Abstract

We present high refractive index optical metamaterials assembled via a microfluidic evaporation technique. This technique enables fabrication of truly three-dimensional bulk samples from a suspension of nanoparticles with a number of layers well in excess of 600, surpassing rival techniques by at least an order of magnitude. In addition to their large dimensions, the assembled metamaterials show a high degree of homogeneity and warrant an easy and rapid optical characterization using spectroscopic ellipsometry. We believe that the suggested inexpensive method considerably reduces the complexity in assembling optical metamaterials and opens new avenues in engineering bulk optical devices by choice of nanoparticle composition and geometry.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).
  2. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature 497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Mühlig, C. Rockstuhl, V. Yannopapas, T. Bürgi, N. Shalkevich, and F. Lederer, “Optical properties of a fabricated self-assembled bottom-up bulk metamaterial,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9607–9616 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter 8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  16. G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
    [Crossref]

2013 (3)

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature 497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter 8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Mühlig, C. Rockstuhl, V. Yannopapas, T. Bürgi, N. Shalkevich, and F. Lederer, “Optical properties of a fabricated self-assembled bottom-up bulk metamaterial,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9607–9616 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

2009 (2)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Abashin, M.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature 497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature 497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarez-Puebla, R. A.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auld, K.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barois, P.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benoit, D.

J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bürgi, T.

Chau, K. J.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature 497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conner, D.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Druffel, T.

K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duguet, E.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández-López, C.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuji, H.

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, J.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorov, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iazzolino, A.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Juni, N.

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanarian, G.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kravets, V.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krogman, K. C.

K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

Leng, J.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter 8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lezec, H. J.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature 497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. Q.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liz-Marzán, L. M.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malassis, L.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massé, P.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mateo-Mateo, C.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merlin, A.

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter 8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[Crossref]

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Morin, P.

J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mornet, S.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mosley, D. W.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mühlig, S.

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pastoriza-Santos, I.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedicini, A.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Juste, J.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravaine, S.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regolini, J. L.

J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salmon, J.-B.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter 8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[Crossref]

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N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalkevich, N.

Simon, E. S.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

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C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

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K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thorsen, D.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tréguer-Delapierre, M.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsutsumi, N.

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
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C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisbecker, P.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wills, M.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature 497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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Langmuir (3)

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir 29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir 25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir 29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
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Nanotechnology (1)

K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

Nature (2)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature 497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (1)

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter 8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications, John Wiley and Sons Inc (2007).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of the nanoparticles and bulk optical metamaterials. TEM images of the individual metallic nanoresonators: (a) Ag cubes, (b) Ag core-shells (©Nanocomposix), (c) Au spheres and (d) Au core-shells. Typical SEM images of the metamaterials assembled via microfluidic evaporation: (e) slab of Ag core-shells and (f) close-up side-view of the edge of a slab of the assembled Au spheres.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical Properties of the bulk optical metamaterials. Each graph shows the spectral evolution of the measured real (blue) and imaginary (red) part of the optical index N = n + ik for assembled (a) Ag cubes, (b) Ag core-shells, (c) Au spheres and (d) Au core-shells. Dots represent the values obtained by measuring ρ(λ). The continuous lines represent the fits using the Lorentz-oscillator models for the dielectric constant of the metamaterial.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 OMM Parameters fitted by the spectroscopic model. (Frequencies are given in eV)

Equations (2)

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N=sinθ { 1+ ( 1ρ 1+ρ ) 2 tan 2 θ } 1/2 ,
ε(ω)= ε + j=1 2 f j ω 0j 2 ω 0j 2 ω 2 +i γ j ω ,

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