Abstract

We report on a novel class of optical materials for ethanol vapor sensing, based on polystyrene opals infiltrated with an innovative stimuli-responsive hydrogel. We describe the fabrication process of the bare polystyrene opals and their subsequent infiltration. The optical characterization of the photonic crystal templates was performed to prove the good quality of the samples. Measurements on the infiltrated opals showed that the transmission spectra in the visible range strongly change at varying concentrations of ethanol vapor. The fabricated structures show a linear optical response in the visible range, for high values of ethanol concentration.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Pan, J. Ma, J. Yan, M. Zhou, and J. Gao, “Response of inverse-opal hydrogels to alcohols,” J. Mater. Chem.22(5), 2018–2025 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Photonic crystal sensors: An overview,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(3), 89–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shin, P. V. Braun, and W. Lee, “Fast response photonic crystal pH sensor based on templated photo-polymerized hydrogel inverse opal,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.150(1), 183–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Yang and W. B. Liau, “Optical responses of polyaniline inverse opals to chemicals,” Synth. Met.160(17–18), 1809–1814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Yang and W. B. Liau, “Environmental responses of polyaniline inverse opals: Application to gas sensing,” Synth. Met.160(7–8), 609–614 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. M. Muscatello, L. E. Stunja, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized crystalline colloidal array sensing of high glucose concentrations,” Anal. Chem.81(12), 4978–4986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. M. W. Muscatello and S. A. Asher, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) rehydratable photonic crystal sensor materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(8), 1186–1193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, A. V. Goponenko, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized PolyHEMA photonic crystals: pH and ethanol sensor materials,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(10), 3113–3119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bearzotti, A. Macagnano, S. Pantalei, E. Zampetti, I. Venditti, I. Fratoddi, and M. V. Russo, “Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(47), 474207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, M. Cucini, and D. Comoretto, “In situ tuning of a photonic band gap with laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

P. C. A. Jerónimo, A. N. Araújo, M. Conceição B S M Montenegro, and B. S. M. Montenegro, “Optical sensors and biosensors based on sol-gel films,” Talanta72(1), 13–27 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Morandi, F. Marabelli, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, and D. Comoretto, “Colloidal photonic crystals doped with gold nanoparticles: spectroscopy and optical switching properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2779–2786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater.29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Wang, Y. Cao, Y. Feng, F. Yin, and J. P. Gao, “Multiresponsive inverse-opal hydrogels,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3865–3871 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishijima, K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, H. Misawa, T. Tanimura, and K. Maeda, “Inverse silica opal photonic crystals for optical sensing applications,” Opt. Express15(20), 12979–12988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. Baryshev, R. Fujikawa, A. Khanikaev, A. Granovsky, K. Shin, P. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Mesoporous photonic crystals for sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE6369, 63690B, 63690B–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ben-Moshe, V. L. Alexeev, and S. A. Asher, “Fast responsive crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal glucose sensors,” Anal. Chem.78(14), 5149–5157 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Abrarov, T. W. Kim, and T. W. Kang, “Equations for filling factor estimation in opal matrix: Addendum to [Opt. Commun. 259, 383 (2006)],” Opt. Commun.264(1), 240–246 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, and D. Comoretto, “Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. F. Galisteo-López and C. López, “High-energy optical response of artificial opals,” Phys. Rev. B70(3), 035108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Allard, E. H. Sargent, E. Kumacheva, and O. Kalinina, “Characterization of internal order of colloidal crystals by optical diffraction,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(1/3), 27–36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Alvarez-Lorenzo, H. Hiratani, J. L. Gómez-Amoza, R. Martínez-Pacheco, C. Souto, and A. Concheiro, “Soft contact lenses capable of sustained delivery of timolol,” J. Pharm. Sci.91(10), 2182–2192 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. D’Amico and C. Di Natale, “A contribution on some basic definitions of sensors properties,” IEEE Sens. J.1(3), 183–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, J. F. Bertone, P. Jiang, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Optical properties of planar colloidal crystals: Dynamical diffraction and the scalar wave approximation,” J. Chem. Phys.111(1), 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Holtz, J. Weissman, G. Pan, and S. A. Asher, “Mesoscopically periodic photonic crystal materials for linear and nonlinear optics and chemical sensing,” Material Research Soc.23, 44–50 (1998).

