Abstract

A single-phase full-color emitting Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ phosphor was synthesized by solid-state reaction for the first time. The characteristic luminescence property of Ce3+ is investigated by Gauss fitting. Energy transfer from Ce3+ to Mn2+ and Ce3+ to Tb3+ in Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2) is detailedly studied by luminescence spectra, energy-transfer efficiency and lifetimes. Through effective energy transfer, the wavelength-tunable warm white light can be realized with superior chromaticity coordinates of (0.35, 0.32), high color rendering index (Ra = 89) and low correlated color temperature (CCT = 4373K) by coupling the emission bands centered at 441, 542 and 649 nm attributed to the contribution from Ce3+, Mn2+ and Tb3+, respectively. The results indicate the white Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2):Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ phosphor can serve as a promising candidate for phosphor-converted white-light UV-LEDs.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110–091112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J.5(2), 2201011 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency of III-Nitride Light Emitting Diodes with Self-Assembled Colloidal-based Microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. Huang, Y. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kiumra, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2931–2933 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Yamamoto, “White LED phosphors: the next step,” Proc. SPIE7598, 759808, 759808-10 (2010).
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  13. L. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, Y. S. Luo, X. J. Wang, and J. H. Zhang, “Enriching red emission of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ by codoping Pr3+ and Cr3+ for improving color rendering of white LEDs,” Opt. Express18(24), 25177–25182 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. R. Liu, C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and R. S. Liu, “ZnB2O4:Bi3+,Eu3+:a highly efficient, red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Express18(3), 2946–2951 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Mater. Express2(1), 92–102 (2012).
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  18. C. Chang and T. Chen, “White light generation under violet-blue excitation from tunable green-to-red emitting Ca2MgSi2O7: Eu, Mn through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. S. Sanayea and B. S. Dhabekar, “Energy transfer process in CaSO4: Tb, Ce phosphor,” J. Lumin.105(1), 1–8 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Chang and T. Chen, “Sr3B2O6: Ce3+, Eu2+: A potential single-phased white-emitting borate phosphor for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081902–081904 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Huang, X. Wang, H. S. Lee, E. Cho, K. Jang, and Y. Tao, “Synthesis, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet spectroscopy of Ce3+ ion doped olgite Na(Sr, Ba)PO4,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(24), 7821–7825 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Shinde, S. J. Dhoble, H. C. Swart, and K. Park, “Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting,” Springer Ser. Mater. Sci.174, 1–265 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. C. Larson and R. B. Von Dreele, “General Structure Analysis System (GSAS),” Los Alamos Nat. Lab., Report, LAUR 86–748, 2000.
  24. S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation of Some Ce-Activated Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.47(12), 5139–5145 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. G. Van Uitert, “An empirical relation fitting the position in energy of the lower d-band edge for Eu2+ or Ce3+ in various compounds,” J. Lumin.29, 1–9 (1984).
  27. P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.21(4), 171–219 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. Ruelle, M. P. Thi, and C. Fouassier, “Cathodoluminescent properties and energy transfer in red calcium sulfide phosphors CaS: Eu, Mn,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 9A), 2786–2790 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. J. Dexter, “A Theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids,” J. Chem. Phys.21(5), 836–850 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. I. Paulose, G. Jose, V. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, and M. K. R. Warrier, “Sensitized fluorescence of Ce3+/Mn2+ system in phosphate glass,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(5), 841–846 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Guo, Y. J. Huang, H. P. You, M. Yang, Y. H. Song, K. Liu, and Y. H. Zheng, “Ca9Lu(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: a potential single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor suitable for white-light-emitting diodes,” Inorg. Chem.49(23), 10907–10913 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C. H. Huang, T. W. Kuo, and T. M. Chen, “Novel red-emitting phosphor Ca9Y(PO4)7:Ce3+,Mn2+ with energy transfer for fluorescent lamp application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(5), 1395–1399 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. S. McCamy, “Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates,” Color Res. Appl.17(2), 142–144 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hona, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.431(1-2), 298–302 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J.5(2), 2201011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. Huang, Y. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Mater. Express2(1), 92–102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, T. Chan, W. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Chiu, Y. Yeh, and T. Chen, “Crystal structure of blue–white–yellow color-tunable Ca4Si2O7F2:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor and investigation of color tunability through energy transfer for single-phase white-light near-ultraviolet LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(38), 20210–20216 (2012).

