Abstract

ZnO thin films with blue photoluminescence (PL) have been fabricated through Cu diffusion doping. A CuOx-ZnO mixture, and Cu/ZnO double layer, films were prepared on amorphous SiOx/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and electron beam (e-beam) deposition, respectively. After sequential oxygen annealing, CuOx-ZnO mixture films exhibited green emission centered at 523 nm. However, Cu/ZnO double layer films differed in producing a blue emission centered at 480 nm. Detailed analysis identified that this blue shift in the emission center resulted from increased blue emissions attributed to Cu dopants in the film by e-beam deposition. Luminescence intensity was increased to 6 cd/m2 for a sample annealed at 700 °C. Color points were close to the locus of points following the line of a black-body-radiator on the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram. The present results show that Cu-doped ZnO has strong potential as a cost effective phosphor for use in down converting LEDs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  4. D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Waller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett.1(4), 207–211 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and Sh. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Ma, S. Ma, H. Chen, X. Ai, and X. Huang, “Microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10036–10041 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Yang, S. Ma, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, F. F. Li, J. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Blue–green and red luminescence from ZnO/porous silicon and ZnO:Cu/porous silicon nanocomposite films,” Superlattices Microstruct.52(2), 210–220 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J.-H. Jeon, S.-Y. Jeong, and Ch.-R. Cho, “Heteroepitaxial relation and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films grown by using pulsed laser deposition,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.54(92), 858–862 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and Sh. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Yang, J.-S. Lin, F.-S. Juang, D.-C. Chou, M.-H. Chung, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “White light emitting diodes (LEDs) with good color rendering indices (CRI) and high luminous efficiencies by the encapsulation of mixed and double-deck phosphors,” Curr. Appl. Phys.13(5), 931–934 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, Ch.-K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2201011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Safi, R. Vinodkumar, R. J. Bose, V. N. Uvais, and V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, “Effect of Cu on the microstructure and electrical properties of Cu/ZnO thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp.551, 243–248 (2013).

2012

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, and M. M. Satter, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitrid visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).

F. M. Li, L. T. Bo, S. Y. Ma, X. L. Huang, L. G. Ma, J. Liu, X. L. Zhang, F. C. Yang, and Q. Zhao, “Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” Superlattices Microstruct.51(3), 332–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, S. Ma, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, F. F. Li, J. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Blue–green and red luminescence from ZnO/porous silicon and ZnO:Cu/porous silicon nanocomposite films,” Superlattices Microstruct.52(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Xu, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, and B. Li, “White LED with high color rendering index based on Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+ and ZnCdTe/CdSe quantum dot hybrid phosphor,” Mater. Lett.84, 24–26 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Kim, T.-H. Shin, K.-J. Yang, J. Jeong, and B. Choi, “Abstraction of blue photoluminescence in Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 012603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” J. Nat. Photonics Rev.7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ratchford, K. Dziatkowski, T. Hartsfield, X. Li, Y. Gao, and Z. Tang, “Photoluminescence dynamics of ensemble and individual CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with an alloyed core/shell interface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma, S. Ma, H. Chen, X. Ai, and X. Huang, “Microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10036–10041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jeon, S.-Y. Jeong, and Ch.-R. Cho, “Heteroepitaxial relation and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films grown by using pulsed laser deposition,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.54(92), 858–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. Chen, M. S. Bardley, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulvoić, “Inkjet-Printed quantum dot-polymer composites for full-color AC-driven displays,” Adv. Mater.21(21), 2151–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

X. Peng, J. Xu, H. Zang, B. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Structural and PL properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” J. Lumin.128(3), 297–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Yan, M. M. Al-Jassim, and S. H. Wei, “Doping of ZnO by group-IB elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 181912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Waller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett.1(4), 207–211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ai, X.

L. Ma, S. Ma, H. Chen, X. Ai, and X. Huang, “Microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10036–10041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Ya. I.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Al-Jassim, M. M.