J. H. Holtz, J. S. W. Holtz, C. H. Munro, and S. A. Asher, “Intelligent polymerized crystalline colloidal arrays: novel chemical sensor materials,” Anal. Chem.70(4), 780–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials,” Nature389(6653), 829–832 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects,” Il Nuovo Cimento D.17(11–12), 1349–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abrarov, S. M.

S. M. Abrarov, T. W. Kim, and T. W. Kang, “Equations for filling factor estimation in opal matrix: Addendum to [Opt. Commun. 259, 383 (2006)],” Opt. Commun.264(1), 240–246 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Achelle, S.

S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adamo, G.

G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Agrò, D.

G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, V. L.

M. Ben-Moshe, V. L. Alexeev, and S. A. Asher, “Fast responsive crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal glucose sensors,” Anal. Chem.78(14), 5149–5157 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allard, M.

M. Allard, E. H. Sargent, E. Kumacheva, and O. Kalinina, “Characterization of internal order of colloidal crystals by optical diffraction,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(1/3), 27–36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Lorenzo, C.

C. Alvarez-Lorenzo, H. Hiratani, J. L. Gómez-Amoza, R. Martínez-Pacheco, C. Souto, and A. Concheiro, “Soft contact lenses capable of sustained delivery of timolol,” J. Pharm. Sci.91(10), 2182–2192 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amendola, V.

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, M. Cucini, and D. Comoretto, “In situ tuning of a photonic band gap with laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Morandi, F. Marabelli, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, and D. Comoretto, “Colloidal photonic crystals doped with gold nanoparticles: spectroscopy and optical switching properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2779–2786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, and D. Comoretto, “Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, A. N.

P. C. A. Jerónimo, A. N. Araújo, M. Conceição B S M Montenegro, and B. S. M. Montenegro, “Optical sensors and biosensors based on sol-gel films,” Talanta72(1), 13–27 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asher, S. A.

M. M. Muscatello, L. E. Stunja, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized crystalline colloidal array sensing of high glucose concentrations,” Anal. Chem.81(12), 4978–4986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xu, A. V. Goponenko, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized PolyHEMA photonic crystals: pH and ethanol sensor materials,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(10), 3113–3119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. W. Muscatello and S. A. Asher, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) rehydratable photonic crystal sensor materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(8), 1186–1193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ben-Moshe, V. L. Alexeev, and S. A. Asher, “Fast responsive crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal glucose sensors,” Anal. Chem.78(14), 5149–5157 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Holtz, J. S. W. Holtz, C. H. Munro, and S. A. Asher, “Intelligent polymerized crystalline colloidal arrays: novel chemical sensor materials,” Anal. Chem.70(4), 780–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Holtz, J. Weissman, G. Pan, and S. A. Asher, “Mesoscopically periodic photonic crystal materials for linear and nonlinear optics and chemical sensing,” Material Research Soc.23, 44–50 (1998).

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials,” Nature389(6653), 829–832 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assanto, G.

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, M. Cucini, and D. Comoretto, “In situ tuning of a photonic band gap with laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects,” Il Nuovo Cimento D.17(11–12), 1349–1354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bao, H.