K. Shinde, S. J. Dhoble, H. C. Swart, and K. Park, “Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting,” Springer Ser. Mater. Sci.174, 1–265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (6)

W. R. Liu, C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and R. S. Liu, “ZnB2O4:Bi3+,Eu3+:a highly efficient, red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Express18(3), 2946–2951 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, Y. S. Luo, X. J. Wang, and J. H. Zhang, “Enriching red emission of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ by codoping Pr3+ and Cr3+ for improving color rendering of white LEDs,” Opt. Express18(24), 25177–25182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yamamoto, “White LED phosphors: the next step,” Proc. SPIE7598, 759808, 759808-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Guo, Y. J. Huang, H. P. You, M. Yang, Y. H. Song, K. Liu, and Y. H. Zheng, “Ca9Lu(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: a potential single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor suitable for white-light-emitting diodes,” Inorg. Chem.49(23), 10907–10913 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Huang, T. W. Kuo, and T. M. Chen, “Novel red-emitting phosphor Ca9Y(PO4)7:Ce3+,Mn2+ with energy transfer for fluorescent lamp application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(5), 1395–1399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency of III-Nitride Light Emitting Diodes with Self-Assembled Colloidal-based Microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hona, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.431(1-2), 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110–091112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang and T. Chen, “White light generation under violet-blue excitation from tunable green-to-red emitting Ca2MgSi2O7: Eu, Mn through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang and T. Chen, “Sr3B2O6: Ce3+, Eu2+: A potential single-phased white-emitting borate phosphor for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081902–081904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. Wang, H. S. Lee, E. Cho, K. Jang, and Y. Tao, “Synthesis, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet spectroscopy of Ce3+ ion doped olgite Na(Sr, Ba)PO4,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(24), 7821–7825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kiumra, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2931–2933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. S. Sanayea and B. S. Dhabekar, “Energy transfer process in CaSO4: Tb, Ce phosphor,” J. Lumin.105(1), 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Paulose, G. Jose, V. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, and M. K. R. Warrier, “Sensitized fluorescence of Ce3+/Mn2+ system in phosphate glass,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(5), 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. C. Larson and R. B. Von Dreele, “General Structure Analysis System (GSAS),” Los Alamos Nat. Lab., Report, LAUR 86–748, 2000.

1998 (1)

P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.21(4), 171–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

N. Ruelle, M. P. Thi, and C. Fouassier, “Cathodoluminescent properties and energy transfer in red calcium sulfide phosphors CaS: Eu, Mn,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 9A), 2786–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. S. McCamy, “Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates,” Color Res. Appl.17(2), 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

L. G. Van Uitert, “An empirical relation fitting the position in energy of the lower d-band edge for Eu2+ or Ce3+ in various compounds,” J. Lumin.29, 1–9 (1984).

1967 (1)

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation of Some Ce-Activated Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.47(12), 5139–5145 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. J. Dexter, “A Theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids,” J. Chem. Phys.21(5), 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Akselrud, L. G.

S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110–091112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency of III-Nitride Light Emitting Diodes with Self-Assembled Colloidal-based Microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation of Some Ce-Activated Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.47(12), 5139–5145 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bril, A.

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation of Some Ce-Activated Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.47(12), 5139–5145 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Carrillo-Cabrera, W.

S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T.

C. Huang, T. Chan, W. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Chiu, Y. Yeh, and T. Chen, “Crystal structure of blue–white–yellow color-tunable Ca4Si2O7F2:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor and investigation of color tunability through energy transfer for single-phase white-light near-ultraviolet LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(38), 20210–20216 (2012).

Chang, C.

C. Chang and T. Chen, “Sr3B2O6: Ce3+, Eu2+: A potential single-phased white-emitting borate phosphor for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081902–081904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang and T. Chen, “White light generation under violet-blue excitation from tunable green-to-red emitting Ca2MgSi2O7: Eu, Mn through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, H. C.

Chen, K. J.

Chen, S.

