoni, “Uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A26(2), 1116–1119 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bechtold, I. H.

I. H. Bechtold, M. L. Vega, E. A. Oliveira, and J. J. Bonvent, “Surface treatments for lyotropic liquid crystals alignment,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)391(1), 95–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Bechtold, J. J. Bonvent, and E. A. Oliveira, “Dynamical behavior of a nematic lyotropic liquid crystal in flat confined samples,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(1 Pt 1), 011704 (2002).
[PubMed]

Beier, C.

Q. Liu, C. Beier, J. Evans, T. Lee, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of dye molecules in micelles and lamellae for three-dimensional imaging of lyotropic liquid crystals,” Langmuir27(12), 7446–7452 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, S. N.

G. von Maltzahn, A. Centrone, J.-H. Park, R. Ramanathan, M. J. Sailor, T. A. Hatton, and S. N. Bhatia, “SERS-coded gold nanorods as a multifunctional platform for densely multiplexed near-infrared imaging and photothermal heating,” Adv. Mater.21(31), 3175–3180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisoyi, H. K.

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonvent, J. J.

I. H. Bechtold, M. L. Vega, E. A. Oliveira, and J. J. Bonvent, “Surface treatments for lyotropic liquid crystals alignment,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)391(1), 95–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Bechtold, J. J. Bonvent, and E. A. Oliveira, “Dynamical behavior of a nematic lyotropic liquid crystal in flat confined samples,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(1 Pt 1), 011704 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bozano, L.

C. Kuemin, L. Nowack, L. Bozano, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Oriented assembly of gold nanorods on the single-particle level,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(4), 702–708 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

A. J. Pidduck, S. D. Haslam, G. P. Bryan-Brown, R. Bannister, and I. D. Kitely, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by polyimide surface modification using atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2907–2909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carnie, S.

J. Pérez -Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric-field-directed growth of gold nanorods in aqueous surfactant solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(6), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Centrone, A.

G. von Maltzahn, A. Centrone, J.-H. Park, R. Ramanathan, M. J. Sailor, T. A. Hatton, and S. N. Bhatia, “SERS-coded gold nanorods as a multifunctional platform for densely multiplexed near-infrared imaging and photothermal heating,” Adv. Mater.21(31), 3175–3180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, D. Y. C.

J. Pérez -Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric-field-directed growth of gold nanorods in aqueous surfactant solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(6), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. Y.

K. J. Wu, K. C. Chu, C. Y. Chao, Y. F. Chen, C. W. Lai, C. C. Kang, and P. T. Chou, “CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystal cells for smart optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1908–1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charvolin, J.

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, “Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions: Local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(5), 3534–3537 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

K. J. Wu, K. C. Chu, C. Y. Chao, Y. F. Chen, C. W. Lai, C. C. Kang, and P. T. Chou, “CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystal cells for smart optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1908–1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiaranza, T.

R. Bartolino, T. Chiaranza, M. Meuti, and R. Compagnoni, “Uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A26(2), 1116–1119 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chon, J. W. M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, P. T.

K. J. Wu, K. C. Chu, C. Y. Chao, Y. F. Chen, C. W. Lai, C. C. Kang, and P. T. Chou, “CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystal cells for smart optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1908–1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K. C.

K. J. Wu, K. C. Chu, C. Y. Chao, Y. F. Chen, C. W. Lai, C. C. Kang, and P. T. Chou, “CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystal cells for smart optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1908–1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Compagnoni, R.

R. Bartolino, T. Chiaranza, M. Meuti, and R. Compagnoni, “Uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A26(2), 1116–1119 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dierking, I.

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal–carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys.97(4), 044309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dozov, I.

O. O. Ramdane, P. Auroy, S. Forget, E. Raspaud, P. Martinot-Lagarde, and I. Dozov, “Memory-free conic anchoring of liquid crystals on a solid substrate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(17), 3871–3874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J.

Q. Liu, C. Beier, J. Evans, T. Lee, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of dye molecules in micelles and lamellae for three-dimensional imaging of lyotropic liquid crystals,” Langmuir27(12), 7446–7452 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueiredo Neto, A. M.

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. J. Liebert, “Microscopical structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics,” Chem. Phys.87, 1851–1857 (1987).

Forget, S.