Y. Yan, M. M. Al-Jassim, and S. H. Wei, “Doping of ZnO by group-IB elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 181912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Angadi, B.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bardley, M. S.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. Chen, M. S. Bardley, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulvoić, “Inkjet-Printed quantum dot-polymer composites for full-color AC-driven displays,” Adv. Mater.21(21), 2151–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” J. Nat. Photonics Rev.7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. Chen, M. S. Bardley, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulvoić, “Inkjet-Printed quantum dot-polymer composites for full-color AC-driven displays,” Adv. Mater.21(21), 2151–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bo, L. T.

F. M. Li, L. T. Bo, S. Y. Ma, X. L. Huang, L. G. Ma, J. Liu, X. L. Zhang, F. C. Yang, and Q. Zhao, “Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” Superlattices Microstruct.51(3), 332–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bose, R. J.

K. M. Safi, R. Vinodkumar, R. J. Bose, V. N. Uvais, and V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, “Effect of Cu on the microstructure and electrical properties of Cu/ZnO thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp.551, 243–248 (2013).

Bulovic, V.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” J. Nat. Photonics Rev.7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bulvoic, V.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. Chen, M. S. Bardley, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulvoić, “Inkjet-Printed quantum dot-polymer composites for full-color AC-driven displays,” Adv. Mater.21(21), 2151–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Byun, D.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-M.

S.-H. Yang, J.-S. Lin, F.-S. Juang, D.-C. Chou, M.-H. Chung, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “White light emitting diodes (LEDs) with good color rendering indices (CRI) and high luminous efficiencies by the encapsulation of mixed and double-deck phosphors,” Curr. Appl. Phys.13(5), 931–934 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

L. Ma, S. Ma, H. Chen, X. Ai, and X. Huang, “Microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10036–10041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. Chen, M. S. Bardley, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulvoić, “Inkjet-Printed quantum dot-polymer composites for full-color AC-driven displays,” Adv. Mater.21(21), 2151–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Ch.-R.

J.-H. Jeon, S.-Y. Jeong, and Ch.-R. Cho, “Heteroepitaxial relation and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films grown by using pulsed laser deposition,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.54(92), 858–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.-S.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-J.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

J.-H. Kim, T.-H. Shin, K.-J. Yang, J. Jeong, and B. Choi, “Abstraction of blue photoluminescence in Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 012603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B. L.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-W.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, and M. M. Satter, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitrid visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).

Choi, W. K.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, D.-C.

S.-H. Yang, J.-S. Lin, F.-S. Juang, D.-C. Chou, M.-H. Chung, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “White light emitting diodes (LEDs) with good color rendering indices (CRI) and high luminous efficiencies by the encapsulation of mixed and double-deck phosphors,” Curr. Appl. Phys.13(5), 931–934 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chung, M.-H.

S.-H. Yang, J.-S. Lin, F.-S. Juang, D.-C. Chou, M.-H. Chung, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “White light emitting diodes (LEDs) with good color rendering indices (CRI) and high luminous efficiencies by the encapsulation of mixed and double-deck phosphors,” Curr. Appl. Phys.13(5), 931–934 (2013).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and Sh. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dziatkowski, K.

D. Ratchford, K. Dziatkowski, T. Hartsfield, X. Li, Y. Gao, and Z. Tang, “Photoluminescence dynamics of ensemble and individual CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with an alloyed core/shell interface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D.

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and Sh. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

D. Ratchford, K. Dziatkowski, T. Hartsfield, X. Li, Y. Gao, and Z. Tang, “Photoluminescence dynamics of ensemble and individual CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with an alloyed core/shell interface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Waller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett.1(4), 207–211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Halpert, J. E.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. Chen, M. S. Bardley, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulvoić, “Inkjet-Printed quantum dot-polymer composites for full-color AC-driven displays,” Adv. Mater.21(21), 2151–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. Y.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hartsfield, T.

D. Ratchford, K. Dziatkowski, T. Hartsfield, X. Li, Y. Gao, and Z. Tang, “Photoluminescence dynamics of ensemble and individual CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with an alloyed core/shell interface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L. L.

Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

L. Ma, S. Ma, H. Chen, X. Ai, and X. Huang, “Microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10036–10041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. L.

F. M. Li, L. T. Bo, S. Y. Ma, X. L. Huang, L. G. Ma, J. Liu, X. L. Zhang, F. C. Yang, and Q. Zhao, “Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” Superlattices Microstruct.51(3), 332–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ie, S. Y.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, E.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, J.-H.

J.-H. Jeon, S.-Y. Jeong, and Ch.-R. Cho, “Heteroepitaxial relation and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films grown by using pulsed laser deposition,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.54(92), 858–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

J.-H. Kim, T.-H. Shin, K.-J. Yang, J. Jeong, and B. Choi, “Abstraction of blue photoluminescence in Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 012603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.-Y.

J.-H. Jeon, S.-Y. Jeong, and Ch.-R. Cho, “Heteroepitaxial relation and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films grown by using pulsed laser deposition,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.54(92), 858–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ji, M.-H.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, and M. M. Satter, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitrid visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).

Jia, Y. F.

Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jokela, S. J.

M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joo, W.-J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juang, F.-S.

S.-H. Yang, J.-S. Lin, F.-S. Juang, D.-C. Chou, M.-H. Chung, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “White light emitting diodes (LEDs) with good color rendering indices (CRI) and high luminous efficiencies by the encapsulation of mixed and double-deck phosphors,” Curr. Appl. Phys.13(5), 931–934 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-K.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, and M. M. Satter, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitrid visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).

Kim, J.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, and M. M. Satter, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitrid visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

J.-H. Kim, T.-H. Shin, K.-J. Yang, J. Jeong, and B. Choi, “Abstraction of blue photoluminescence in Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 012603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-H.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kornowski, A.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Waller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett.1(4), 207–211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. K.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance cross-linked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Xu, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, and B. Li, “White LED with high color rendering index based on Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+ and ZnCdTe/CdSe quantum dot hybrid phosphor,” Mater. Lett.84, 24–26 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, F. F.

F. Yang, S. Ma, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, F. F. Li, J. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Blue–green and red luminescence from ZnO/porous silicon and ZnO:Cu/porous silicon nanocomposite films,” Superlattices Microstruct.52(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, F. M.

F. M. Li, L. T. Bo, S. Y. Ma, X. L. Huang, L. G. Ma, J. Liu, X. L. Zhang, F. C. Yang, and Q. Zhao, “Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” Superlattices Microstruct.51(3), 332–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

D. Ratchford, K. Dziatkowski, T. Hartsfield, X. Li, Y. Gao, and Z. Tang, “Photoluminescence dynamics of ensemble and individual CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with an alloyed core/shell interface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.-S.

S.-H. Yang, J.-S. Lin, F.-S. Juang, D.-C. Chou, M.-H. Chung, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “White light emitting diodes (LEDs) with good color rendering indices (CRI) and high luminous efficiencies by the encapsulation of mixed and double-deck phosphors,” Curr. Appl. Phys.13(5), 931–934 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, Ch.-K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2201011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

F. Yang, S. Ma, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, F. F. Li, J. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Blue–green and red luminescence from ZnO/porous silicon and ZnO:Cu/porous silicon nanocomposite films,” Superlattices Microstruct.52(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Li, L. T. Bo, S. Y. Ma, X. L. Huang, L. G. Ma, J. Liu, X. L. Zhang, F. C. Yang, and Q. Zhao, “Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” Superlattices Microstruct.51(3), 332–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.-C.

S.-H. Yang, J.-S. Lin, F.-S. Juang, D.-C. Chou, M.-H. Chung, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “White light emitting diodes (LEDs) with good color rendering indices (CRI) and high luminous efficiencies by the encapsulation of mixed and double-deck phosphors,” Curr. Appl. Phys.13(5), 931–934 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.

L. Ma, S. Ma, H. Chen, X. Ai, and X. Huang, “Microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10036–10041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. G.