S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

C. Huang, T. Chan, W. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Chiu, Y. Yeh, and T. Chen, “Crystal structure of blue–white–yellow color-tunable Ca4Si2O7F2:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor and investigation of color tunability through energy transfer for single-phase white-light near-ultraviolet LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(38), 20210–20216 (2012).

C. Chang and T. Chen, “Sr3B2O6: Ce3+, Eu2+: A potential single-phased white-emitting borate phosphor for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081902–081904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang and T. Chen, “White light generation under violet-blue excitation from tunable green-to-red emitting Ca2MgSi2O7: Eu, Mn through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

C. H. Huang, T. W. Kuo, and T. M. Chen, “Novel red-emitting phosphor Ca9Y(PO4)7:Ce3+,Mn2+ with energy transfer for fluorescent lamp application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(5), 1395–1399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. J.

Chiang, C. C.

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hona, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.431(1-2), 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y.

C. Huang, T. Chan, W. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Chiu, Y. Yeh, and T. Chen, “Crystal structure of blue–white–yellow color-tunable Ca4Si2O7F2:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor and investigation of color tunability through energy transfer for single-phase white-light near-ultraviolet LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(38), 20210–20216 (2012).

Chiu, Y. C.

Cho, E.

Y. Huang, X. Wang, H. S. Lee, E. Cho, K. Jang, and Y. Tao, “Synthesis, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet spectroscopy of Ce3+ ion doped olgite Na(Sr, Ba)PO4,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(24), 7821–7825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. C.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2931–2933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. J.

D. J. Dexter, “A Theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids,” J. Chem. Phys.21(5), 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dhabekar, B. S.

S. S. Sanayea and B. S. Dhabekar, “Energy transfer process in CaSO4: Tb, Ce phosphor,” J. Lumin.105(1), 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dhoble, S. J.

K. Shinde, S. J. Dhoble, H. C. Swart, and K. Park, “Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting,” Springer Ser. Mater. Sci.174, 1–265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

Ee, Y.

R. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110–091112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency of III-Nitride Light Emitting Diodes with Self-Assembled Colloidal-based Microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D.

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fouassier, C.

N. Ruelle, M. P. Thi, and C. Fouassier, “Cathodoluminescent properties and energy transfer in red calcium sulfide phosphors CaS: Eu, Mn,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 9A), 2786–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency of III-Nitride Light Emitting Diodes with Self-Assembled Colloidal-based Microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, N.

N. Guo, Y. J. Huang, H. P. You, M. Yang, Y. H. Song, K. Liu, and Y. H. Zheng, “Ca9Lu(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: a potential single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor suitable for white-light-emitting diodes,” Inorg. Chem.49(23), 10907–10913 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z. D.

Hirosaki, N.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kiumra, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, S.

S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, P. H.

P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.21(4), 171–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hona, M. H.

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hona, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.431(1-2), 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. Huang, Y. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, T. Chan, W. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Chiu, Y. Yeh, and T. Chen, “Crystal structure of blue–white–yellow color-tunable Ca4Si2O7F2:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor and investigation of color tunability through energy transfer for single-phase white-light near-ultraviolet LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(38), 20210–20216 (2012).

Huang, C. H.

C. H. Huang, T. W. Kuo, and T. M. Chen, “Novel red-emitting phosphor Ca9Y(PO4)7:Ce3+,Mn2+ with energy transfer for fluorescent lamp application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(5), 1395–1399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. Huang, Y. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, X. Wang, H. S. Lee, E. Cho, K. Jang, and Y. Tao, “Synthesis, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet spectroscopy of Ce3+ ion doped olgite Na(Sr, Ba)PO4,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(24), 7821–7825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. J.

N. Guo, Y. J. Huang, H. P. You, M. Yang, Y. H. Song, K. Liu, and Y. H. Zheng, “Ca9Lu(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: a potential single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor suitable for white-light-emitting diodes,” Inorg. Chem.49(23), 10907–10913 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, C. W.

Jang, K.

Y. Huang, X. Wang, H. S. Lee, E. Cho, K. Jang, and Y. Tao, “Synthesis, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet spectroscopy of Ce3+ ion doped olgite Na(Sr, Ba)PO4,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(24), 7821–7825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. M.