O. O. Ramdane, P. Auroy, S. Forget, E. Raspaud, P. Martinot-Lagarde, and I. Dozov, “Memory-free conic anchoring of liquid crystals on a solid substrate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(17), 3871–3874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francescato, Y.

K. Hur, Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, R. G. Hennig, and U. Wiesner, “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(50), 11985–11989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galerne, Y.

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. J. Liebert, “Microscopical structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics,” Chem. Phys.87, 1851–1857 (1987).

Gardner, D.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, M.

K. J. Stebe, E. Lewandowski, and M. Ghosh, “Materials science. Oriented assembly of metamaterials,” Science325(5937), 159–160 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannini, V.

K. Hur, Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, R. G. Hennig, and U. Wiesner, “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(50), 11985–11989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, N.

R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, M. R. Jones, N. Harris, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle superlattice engineering with DNA,” Science334(6053), 204–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haslam, S. D.

A. J. Pidduck, S. D. Haslam, G. P. Bryan-Brown, R. Bannister, and I. D. Kitely, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by polyimide surface modification using atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2907–2909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hatton, T. A.

G. von Maltzahn, A. Centrone, J.-H. Park, R. Ramanathan, M. J. Sailor, T. A. Hatton, and S. N. Bhatia, “SERS-coded gold nanorods as a multifunctional platform for densely multiplexed near-infrared imaging and photothermal heating,” Adv. Mater.21(31), 3175–3180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

Q. Liu, B. Senyuk, J. Tang, T. Lee, J. Qian, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Plasmonic Complex fluids of nematiclike and helicoidal self-assemblies of gold nanorods with a negative order parameter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 088301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. Beier, J. Evans, T. Lee, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of dye molecules in micelles and lamellae for three-dimensional imaging of lyotropic liquid crystals,” Langmuir27(12), 7446–7452 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrikx, Y.

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, “Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions: Local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(5), 3534–3537 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennig, R. G.

K. Hur, Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, R. G. Hennig, and U. Wiesner, “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(50), 11985–11989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hur, K.

K. Hur, Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, R. G. Hennig, and U. Wiesner, “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(50), 11985–11989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M. R.

R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, M. R. Jones, N. Harris, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle superlattice engineering with DNA,” Science334(6053), 204–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Jones, K. D. Osberg, R. J. Macfarlane, M. R. Langille, and C. A. Mirkin, “Templated techniques for the synthesis and assembly of plasmonic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3736–3827 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, C. C.

K. J. Wu, K. C. Chu, C. Y. Chao, Y. F. Chen, C. W. Lai, C. C. Kang, and P. T. Chou, “CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystal cells for smart optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1908–1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kao, J.

J. Kao, K. Thorkelsson, P. Bai, B. J. Rancatore, and T. Xu, “Toward functional nanocomposites: taking the best of nanoparticles, polymers, and small molecules,” Chem. Soc. Rev.42(7), 2654–2678 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitely, I. D.

A. J. Pidduck, S. D. Haslam, G. P. Bryan-Brown, R. Bannister, and I. D. Kitely, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by polyimide surface modification using atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2907–2909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuemin, C.

C. Kuemin, L. Nowack, L. Bozano, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Oriented assembly of gold nanorods on the single-particle level,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(4), 702–708 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P. S.

P. S. Kumar, S. K. Pal, S. Kumar, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Dispersion of thiol stabilized gold nanoparticles in lyotropic liquid crystalline systems,” Langmuir23(6), 3445–3449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Kumar, S. K. Pal, S. Kumar, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Dispersion of thiol stabilized gold nanoparticles in lyotropic liquid crystalline systems,” Langmuir23(6), 3445–3449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C. W.

K. J. Wu, K. C. Chu, C. Y. Chao, Y. F. Chen, C. W. Lai, C. C. Kang, and P. T. Chou, “CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystal cells for smart optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1908–1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lakshminarayanan, V.

P. S. Kumar, S. K. Pal, S. Kumar, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Dispersion of thiol stabilized gold nanoparticles in lyotropic liquid crystalline systems,” Langmuir23(6), 3445–3449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langille, M. R.

M. R. Jones, K. D. Osberg, R. J. Macfarlane, M. R. Langille, and C. A. Mirkin, “Templated techniques for the synthesis and assembly of plasmonic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3736–3827 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, M. R. Jones, N. Harris, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle superlattice engineering with DNA,” Science334(6053), 204–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T.

