Abstract

We demonstrate hybrid white light emitters by employing Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as blue emitters and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) organic molecule 4,7-Bis[4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl]benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole (BTPETD) as down-converted yellow emitters. The fabricated device shows CIE coordinates of (0.32, 0.33) and 45.4% optical extraction efficiency from BTPETD layer with pump leakage of 17.3%. At driving current of 30 mA, the highest luminous efficacy of 123.8 lm/W was obtained for the hybrid devices which corresponded a luminance of 1.4 × 105 cd/m2. Our work indicates that formation of aggregates from AIE materials such as BTPETD is able to greatly enhance the device extraction efficiency and improve the hybrid white LED performance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. D. Dupuis and M. R. Krames, “History, development, and applications of high-brightness visible light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(9), 1154–1171 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk, and D. W. Kisker, “Hybrid organic–inorganic semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.82(8), 4126–4128 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with a color conversion cap layer,” Org. Electron.12(4), 677–681 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Z. Zhao, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Zhong Tang, “Aggregation-Induced Emission of Tetraarylethene Luminogens,” Curr. Org. Chem.14, 2109–2132 (2010).
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  18. J. Liu, J. Y. Lam, and B. Tang, “Aggregation-induced Emission of Silole Molecules and Polymers: Fundamental and Applications,” J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym.19(3), 249–285 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater.33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with a color conversion cap layer,” Org. Electron.12(4), 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5361–5388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Z. Zhao, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Zhong Tang, “Aggregation-Induced Emission of Tetraarylethene Luminogens,” Curr. Org. Chem.14, 2109–2132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Liu, J. Y. Lam, and B. Tang, “Aggregation-induced Emission of Silole Molecules and Polymers: Fundamental and Applications,” J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym.19(3), 249–285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Progress and perspective of polymer white light-emitting devices and materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(12), 3391–3400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, “Current Status of GaN-Based Solid-State Lighting,” MRS Bull.34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wu, Z. Gong, A. J. C. Kuehne, A. L. Kanibolotsky, Y. J. Chen, I. F. Perepichka, A. R. Mackintosh, E. Gu, P. J. Skabara, R. A. Pethrick, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid GaN/organic microstructured light-emitting devices via ink-jet printing,” Opt. Express17(19), 16436–16443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission: phenomenon, mechanism and applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (29): 4332–4353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Dupuis and M. R. Krames, “History, development, and applications of high-brightness visible light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(9), 1154–1171 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk, and D. W. Kisker, “Hybrid organic–inorganic semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.82(8), 4126–4128 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and A. J. Heeger, “White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(20), 2664–2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Belton, C. R.

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bojarczuk, N. A.

S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk, and D. W. Kisker, “Hybrid organic–inorganic semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.82(8), 4126–4128 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, A. R.

A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cabanillas-Gonzalez, J.

A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

H. B. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Progress and perspective of polymer white light-emitting devices and materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(12), 3391–3400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with a color conversion cap layer,” Org. Electron.12(4), 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. J.

Craford, M. G.

Dawson, M. D.

M. Wu, Z. Gong, A. J. C. Kuehne, A. L. Kanibolotsky, Y. J. Chen, I. F. Perepichka, A. R. Mackintosh, E. Gu, P. J. Skabara, R. A. Pethrick, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid GaN/organic microstructured light-emitting devices via ink-jet printing,” Opt. Express17(19), 16436–16443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and A. J. Heeger, “White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(20), 2664–2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, C.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dupuis, R. D.

Feldmann, J.

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, Y.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater.33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, K.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater.33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

Griffin, C.

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

M. Wu, Z. Gong, A. J. C. Kuehne, A. L. Kanibolotsky, Y. J. Chen, I. F. Perepichka, A. R. Mackintosh, E. Gu, P. J. Skabara, R. A. Pethrick, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid GaN/organic microstructured light-emitting devices via ink-jet printing,” Opt. Express17(19), 16436–16443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk, and D. W. Kisker, “Hybrid organic–inorganic semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.82(8), 4126–4128 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guilhabert, B.

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haight, R. A.

S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk, and D. W. Kisker, “Hybrid organic–inorganic semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.82(8), 4126–4128 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Heeger, A. J.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and A. J. Heeger, “White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(20), 2664–2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and A. J. Heeger, “White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(20), 2664–2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J.

A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5361–5388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission: phenomenon, mechanism and applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (29): 4332–4353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itskos, G.

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, C. W.

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanibolotsky, A. L.

Kisker, D. W.

S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk, and D. W. Kisker, “Hybrid organic–inorganic semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.82(8), 4126–4128 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and A. J. Heeger, “White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(20), 2664–2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Kuehne, A. J. C.

Kwok, H. S.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, H.-S.

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with a color conversion cap layer,” Org. Electron.12(4), 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lagoudakis, P. G.

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lam, J. W. Y.

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5361–5388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Zhong Tang, “Aggregation-Induced Emission of Tetraarylethene Luminogens,” Curr. Org. Chem.14, 2109–2132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission: phenomenon, mechanism and applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (29): 4332–4353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, J. Y.

J. Liu, J. Y. Lam, and B. Tang, “Aggregation-induced Emission of Silole Molecules and Polymers: Fundamental and Applications,” J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym.19(3), 249–285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Y. Lam, and B. Tang, “Aggregation-induced Emission of Silole Molecules and Polymers: Fundamental and Applications,” J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym.19(3), 249–285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lupton, J.

