Abstract

We present high refractive index optical metamaterials assembled via a microfluidic evaporation technique. This technique enables fabrication of truly three-dimensional bulk samples from a suspension of nanoparticles with a number of layers well in excess of 600, surpassing rival techniques by at least an order of magnitude. In addition to their large dimensions, the assembled metamaterials show a high degree of homogeneity and warrant an easy and rapid optical characterization using spectroscopic ellipsometry. We believe that the suggested inexpensive method considerably reduces the complexity in assembling optical metamaterials and opens new avenues in engineering bulk optical devices by choice of nanoparticle composition and geometry.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics5, 523–530 (2011).
  2. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Mühlig, C. Rockstuhl, V. Yannopapas, T. Bürgi, N. Shalkevich, and F. Lederer, “Optical properties of a fabricated self-assembled bottom-up bulk metamaterial,” Opt. Express19(10), 9607–9616 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev.13(2), 104–110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab.47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications, John Wiley and Sons Inc (2007).
  16. G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi15(2), 627–637 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Mühlig, C. Rockstuhl, V. Yannopapas, T. Bürgi, N. Shalkevich, and F. Lederer, “Optical properties of a fabricated self-assembled bottom-up bulk metamaterial,” Opt. Express19(10), 9607–9616 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics5, 523–530 (2011).

2009 (2)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab.47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev.13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez-Puebla, R. A.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auld, K.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barois, P.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benoit, D.

J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab.47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bürgi, T.

Chau, K. J.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conner, D.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druffel, T.

K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duguet, E.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández-López, C.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuji, H.

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev.13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, J.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorov, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iazzolino, A.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Juni, N.

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev.13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanarian, G.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kravets, V.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krogman, K. C.

K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

Leng, J.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. Q.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liz-Marzán, L. M.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malassis, L.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massé, P.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mateo-Mateo, C.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merlin, A.

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morin, P.

J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab.47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mornet, S.

L. Malassis, P. Massé, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Mornet, P. Weisbecker, V. Kravets, A. Grigorenko, and P. Barois, “Bottom-up fabrication and optical characterization of dense films of meta-atoms made of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles,” Langmuir29(5), 1551–1561 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosley, D. W.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mühlig, S.

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev.13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pastoriza-Santos, I.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedicini, A.

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Juste, J.

C. Fernández-López, C. Mateo-Mateo, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Highly controlled silica coating of PEG-capped metal nanoparticles and preparation of SERS-encoded particles,” Langmuir25(24), 13894–13899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravaine, S.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regolini, J. L.

J. L. Regolini, D. Benoit, and P. Morin, “Passivation issues in active pixel CMOS image sensors,” Microelectron. Reliab.47(4-5), 739–742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmon, J.-B.

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Massé, S. Mornet, E. Duguet, M. Tréguer-Delapierre, S. Ravaine, A. Iazzolino, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Synthesis of size-monodisperse spherical Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and 3-D assembly assisted by microfluidics,” Langmuir29(6), 1790–1795 (2013).
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K. C. Krogman, T. Druffel, and M. K. Sunkara, “Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology16(7), S338–S343 (2005).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics5, 523–530 (2011).

Nature (2)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, A. Agrawal, M. Abashin, K. J. Chau, and H. J. Lezec, “All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light,” Nature497(7450), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Nakamura, H. Fuji, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev.13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorov, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structures of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. W. Mosley, K. Auld, D. Conner, J. Gregory, X. Q. Liu, A. Pedicini, D. Thorsen, M. Wills, G. Khanarian, and E. S. Simon, “High-performance encapsulants for ultra high-brightness LEDs,” Proc. SPIE6910, 691017, 691017-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
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Soft Matter (1)

A. Merlin, J.-B. Salmon, and J. Leng, “Microfluidic-assisted growth of colloidal crystals,” Soft Matter8(13), 3526–3537 (2012).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of the nanoparticles and bulk optical metamaterials. TEM images of the individual metallic nanoresonators: (a) Ag cubes, (b) Ag core-shells (©Nanocomposix), (c) Au spheres and (d) Au core-shells. Typical SEM images of the metamaterials assembled via microfluidic evaporation: (e) slab of Ag core-shells and (f) close-up side-view of the edge of a slab of the assembled Au spheres.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical Properties of the bulk optical metamaterials. Each graph shows the spectral evolution of the measured real (blue) and imaginary (red) part of the optical index N = n + ik for assembled (a) Ag cubes, (b) Ag core-shells, (c) Au spheres and (d) Au core-shells. Dots represent the values obtained by measuring ρ(λ). The continuous lines represent the fits using the Lorentz-oscillator models for the dielectric constant of the metamaterial.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 OMM Parameters fitted by the spectroscopic model. (Frequencies are given in eV)

Equations (2)

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N=sinθ { 1+ ( 1ρ 1+ρ ) 2 tan 2 θ } 1/2 ,
ε(ω)= ε + j=1 2 f j ω 0j 2 ω 0j 2 ω 2 +i γ j ω ,

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