Q. Liu, B. Senyuk, J. Tang, T. Lee, J. Qian, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Plasmonic Complex fluids of nematiclike and helicoidal self-assemblies of gold nanorods with a negative order parameter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 088301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. Beier, J. Evans, T. Lee, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of dye molecules in micelles and lamellae for three-dimensional imaging of lyotropic liquid crystals,” Langmuir27(12), 7446–7452 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewandowski, E.

K. J. Stebe, E. Lewandowski, and M. Ghosh, “Materials science. Oriented assembly of metamaterials,” Science325(5937), 159–160 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, L. J.

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. J. Liebert, “Microscopical structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics,” Chem. Phys.87, 1851–1857 (1987).

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, B. Senyuk, J. Tang, T. Lee, J. Qian, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Plasmonic Complex fluids of nematiclike and helicoidal self-assemblies of gold nanorods with a negative order parameter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 088301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. Beier, J. Evans, T. Lee, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of dye molecules in micelles and lamellae for three-dimensional imaging of lyotropic liquid crystals,” Langmuir27(12), 7446–7452 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liz-Marzan, L.

J. Perez-Juste, B. Rodrigues-Gonzalez, P. Mulvaney, and L. Liz-Marzan, “Optical control and patterning of gold-nanorod–poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1065–1071 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liz-Marzan, L. M.

J. Pérez -Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric-field-directed growth of gold nanorods in aqueous surfactant solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(6), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. J.

R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, M. R. Jones, N. Harris, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle superlattice engineering with DNA,” Science334(6053), 204–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Jones, K. D. Osberg, R. J. Macfarlane, M. R. Langille, and C. A. Mirkin, “Templated techniques for the synthesis and assembly of plasmonic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3736–3827 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

K. Hur, Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, R. G. Hennig, and U. Wiesner, “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(50), 11985–11989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinot-Lagarde, P.

O. O. Ramdane, P. Auroy, S. Forget, E. Raspaud, P. Martinot-Lagarde, and I. Dozov, “Memory-free conic anchoring of liquid crystals on a solid substrate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(17), 3871–3874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meuti, M.

R. Bartolino, T. Chiaranza, M. Meuti, and R. Compagnoni, “Uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A26(2), 1116–1119 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mireles, H. C.

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

M. R. Jones, K. D. Osberg, R. J. Macfarlane, M. R. Langille, and C. A. Mirkin, “Templated techniques for the synthesis and assembly of plasmonic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3736–3827 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, M. R. Jones, N. Harris, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle superlattice engineering with DNA,” Science334(6053), 204–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morales, P.

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal–carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys.97(4), 044309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mulvaney, P.

J. Perez-Juste, B. Rodrigues-Gonzalez, P. Mulvaney, and L. Liz-Marzan, “Optical control and patterning of gold-nanorod–poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1065–1071 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Pérez -Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric-field-directed growth of gold nanorods in aqueous surfactant solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(6), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Norsten, T. B.

R. Shenhar, T. B. Norsten, and V. M. Rotello, “Polymer-mediated nanoparticle assembly: structural control and applications,” Adv. Mater.17(6), 657–669 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nowack, L.

C. Kuemin, L. Nowack, L. Bozano, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Oriented assembly of gold nanorods on the single-particle level,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(4), 702–708 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, E. A.

I. H. Bechtold, M. L. Vega, E. A. Oliveira, and J. J. Bonvent, “Surface treatments for lyotropic liquid crystals alignment,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)391(1), 95–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Bechtold, J. J. Bonvent, and E. A. Oliveira, “Dynamical behavior of a nematic lyotropic liquid crystal in flat confined samples,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(1 Pt 1), 011704 (2002).
[PubMed]

Osberg, K. D.

M. R. Jones, K. D. Osberg, R. J. Macfarlane, M. R. Langille, and C. A. Mirkin, “Templated techniques for the synthesis and assembly of plasmonic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3736–3827 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pal, S. K.

P. S. Kumar, S. K. Pal, S. Kumar, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Dispersion of thiol stabilized gold nanoparticles in lyotropic liquid crystalline systems,” Langmuir23(6), 3445–3449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

G. von Maltzahn, A. Centrone, J.-H. Park, R. Ramanathan, M. J. Sailor, T. A. Hatton, and S. N. Bhatia, “SERS-coded gold nanorods as a multifunctional platform for densely multiplexed near-infrared imaging and photothermal heating,” Adv. Mater.21(31), 3175–3180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K.