Jeon, P. E.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2931–2933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. Huang, Y. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ji, M.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Mater. Express2(1), 92–102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jose, G.

P. I. Paulose, G. Jose, V. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, and M. K. R. Warrier, “Sensitized fluorescence of Ce3+/Mn2+ system in phosphate glass,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(5), 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. C.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2931–2933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2931–2933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiumra, N.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kiumra, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kniep, R.

S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

Krames, M. R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency of III-Nitride Light Emitting Diodes with Self-Assembled Colloidal-based Microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Kuo, T. W.

C. H. Huang, T. W. Kuo, and T. M. Chen, “Novel red-emitting phosphor Ca9Y(PO4)7:Ce3+,Mn2+ with energy transfer for fluorescent lamp application,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(5), 1395–1399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, A. C.

A. C. Larson and R. B. Von Dreele, “General Structure Analysis System (GSAS),” Los Alamos Nat. Lab., Report, LAUR 86–748, 2000.

Lee, H. S.

Y. Huang, X. Wang, H. S. Lee, E. Cho, K. Jang, and Y. Tao, “Synthesis, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet spectroscopy of Ce3+ ion doped olgite Na(Sr, Ba)PO4,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(24), 7821–7825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

Liu, G.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J.5(2), 2201011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

N. Guo, Y. J. Huang, H. P. You, M. Yang, Y. H. Song, K. Liu, and Y. H. Zheng, “Ca9Lu(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: a potential single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor suitable for white-light-emitting diodes,” Inorg. Chem.49(23), 10907–10913 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, R. S.

Liu, W.

C. Huang, T. Chan, W. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Chiu, Y. Yeh, and T. Chen, “Crystal structure of blue–white–yellow color-tunable Ca4Si2O7F2:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor and investigation of color tunability through energy transfer for single-phase white-light near-ultraviolet LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(38), 20210–20216 (2012).

Liu, W. R.

Luo, Y. S.

McCamy, C. S.

C. S. McCamy, “Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates,” Color Res. Appl.17(2), 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mho, S. I.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2931–2933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitomo, M.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kiumra, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. Huang, Y. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. L.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2931–2933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.

K. Shinde, S. J. Dhoble, H. C. Swart, and K. Park, “Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting,” Springer Ser. Mater. Sci.174, 1–265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paulose, P. I.

P. I. Paulose, G. Jose, V. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, and M. K. R. Warrier, “Sensitized fluorescence of Ce3+/Mn2+ system in phosphate glass,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(5), 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prots, Y.

S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rack, P. D.

P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.21(4), 171–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruelle, N.

N. Ruelle, M. P. Thi, and C. Fouassier, “Cathodoluminescent properties and energy transfer in red calcium sulfide phosphors CaS: Eu, Mn,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 9A), 2786–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J. H.

Sakuma, K.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kiumra, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanayea, S. S.

S. S. Sanayea and B. S. Dhabekar, “Energy transfer process in CaSO4: Tb, Ce phosphor,” J. Lumin.105(1), 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Satter, M.

S. Choi, M. Ji, J. Kim, H. Kim, M. Satter, P. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U.

S. Chen, S. Hoffmann, W. Carrillo-Cabrera, L. G. Akselrud, Y. Prots, U. Schwarz, J. T. Zhao, and R. Kniep, “Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5](BO2): Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal structure,” J. Solid State Chem.183(3), 658–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sher, C. W.

Shinde, K.

K. Shinde, S. J. Dhoble, H. C. Swart, and K. Park, “Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting,” Springer Ser. Mater. Sci.174, 1–265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, D.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. Huang, Y. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

N. Guo, Y. J. Huang, H. P. You, M. Yang, Y. H. Song, K. Liu, and Y. H. Zheng, “Ca9Lu(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: a potential single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor suitable for white-light-emitting diodes,” Inorg. Chem.49(23), 10907–10913 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, J.

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20−2−1) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. Huang, Y. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Swart, H. C.

K. Shinde, S. J. Dhoble, H. C. Swart, and K. Park, “Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting,” Springer Ser. Mater. Sci.174, 1–265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J.5(2), 2201011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J.5(2), 2201011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency of III-Nitride Light Emitting Diodes with Self-Assembled Colloidal-based Microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110–091112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y.