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, J. A.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
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S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
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V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects,” Il Nuovo Cimento D.17(11–12), 1349–1354 (1995).
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J. Shin, P. V. Braun, and W. Lee, “Fast response photonic crystal pH sensor based on templated photo-polymerized hydrogel inverse opal,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.150(1), 183–190 (2010).
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R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
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R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
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G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
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S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 79 (2012).
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C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
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M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
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M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
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J. Y. Wang, Y. Cao, Y. Feng, F. Yin, and J. P. Gao, “Multiresponsive inverse-opal hydrogels,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3865–3871 (2007).
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A. Bearzotti, A. Macagnano, S. Pantalei, E. Zampetti, I. Venditti, I. Fratoddi, and M. V. Russo, “Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(47), 474207 (2008).
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J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 30–69 (2011).
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E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, and D. Comoretto, “Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045102 (2005).
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Z. Pan, J. Ma, J. Yan, M. Zhou, and J. Gao, “Response of inverse-opal hydrogels to alcohols,” J. Mater. Chem.22(5), 2018–2025 (2012).
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J. Y. Wang, Y. Cao, Y. Feng, F. Yin, and J. P. Gao, “Multiresponsive inverse-opal hydrogels,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3865–3871 (2007).
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G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
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C. Alvarez-Lorenzo, H. Hiratani, J. L. Gómez-Amoza, R. Martínez-Pacheco, C. Souto, and A. Concheiro, “Soft contact lenses capable of sustained delivery of timolol,” J. Pharm. Sci.91(10), 2182–2192 (2002).
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C. Alvarez-Lorenzo, H. Hiratani, J. L. Gómez-Amoza, R. Martínez-Pacheco, C. Souto, and A. Concheiro, “Soft contact lenses capable of sustained delivery of timolol,” J. Pharm. Sci.91(10), 2182–2192 (2002).
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S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 79 (2012).
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S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 79 (2012).
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P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
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D. M. Mittleman, J. F. Bertone, P. Jiang, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Optical properties of planar colloidal crystals: Dynamical diffraction and the scalar wave approximation,” J. Chem. Phys.111(1), 345–354 (1999).
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J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
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A. Baryshev, R. Fujikawa, A. Khanikaev, A. Granovsky, K. Shin, P. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Mesoporous photonic crystals for sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE6369, 63690B, 63690B–5 (2006).
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P. C. A. Jerónimo, A. N. Araújo, M. Conceição B S M Montenegro, and B. S. M. Montenegro, “Optical sensors and biosensors based on sol-gel films,” Talanta72(1), 13–27 (2007).
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Jiang, H.

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
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D. M. Mittleman, J. F. Bertone, P. Jiang, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Optical properties of planar colloidal crystals: Dynamical diffraction and the scalar wave approximation,” J. Chem. Phys.111(1), 345–354 (1999).
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P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
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Juodkazis, S.

Kalinina, O.

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S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater.29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
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A. Baryshev, R. Fujikawa, A. Khanikaev, A. Granovsky, K. Shin, P. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Mesoporous photonic crystals for sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE6369, 63690B, 63690B–5 (2006).
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S. M. Abrarov, T. W. Kim, and T. W. Kang, “Equations for filling factor estimation in opal matrix: Addendum to [Opt. Commun. 259, 383 (2006)],” Opt. Commun.264(1), 240–246 (2006).
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M. Allard, E. H. Sargent, E. Kumacheva, and O. Kalinina, “Characterization of internal order of colloidal crystals by optical diffraction,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(1/3), 27–36 (2002).
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R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

J. Shin, P. V. Braun, and W. Lee, “Fast response photonic crystal pH sensor based on templated photo-polymerized hydrogel inverse opal,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.150(1), 183–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leone, C.

M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S.

S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Y. Yang and W. B. Liau, “Environmental responses of polyaniline inverse opals: Application to gas sensing,” Synth. Met.160(7–8), 609–614 (2010).
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Lim, P.

A. Baryshev, R. Fujikawa, A. Khanikaev, A. Granovsky, K. Shin, P. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Mesoporous photonic crystals for sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE6369, 63690B, 63690B–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loock, H.-P.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
[CrossRef]

López, C.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López and C. López, “High-energy optical response of artificial opals,” Phys. Rev. B70(3), 035108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

López-García, M.

S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Z. Pan, J. Ma, J. Yan, M. Zhou, and J. Gao, “Response of inverse-opal hydrogels to alcohols,” J. Mater. Chem.22(5), 2018–2025 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Macagnano, A.

A. Bearzotti, A. Macagnano, S. Pantalei, E. Zampetti, I. Venditti, I. Fratoddi, and M. V. Russo, “Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(47), 474207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mackey, G.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

Marabelli, F.

V. Morandi, F. Marabelli, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, and D. Comoretto, “Colloidal photonic crystals doped with gold nanoparticles: spectroscopy and optical switching properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2779–2786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, and D. Comoretto, “Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Pacheco, R.

C. Alvarez-Lorenzo, H. Hiratani, J. L. Gómez-Amoza, R. Martínez-Pacheco, C. Souto, and A. Concheiro, “Soft contact lenses capable of sustained delivery of timolol,” J. Pharm. Sci.91(10), 2182–2192 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzillo, M. C.

G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meneghetti, M.

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, M. Cucini, and D. Comoretto, “In situ tuning of a photonic band gap with laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Morandi, F. Marabelli, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, and D. Comoretto, “Colloidal photonic crystals doped with gold nanoparticles: spectroscopy and optical switching properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2779–2786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, J. F. Bertone, P. Jiang, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Optical properties of planar colloidal crystals: Dynamical diffraction and the scalar wave approximation,” J. Chem. Phys.111(1), 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

Montenegro, B. S. M.