Park, W.

Paukshto, M.

P. Yeh and M. Paukshto, “Molecular crystalline thin-film E-polarizer,” Mol. Mater.14, 1–19 (2001).

Pérez -Juste, J.

J. Pérez -Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric-field-directed growth of gold nanorods in aqueous surfactant solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14(6), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Juste, J.

J. Perez-Juste, B. Rodrigues-Gonzalez, P. Mulvaney, and L. Liz-Marzan, “Optical control and patterning of gold-nanorod–poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1065–1071 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pidduck, A. J.

A. J. Pidduck, S. D. Haslam, G. P. Bryan-Brown, R. Bannister, and I. D. Kitely, “Control of liquid crystal alignment by polyimide surface modification using atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2907–2909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pratibha, R.

Qian, J.

Q. Liu, B. Senyuk, J. Tang, T. Lee, J. Qian, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Plasmonic Complex fluids of nematiclike and helicoidal self-assemblies of gold nanorods with a negative order parameter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 088301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanathan, R.

G. von Maltzahn, A. Centrone, J.-H. Park, R. Ramanathan, M. J. Sailor, T. A. Hatton, and S. N. Bhatia, “SERS-coded gold nanorods as a multifunctional platform for densely multiplexed near-infrared imaging and photothermal heating,” Adv. Mater.21(31), 3175–3180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramdane, O. O.

O. O. Ramdane, P. Auroy, S. Forget, E. Raspaud, P. Martinot-Lagarde, and I. Dozov, “Memory-free conic anchoring of liquid crystals on a solid substrate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(17), 3871–3874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rancatore, B. J.

J. Kao, K. Thorkelsson, P. Bai, B. J. Rancatore, and T. Xu, “Toward functional nanocomposites: taking the best of nanoparticles, polymers, and small molecules,” Chem. Soc. Rev.42(7), 2654–2678 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raspaud, E.

O. O. Ramdane, P. Auroy, S. Forget, E. Raspaud, P. Martinot-Lagarde, and I. Dozov, “Memory-free conic anchoring of liquid crystals on a solid substrate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(17), 3871–3874 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rawiso, M.

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, “Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions: Local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(5), 3534–3537 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigues-Gonzalez, B.

J. Perez-Juste, B. Rodrigues-Gonzalez, P. Mulvaney, and L. Liz-Marzan, “Optical control and patterning of gold-nanorod–poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1065–1071 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rotello, V. M.

R. Shenhar, T. B. Norsten, and V. M. Rotello, “Polymer-mediated nanoparticle assembly: structural control and applications,” Adv. Mater.17(6), 657–669 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

G. von Maltzahn, A. Centrone, J.-H. Park, R. Ramanathan, M. J. Sailor, T. A. Hatton, and S. N. Bhatia, “SERS-coded gold nanorods as a multifunctional platform for densely multiplexed near-infrared imaging and photothermal heating,” Adv. Mater.21(31), 3175–3180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saupe, A.

L. J. Yu and A. Saupe, “Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate-1-decanol-water mixtures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.45(12), 1000–1003 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Scalia, G.

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal–carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys.97(4), 044309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

R. J. Macfarlane, B. Lee, M. R. Jones, N. Harris, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle superlattice engineering with DNA,” Science334(6053), 204–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senyuk, B.

Q. Liu, B. Senyuk, J. Tang, T. Lee, J. Qian, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Plasmonic Complex fluids of nematiclike and helicoidal self-assemblies of gold nanorods with a negative order parameter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 088301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shenhar, R.

R. Shenhar, T. B. Norsten, and V. M. Rotello, “Polymer-mediated nanoparticle assembly: structural control and applications,” Adv. Mater.17(6), 657–669 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smalyukh, I. I.

Q. Liu, B. Senyuk, J. Tang, T. Lee, J. Qian, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Plasmonic Complex fluids of nematiclike and helicoidal self-assemblies of gold nanorods with a negative order parameter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 088301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. Beier, J. Evans, T. Lee, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of dye molecules in micelles and lamellae for three-dimensional imaging of lyotropic liquid crystals,” Langmuir27(12), 7446–7452 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, H. C. Mireles, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(52), 20891–20896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Self-alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in reconfigurable anisotropic fluids for tunable bulk metamaterial applications,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1347–1353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pratibha, K. Park, I. I. Smalyukh, and W. Park, “Tunable optical metamaterial based on liquid crystal-gold nanosphere composite,” Opt. Express17(22), 19459–19469 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spencer, N. D.