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackintosh, A. R.

M. Wu, Z. Gong, A. J. C. Kuehne, A. L. Kanibolotsky, Y. J. Chen, I. F. Perepichka, A. R. Mackintosh, E. Gu, P. J. Skabara, R. A. Pethrick, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid GaN/organic microstructured light-emitting devices via ink-jet printing,” Opt. Express17(19), 16436–16443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

Mueller-Mach, R.

Murray, R.

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “Current Status of GaN-Based Solid-State Lighting,” MRS Bull.34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishiura, S.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater.33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perepichka, I. F.

Pethrick, R. A.

M. Wu, Z. Gong, A. J. C. Kuehne, A. L. Kanibolotsky, Y. J. Chen, I. F. Perepichka, A. R. Mackintosh, E. Gu, P. J. Skabara, R. A. Pethrick, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid GaN/organic microstructured light-emitting devices via ink-jet printing,” Opt. Express17(19), 16436–16443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, H.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahn, M. D.

A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Skabara, P. J.

Stavrinou, P. N.

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater.33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, B.

J. Liu, J. Y. Lam, and B. Tang, “Aggregation-induced Emission of Silole Molecules and Polymers: Fundamental and Applications,” J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym.19(3), 249–285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, B. Z.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5361–5388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission: phenomenon, mechanism and applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (29): 4332–4353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, I. M.

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. B.

H. B. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Progress and perspective of polymer white light-emitting devices and materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(12), 3391–3400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

Yang, W.

H. B. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Progress and perspective of polymer white light-emitting devices and materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(12), 3391–3400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ying, L.

H. B. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Progress and perspective of polymer white light-emitting devices and materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(12), 3391–3400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Zhong Tang, “Aggregation-Induced Emission of Tetraarylethene Luminogens,” Curr. Org. Chem.14, 2109–2132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhong Tang, B.

Z. Zhao, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Zhong Tang, “Aggregation-Induced Emission of Tetraarylethene Luminogens,” Curr. Org. Chem.14, 2109–2132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and A. J. Heeger, “White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(20), 2664–2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission: phenomenon, mechanism and applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (29): 4332–4353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, C. Deng, S. Chen, J. W. Y. Lam, W. Qin, P. Lu, Z. Wang, H. S. Kwok, Y. Ma, H. Qiu, and B. Z. Tang, “Full emission color tuning in luminogens constructed from tetraphenylethene, benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole and thiophene building blocks,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(31), 8847–8849 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. R. Buckley, M. D. Rahn, J. Hill, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. M. Fox, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Energy transfer dynamics in polyfluorene-based polymer blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 331–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev.

H. B. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, “Progress and perspective of polymer white light-emitting devices and materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(12), 3391–3400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Z. Tang, “Aggregation-induced emission,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5361–5388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Org. Chem.

Z. Zhao, J. W. Y. Lam, and B. Zhong Tang, “Aggregation-Induced Emission of Tetraarylethene Luminogens,” Curr. Org. Chem.14, 2109–2132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk, and D. W. Kisker, “Hybrid organic–inorganic semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.82(8), 4126–4128 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol.

J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym.

J. Liu, J. Y. Lam, and B. Tang, “Aggregation-induced Emission of Silole Molecules and Polymers: Fundamental and Applications,” J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym.19(3), 249–285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

G. Heliotis, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, P. N. Stavrinou, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. A: Pure Appl. Opt.8(7), S445–S449 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

C. R. Belton, G. Itskos, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. Lupton, S. Pereira, E. Gu, C. Griffin, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, J. Feldmann, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, and D. D. C. Bradley, “New light from hybrid inorganic–organic emitters,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(9), 094006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull.

S. Nakamura, “Current Status of GaN-Based Solid-State Lighting,” MRS Bull.34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

G. Itskos, C. R. Belton, G. Heliotis, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, R. Murray, and D. D. C. Bradley, “White light emission via cascade Förster energy transfer in (Ga, In)N quantum well/polymer blend hybrid structures,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater.33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with a color conversion cap layer,” Org. Electron.12(4), 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized absorption and PL spectra of BTPETD in THF solutions and EL spectrum of GaN-based LED. Solution concentration: 10 μM; excitation wavelength: 350 nm. The inset shows the molecular structure of BTPETD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) EL spectra of GaN-based LED and hybrid white light emitter constructed from GaN-based LED and BTPETD without and with epoxy encapsulation. (b) Photos of the fabricated devices taken in the absence (left side) and presence of 2 mA driving current (right side).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in the PL intensity of BTPETD with time at a driving current of 30 mA. Red solid line represents hybrid white emitter encapsulated with epoxy, while black dash line represents hybrid white emitter without epoxy. The inset shows the SEM image of BTPETD deposited on the LED surface indicating formation of large aggregate/polycrystalline structures which enhance the light scattering in this hybrid white emitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of luminance and applied current in the GaN-based LED and hybrid white light emitter. The inset shows the I-V characteristic of the GaN-based LED and hybrid white light emitter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Emission spectra of the hybrid white light emitter at different driving currents. (b) Dependence of the CIE chromaticity coordinates on the driving current. The arrow shows the direction of driving current.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P PL =(1l) P LED η QE,BTPETD E ¯ nBTPETD E ¯ nLED η opt,BTPETD
l η opt,LED L E LED +(1l) η QE,BTPETD E ¯ nBTPETD E ¯ nLED η opt,BTPETD L E BTPETD

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