P. C. A. Jerónimo, A. N. Araújo, M. Conceição B S M Montenegro, and B. S. M. Montenegro, “Optical sensors and biosensors based on sol-gel films,” Talanta72(1), 13–27 (2007).
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V. Morandi, F. Marabelli, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, and D. Comoretto, “Colloidal photonic crystals doped with gold nanoparticles: spectroscopy and optical switching properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2779–2786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munro, C. H.

J. H. Holtz, J. S. W. Holtz, C. H. Munro, and S. A. Asher, “Intelligent polymerized crystalline colloidal arrays: novel chemical sensor materials,” Anal. Chem.70(4), 780–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muscatello, M. M.

M. M. Muscatello, L. E. Stunja, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized crystalline colloidal array sensing of high glucose concentrations,” Anal. Chem.81(12), 4978–4986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muscatello, M. M. W.

M. M. W. Muscatello and S. A. Asher, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) rehydratable photonic crystal sensor materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(8), 1186–1193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Photonic crystal sensors: An overview,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(3), 89–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, I. D.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater.29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishijima, Y.

Oliveri, R. L.

M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Holtz, J. Weissman, G. Pan, and S. A. Asher, “Mesoscopically periodic photonic crystal materials for linear and nonlinear optics and chemical sensing,” Material Research Soc.23, 44–50 (1998).

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, J. Ma, J. Yan, M. Zhou, and J. Gao, “Response of inverse-opal hydrogels to alcohols,” J. Mater. Chem.22(5), 2018–2025 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. Bearzotti, A. Macagnano, S. Pantalei, E. Zampetti, I. Venditti, I. Fratoddi, and M. V. Russo, “Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(47), 474207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pasquazi, A.

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, M. Cucini, and D. Comoretto, “In situ tuning of a photonic band gap with laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, and D. Comoretto, “Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
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Poulin, A.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
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R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
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Prokofiev, A. V.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects,” Il Nuovo Cimento D.17(11–12), 1349–1354 (1995).
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S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
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Russo, M. V.

A. Bearzotti, A. Macagnano, S. Pantalei, E. Zampetti, I. Venditti, I. Fratoddi, and M. V. Russo, “Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(47), 474207 (2008).
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V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects,” Il Nuovo Cimento D.17(11–12), 1349–1354 (1995).
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V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects,” Il Nuovo Cimento D.17(11–12), 1349–1354 (1995).
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Sanfilippo, D.

G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sanseverino, S. R.

M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sapienza, R.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
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Saunders, J.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
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J. Shin, P. V. Braun, and W. Lee, “Fast response photonic crystal pH sensor based on templated photo-polymerized hydrogel inverse opal,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.150(1), 183–190 (2010).
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A. Baryshev, R. Fujikawa, A. Khanikaev, A. Granovsky, K. Shin, P. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Mesoporous photonic crystals for sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE6369, 63690B, 63690B–5 (2006).
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E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, and D. Comoretto, “Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Souto, C.

C. Alvarez-Lorenzo, H. Hiratani, J. L. Gómez-Amoza, R. Martínez-Pacheco, C. Souto, and A. Concheiro, “Soft contact lenses capable of sustained delivery of timolol,” J. Pharm. Sci.91(10), 2182–2192 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
[CrossRef]

Stivala, S.

G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, M. Cucini, and D. Comoretto, “In situ tuning of a photonic band gap with laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stunja, L. E.

M. M. Muscatello, L. E. Stunja, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized crystalline colloidal array sensing of high glucose concentrations,” Anal. Chem.81(12), 4978–4986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sultanova, N. G.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater.29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, T.

Taormina, A.

M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
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Ueno, K.

Venditti, I.

A. Bearzotti, A. Macagnano, S. Pantalei, E. Zampetti, I. Venditti, I. Fratoddi, and M. V. Russo, “Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(47), 474207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vijaya, R.

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Photonic crystal sensors: An overview,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(3), 89–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects,” Il Nuovo Cimento D.17(11–12), 1349–1354 (1995).
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Wang, J. Y.

J. Y. Wang, Y. Cao, Y. Feng, F. Yin, and J. P. Gao, “Multiresponsive inverse-opal hydrogels,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3865–3871 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, J.