Y. Huang, X. Wang, H. S. Lee, E. Cho, K. Jang, and Y. Tao, “Synthesis, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet spectroscopy of Ce3+ ion doped olgite Na(Sr, Ba)PO4,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(24), 7821–7825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thi, M. P.

N. Ruelle, M. P. Thi, and C. Fouassier, “Cathodoluminescent properties and energy transfer in red calcium sulfide phosphors CaS: Eu, Mn,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 9A), 2786–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, V.

P. I. Paulose, G. Jose, V. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, and M. K. R. Warrier, “Sensitized fluorescence of Ce3+/Mn2+ system in phosphate glass,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(5), 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency of III-Nitride Light Emitting Diodes with Self-Assembled Colloidal-based Microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. S.

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hona, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.431(1-2), 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishnan, N. V.

P. I. Paulose, G. Jose, V. Thomas, N. V. Unnikrishnan, and M. K. R. Warrier, “Sensitized fluorescence of Ce3+/Mn2+ system in phosphate glass,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(5), 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

L. G. Van Uitert, “An empirical relation fitting the position in energy of the lower d-band edge for Eu2+ or Ce3+ in various compounds,” J. Lumin.29, 1–9 (1984).

Von Dreele, R. B.

A. C. Larson and R. B. Von Dreele, “General Structure Analysis System (GSAS),” Los Alamos Nat. Lab., Report, LAUR 86–748, 2000.

Wang, B.

Wang, C. H.

Wang, D.

C. Huang, T. Chan, W. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Chiu, Y. Yeh, and T. Chen, “Crystal structure of blue–white–yellow color-tunable Ca4Si2O7F2:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor and investigation of color tunability through energy transfer for single-phase white-light near-ultraviolet LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(38), 20210–20216 (2012).

Wang, L.

Wang, X.

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Y. Huang, X. Wang, H. S. Lee, E. Cho, K. Jang, and Y. Tao, “Synthesis, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet spectroscopy of Ce3+ ion doped olgite Na(Sr, Ba)PO4,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(24), 7821–7825 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The experimental, calculated, and difference results of the XRD refinement of SPB host; (b) The representative XRD patterns of SPB: 0.03Ce3+, SPB: 0.03Ce3+, 0.05Mn2+ and SPB: 0.03Ce3+, 0.05Mn2+, 0.03Tb3+ samples. The calculated data of SPB is shown as reference..

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PLE and PL spectra of SPB: Ce3+ (a) and SPB: Mn2+ (b); The inset shows the relationship of the PL intensity of Ce3+ with Ce3+ doping concentration (in Fig. a) and the overlap between the PL of Ce3+ and the PLE of Mn2+ (in Fig. b)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PL spectra of SPB:0.03Ce3+, xMn2+; (b) Relative intensity of the blue and red emission bands; (c) Decay curves of Ce3+ for SPB:0.03Ce3+, xMn2+ monitored at 421 nm; (d) The correlation between ηT/τ and x under 354 nm excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) PLE spectrum of SPB: Tb3+ and PL spectrum of SPB: Ce3+; (b) DRS of SPB host, SPB:Ce3+, Mn2+ and SPB:Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+; (c) PL spectra of SPB:0.03Ce3+,0.05Mn2+, yTb3+; (d) Representation of the CIE chromaticity coordinates for SPB:0.03Ce3+, xMn2+ (point nos. 1-5), SPB:0.03Ce3+, 0.05Mn2+, yTb3+ (point nos. 6-9)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The temperature-dependent emission intensity of the optimized SPB: 0.03Ce3+, 0.05Mn2+, 0.02Tb3+ sample.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The main physicochemical properties of the synthesized SPB serial phosphors.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ= A 1 τ 1 2 + A 2 τ 2 2 A 1 τ 1 + A 2 τ 2
P(R) Q A R b τ D f D (E) F A (E) E C dE
η T =1 τ S τ S0
R CeMn =2 [ 3V 4π x c N ] 1/3
Φ= E c (1A) E b L a A
A= L (λ) 0 L i (λ) L 0

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