F. M. Li, L. T. Bo, S. Y. Ma, X. L. Huang, L. G. Ma, J. Liu, X. L. Zhang, F. C. Yang, and Q. Zhao, “Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” Superlattices Microstruct.51(3), 332–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S.

F. Yang, S. Ma, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, F. F. Li, J. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Blue–green and red luminescence from ZnO/porous silicon and ZnO:Cu/porous silicon nanocomposite films,” Superlattices Microstruct.52(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma, S. Ma, H. Chen, X. Ai, and X. Huang, “Microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10036–10041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. Y.

F. M. Li, L. T. Bo, S. Y. Ma, X. L. Huang, L. G. Ma, J. Liu, X. L. Zhang, F. C. Yang, and Q. Zhao, “Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” Superlattices Microstruct.51(3), 332–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

K. M. Safi, R. Vinodkumar, R. J. Bose, V. N. Uvais, and V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, “Effect of Cu on the microstructure and electrical properties of Cu/ZnO thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp.551, 243–248 (2013).

McCluskey, M. D.

M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meng, J. X.

Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Sh.

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and Sh. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Panzer, M. J.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. Chen, M. S. Bardley, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulvoić, “Inkjet-Printed quantum dot-polymer composites for full-color AC-driven displays,” Adv. Mater.21(21), 2151–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. H.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p–n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(9), 095004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

X. Peng, J. Xu, H. Zang, B. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Structural and PL properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” J. Lumin.128(3), 297–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Ratchford, D.

D. Ratchford, K. Dziatkowski, T. Hartsfield, X. Li, Y. Gao, and Z. Tang, “Photoluminescence dynamics of ensemble and individual CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with an alloyed core/shell interface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A. L.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Waller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett.1(4), 207–211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Safi, K. M.

K. M. Safi, R. Vinodkumar, R. J. Bose, V. N. Uvais, and V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, “Effect of Cu on the microstructure and electrical properties of Cu/ZnO thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp.551, 243–248 (2013).

Satter, M. M.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, and M. M. Satter, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitrid visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shang, X. R.

Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shin, T.-H.

J.-H. Kim, T.-H. Shin, K.-J. Yang, J. Jeong, and B. Choi, “Abstraction of blue photoluminescence in Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 012603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, Y.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” J. Nat. Photonics Rev.7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

D. Feezell, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and Sh. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technology9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Supran, G. J.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” J. Nat. Photonics Rev.7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Talapin, D. V.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Waller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett.1(4), 207–211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Ch.-K.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, Ch.-K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2201011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z.

D. Ratchford, K. Dziatkowski, T. Hartsfield, X. Li, Y. Gao, and Z. Tang, “Photoluminescence dynamics of ensemble and individual CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with an alloyed core/shell interface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, Ch.-K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2201011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. M.

Y. M. Tao, S. Y. Ma, H. X. Chen, J. X. Meng, L. L. Hou, Y. F. Jia, and X. R. Shang, “Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films,” Vacuum85(7), 744–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uvais, V. N.

K. M. Safi, R. Vinodkumar, R. J. Bose, V. N. Uvais, and V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, “Effect of Cu on the microstructure and electrical properties of Cu/ZnO thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp.551, 243–248 (2013).

Vinodkumar, R.

K. M. Safi, R. Vinodkumar, R. J. Bose, V. N. Uvais, and V. P. Mahadevan Pillai, “Effect of Cu on the microstructure and electrical properties of Cu/ZnO thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp.551, 243–248 (2013).

Waller, H.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Waller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett.1(4), 207–211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

X. Peng, J. Xu, H. Zang, B. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Structural and PL properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” J. Lumin.128(3), 297–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Xu, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, and B. Li, “White LED with high color rendering index based on Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+ and ZnCdTe/CdSe quantum dot hybrid phosphor,” Mater. Lett.84, 24–26 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Xu, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, and B. Li, “White LED with high color rendering index based on Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+ and ZnCdTe/CdSe quantum dot hybrid phosphor,” Mater. Lett.84, 24–26 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

X. Peng, J. Xu, H. Zang, B. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Structural and PL properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” J. Lumin.128(3), 297–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S. H.