J. Holtz, J. Weissman, G. Pan, and S. A. Asher, “Mesoscopically periodic photonic crystal materials for linear and nonlinear optics and chemical sensing,” Material Research Soc.23, 44–50 (1998).

Xu, X.

X. Xu, A. V. Goponenko, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized PolyHEMA photonic crystals: pH and ethanol sensor materials,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(10), 3113–3119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, J.

Z. Pan, J. Ma, J. Yan, M. Zhou, and J. Gao, “Response of inverse-opal hydrogels to alcohols,” J. Mater. Chem.22(5), 2018–2025 (2012).
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L. Y. Yang and W. B. Liau, “Optical responses of polyaniline inverse opals to chemicals,” Synth. Met.160(17–18), 1809–1814 (2010).
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L. Y. Yang and W. B. Liau, “Environmental responses of polyaniline inverse opals: Application to gas sensing,” Synth. Met.160(7–8), 609–614 (2010).
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Yang, X.

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, F.

J. Y. Wang, Y. Cao, Y. Feng, F. Yin, and J. P. Gao, “Multiresponsive inverse-opal hydrogels,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3865–3871 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zampetti, E.

A. Bearzotti, A. Macagnano, S. Pantalei, E. Zampetti, I. Venditti, I. Fratoddi, and M. V. Russo, “Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(47), 474207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (Istanbul, 2011), pp. 85–86.
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

Z. Pan, J. Ma, J. Yan, M. Zhou, and J. Gao, “Response of inverse-opal hydrogels to alcohols,” J. Mater. Chem.22(5), 2018–2025 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

M. M. W. Muscatello and S. A. Asher, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) rehydratable photonic crystal sensor materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(8), 1186–1193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Morandi, F. Marabelli, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, and D. Comoretto, “Colloidal photonic crystals doped with gold nanoparticles: spectroscopy and optical switching properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2779–2786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Wang, Y. Cao, Y. Feng, F. Yin, and J. P. Gao, “Multiresponsive inverse-opal hydrogels,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3865–3871 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (3)

J. H. Holtz, J. S. W. Holtz, C. H. Munro, and S. A. Asher, “Intelligent polymerized crystalline colloidal arrays: novel chemical sensor materials,” Anal. Chem.70(4), 780–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Muscatello, L. E. Stunja, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized crystalline colloidal array sensing of high glucose concentrations,” Anal. Chem.81(12), 4978–4986 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti, M. Cucini, and D. Comoretto, “In situ tuning of a photonic band gap with laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. Bao, J. Shen, H. Jiang, L. Peng, X. Yang, C. Li, and G. Chen, “Ethanol-assisted multi-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol) photonic crystal sensor,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(19), 5530–5532 (2011).
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P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
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M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca, R. L. Oliveri, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, S. Stivala, S. R. Sanseverino, and C. Leone, “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: A material comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(3), 368–376 (2010).
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V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects,” Il Nuovo Cimento D.17(11–12), 1349–1354 (1995).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

X. Xu, A. V. Goponenko, and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized PolyHEMA photonic crystals: pH and ethanol sensor materials,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(10), 3113–3119 (2008).
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D. M. Mittleman, J. F. Bertone, P. Jiang, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Optical properties of planar colloidal crystals: Dynamical diffraction and the scalar wave approximation,” J. Chem. Phys.111(1), 345–354 (1999).
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J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Z. Pan, J. Ma, J. Yan, M. Zhou, and J. Gao, “Response of inverse-opal hydrogels to alcohols,” J. Mater. Chem.22(5), 2018–2025 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

C. Alvarez-Lorenzo, H. Hiratani, J. L. Gómez-Amoza, R. Martínez-Pacheco, C. Souto, and A. Concheiro, “Soft contact lenses capable of sustained delivery of timolol,” J. Pharm. Sci.91(10), 2182–2192 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

A. Bearzotti, A. Macagnano, S. Pantalei, E. Zampetti, I. Venditti, I. Fratoddi, and M. V. Russo, “Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(47), 474207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. (1)

S. Achelle, Á. Blanco, M. López-García, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. López, and J. Rodríguez-López, “New poly(phenylene-vinylene)-methyl methacrylate-based photonic crystals,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.48(12), 2659–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Material Research Soc. (1)

J. Holtz, J. Weissman, G. Pan, and S. A. Asher, “Mesoscopically periodic photonic crystal materials for linear and nonlinear optics and chemical sensing,” Material Research Soc.23, 44–50 (1998).