C. Kuemin, L. Nowack, L. Bozano, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Oriented assembly of gold nanorods on the single-particle level,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(4), 702–708 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stebe, K. J.

K. J. Stebe, E. Lewandowski, and M. Ghosh, “Materials science. Oriented assembly of metamaterials,” Science325(5937), 159–160 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

Q. Liu, B. Senyuk, J. Tang, T. Lee, J. Qian, S. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Plasmonic Complex fluids of nematiclike and helicoidal self-assemblies of gold nanorods with a negative order parameter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(8), 088301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorkelsson, K.

J. Kao, K. Thorkelsson, P. Bai, B. J. Rancatore, and T. Xu, “Toward functional nanocomposites: taking the best of nanoparticles, polymers, and small molecules,” Chem. Soc. Rev.42(7), 2654–2678 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vega, M. L.

I. H. Bechtold, M. L. Vega, E. A. Oliveira, and J. J. Bonvent, “Surface treatments for lyotropic liquid crystals alignment,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)391(1), 95–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von Maltzahn, G.

G. von Maltzahn, A. Centrone, J.-H. Park, R. Ramanathan, M. J. Sailor, T. A. Hatton, and S. N. Bhatia, “SERS-coded gold nanorods as a multifunctional platform for densely multiplexed near-infrared imaging and photothermal heating,” Adv. Mater.21(31), 3175–3180 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesner, U.

K. Hur, Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, R. G. Hennig, and U. Wiesner, “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(50), 11985–11989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, H.

C. Kuemin, L. Nowack, L. Bozano, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Oriented assembly of gold nanorods on the single-particle level,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(4), 702–708 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K. J.

K. J. Wu, K. C. Chu, C. Y. Chao, Y. F. Chen, C. W. Lai, C. C. Kang, and P. T. Chou, “CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystal cells for smart optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1908–1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

J. Kao, K. Thorkelsson, P. Bai, B. J. Rancatore, and T. Xu, “Toward functional nanocomposites: taking the best of nanoparticles, polymers, and small molecules,” Chem. Soc. Rev.42(7), 2654–2678 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and M. Paukshto, “Molecular crystalline thin-film E-polarizer,” Mol. Mater.14, 1–19 (2001).

Yokoyama, H.

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoneya, M.

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L. J.

L. J. Yu and A. Saupe, “Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate-1-decanol-water mixtures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.45(12), 1000–1003 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zijlstra, P.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

J. Perez-Juste, B. Rodrigues-Gonzalez, P. Mulvaney, and L. Liz-Marzan, “Optical control and patterning of gold-nanorod–poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1065–1071 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a, b) Polarized optical microscopy images of GNR-doped LC for two different rubbing directions (indicated by k) between crossed polarizers (indicated by (P) and (A), showing high-quality long-range alignment. (c) Polarized optical microscopy images of GNR-doped LC with a phase compensator (530nm λ−plate, slow axis γ) inserted to the POM, showing the alignment of nematic LC is along the rubbing direction. The scale bars are 50μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of GNR alignment with a negative order parameter in the nematic LC. Red lines indicate the uniform director field of LC host. (b) The experiment setup used to measure the polarization-dependent extinction spectra of aligned GNR-LC composites. (c,d) The transmission optical microscopy images obtained for unpolarized light passing first through the cell with aligned GNRs and then through a linear polarizer (P) either perpendicular (c) or parallel (d) to the rubbing direction k. The insets of (c) and (d) show the images of the whole sample (in a centimeter scale) in two orthogonal cases. The scale bars are 50μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The measured polarization-sensitive extinction spectra of GNRs for different angles between the linear polarizer and the rubbing direction. (b) The measured extinction value at the longitudinal SPR peak as a function of the angle between the linear polarizer and the rubbing direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dark-field scattering optical microscopy images obtained for unpolarized light passing first through the cell with aligned individual GNRs in LC and then through a linear polarizer (P) either (a) perpendicular or (b) parallel to the rubbing direction k. (c) The measured polarization-sensitive scattering spectra of GNRs for different angles between the linear polarizer and the rubbing direction. (d) The scattering at the longitudinal SPR peak as a function of the angle between (P) and k. The scale bars are 10μm.

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