Y. Yan, M. M. Al-Jassim, and S. H. Wei, “Doping of ZnO by group-IB elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 181912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wood, V.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. Chen, M. S. Bardley, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulvoić, “Inkjet-Printed quantum dot-polymer composites for full-color AC-driven displays,” Adv. Mater.21(21), 2151–2155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

X. Peng, J. Xu, H. Zang, B. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Structural and PL properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” J. Lumin.128(3), 297–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Xu, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, and B. Li, “White LED with high color rendering index based on Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+ and ZnCdTe/CdSe quantum dot hybrid phosphor,” Mater. Lett.84, 24–26 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

Y. Yan, M. M. Al-Jassim, and S. H. Wei, “Doping of ZnO by group-IB elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 181912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, S. Ma, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, F. F. Li, J. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Blue–green and red luminescence from ZnO/porous silicon and ZnO:Cu/porous silicon nanocomposite films,” Superlattices Microstruct.52(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F. C.

F. M. Li, L. T. Bo, S. Y. Ma, X. L. Huang, L. G. Ma, J. Liu, X. L. Zhang, F. C. Yang, and Q. Zhao, “Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” Superlattices Microstruct.51(3), 332–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.-J.

J.-H. Kim, T.-H. Shin, K.-J. Yang, J. Jeong, and B. Choi, “Abstraction of blue photoluminescence in Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 012603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-H.

S.-H. Yang, J.-S. Lin, F.-S. Juang, D.-C. Chou, M.-H. Chung, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “White light emitting diodes (LEDs) with good color rendering indices (CRI) and high luminous efficiencies by the encapsulation of mixed and double-deck phosphors,” Curr. Appl. Phys.13(5), 931–934 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

X. Peng, J. Xu, H. Zang, B. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Structural and PL properties of Cu-doped ZnO films,” J. Lumin.128(3), 297–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

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H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 212–225 (2013).
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R. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Xu, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, and B. Li, “White LED with high color rendering index based on Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+ and ZnCdTe/CdSe quantum dot hybrid phosphor,” Mater. Lett.84, 24–26 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

F. Yang, S. Ma, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, F. F. Li, J. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Blue–green and red luminescence from ZnO/porous silicon and ZnO:Cu/porous silicon nanocomposite films,” Superlattices Microstruct.52(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PL spectra of Cu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (a) as-grown and after annealing at 500, 700 and 850 °C, and Gaussian fittings (b) 500 °C (c) 700 °C (d) 850 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional image and atomic mass profile of Cu-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition (annealed at 850 °C) (a) low magnification (b) atomic mass-% profile (c) HR-TEM image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL spectra of the Cu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by e-beam deposition (a) as-grown and after annealing at 500, 700 and 850 °C, and Gaussian fittings (b) 500 °C (c) 700 °C (d) 850 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The variation of sub peak and luminescence intensity in Cu-doped ZnO prepared by e-beam deposition according to annealing temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XRD patterns of Cu-doped ZnO thin films on SiOx/Si substrate by e-beam deposition (a) as-grown, and after annealing (b) 500 °C (c) 700 °C (d) 850 °C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-sectional STEM images and EDX elemental mapping of Cu-doped ZnO thin films on SiOx/Si substrate by e-beam deposition, after annealing at (a) 500 °C and (b) corresponding EDX mapping (c) 700 °C (d) 850 °C, inserts are HR-TEM images.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photo images of photoluminescence in Cu-doped ZnO and pure ZnO thin films by e-beam deposition, after annealing at (a) 500 °C (b) 700 °C (c) 850 °C (d) 850 °C (pure ZnO, reference sample).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CIE coordinates of photoluminescence in Cu-doped ZnO and pure ZnO thin films, after annealing at (a) 500 °C (b) 700 °C (c) 850 °C (d) 850 °C (pure ZnO, reference sample).

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