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S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater.29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
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M. Allard, E. H. Sargent, E. Kumacheva, and O. Kalinina, “Characterization of internal order of colloidal crystals by optical diffraction,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(1/3), 27–36 (2002).
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Phys. Rev. B (2)

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, and D. Comoretto, “Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López and C. López, “High-energy optical response of artificial opals,” Phys. Rev. B70(3), 035108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

G. Adamo, D. Agrò, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, C. Giaconia, A. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of N-on-P and P-on-N silicon photomultipliers in the continuous wave regime,” Proc. SPIE8629, 86291A, 86291A–9 (2013).
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A. Baryshev, R. Fujikawa, A. Khanikaev, A. Granovsky, K. Shin, P. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Mesoporous photonic crystals for sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE6369, 63690B, 63690B–5 (2006).
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Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Photonic crystal sensors: An overview,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(3), 89–134 (2010).
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Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

J. Shin, P. V. Braun, and W. Lee, “Fast response photonic crystal pH sensor based on templated photo-polymerized hydrogel inverse opal,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.150(1), 183–190 (2010).
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R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, “Gas sensing using polymer-functionalized deformable Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.182, 45–52 (2013).
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Synth. Met. (2)

L. Y. Yang and W. B. Liau, “Optical responses of polyaniline inverse opals to chemicals,” Synth. Met.160(17–18), 1809–1814 (2010).
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L. Y. Yang and W. B. Liau, “Environmental responses of polyaniline inverse opals: Application to gas sensing,” Synth. Met.160(7–8), 609–614 (2010).
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P. C. A. Jerónimo, A. N. Araújo, M. Conceição B S M Montenegro, and B. S. M. Montenegro, “Optical sensors and biosensors based on sol-gel films,” Talanta72(1), 13–27 (2007).
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O. Okay, “General Properties of Hydrogels,” in Hydrogel Sensors and Actuators, G. Gerlach and K.-F. Arndt, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2009).

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M.A. Sabatino, D. Spigolon, R. Pernice, G.Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. D’Acquisto, A.C. Busacca, C. Dispenza, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Periodically nanostructured hydrogels responsive to ethanol vapors.”

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G. Eranna, R. Paris, and T. Doll, “Sensor response time evaluations of trace hydrogen gaseous species with platinum using Kelvin Probe,” in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2012 (Taipei, 2012), pp. 1–4.

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D. Comoretto, V. Robbiano, G. Canazza, L. Boarino, G. Panzarasa, M. Laus, and K. Sparnacci, “Photoactive spherical colloids for opal photonic crystals,” Polym Compos., doi: (2013)
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of the evaporation-induced vertical deposition. (b) Photograph of the fabricated bare opal. (c) Scanning electron microphotograph of the periodic structure of the sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurements set-up.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra at varying angles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bragg peak wavelength versus angle of incidence: theoretical values (red curve) and experimental data (black circles). Blue lines are the error bars ( ± 1 nm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response of the opal to water vapor: (a) Transmission spectra and (b) Bragg peak wavelength versus time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission spectra and (b) Bragg peak wavelength versus time at a mole fraction of 9.61 × 10−3. RS in the legend stands for “reference spectrum”, corresponding to the water-saturated opal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bragg peak wavelength versus time at varying mole fractions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Transmission spectra and (b) Bragg peak wavelength at varying ethanol vapor concentrations after that the steady value has been reached. The inset in (a) shows a photograph of the infiltrated opal immediately after the measurement at ethanol vapor mole fraction of 24.7 × 10−3. The dashed blue line in (b) is the reference, i.e., the Bragg peak wavelength for the water-saturated opal.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Swelling degree at varying ethanol vapor concentrations. Dashed blue line refers to the water-saturated case.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measurement conditions

Equations (6)

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λ B = 2 d 111 m n eff 2 sin 2 θ ,
d 111 = 2 3 D.
n eff 2 =0.74 n PS 2 +0.26 n air 2 ,
n eff,i = λ B 2 2 3 D .
n eff,i 2 0.74 n PS 2 +f n hydr 2 +(0.26f) n air 2 ,
λ B =2 2 3 D D S D 0 n eff .

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