Abstract

We report on fabrication of a liquid crystal (LC) electro-optic modulator in fused silica by three-dimensional (3D) femtosecond laser micromachining. The LC light modulator consists of a LC cell, four embedded microelectrodes and a buried optical waveguide, which are defined in the glass substrate simultaneously by femtosecond laser direct writing. The fabricated LC cell enables homogeneous alignment of LC molecules owing to the femtosecond-laser-induced nanoripples on the inner wall of LC cell. The embedded microelectrodes give rise to homogeneous electric field in the LC cell, enabling efficient control of the orientation of LC molecules. The 3D integration of microoptical, microelectrical and microfluidic components in a single glass chip enables rapid prototyping of multifunctional devices in a monolithic substrate.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser processing for optofluidic fabrication,” Lab Chip12(19), 3576–3589 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Castany and L. Dupont, “Liquid crystal micro-cells: collective fabrication of individual micro-cells,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(6), 065019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1-3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of microelectrodes deeply embedded in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(21), 7018–7021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Voldman, “Electrical forces for microscale cell manipulation,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.8(1), 425–454 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

1984 (1)

1972 (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and alignment of adjacent nematic liquid-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, N. L.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ams, M.

Asquini, R.

Assanto, G.

Bado, P.

Barrot, F.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baudach, S.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bellouard, Y.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express12(10), 2120–2129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beresna, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and alignment of adjacent nematic liquid-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bottinelli, S.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brake, J. M.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breguet, J.-M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campi, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Castany, O.

O. Castany and L. Dupont, “Liquid crystal micro-cells: collective fabrication of individual micro-cells,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(6), 065019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Champion, A.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chappuis, O.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser processing for optofluidic fabrication,” Lab Chip12(19), 3576–3589 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1-3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of microelectrodes deeply embedded in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(21), 7018–7021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clavel, R.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daschner, M. K.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

Dongre, C.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, F.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

Dupont, L.

O. Castany and L. Dupont, “Liquid crystal micro-cells: collective fabrication of individual micro-cells,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(6), 065019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

Francl, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fratalocchi, A.

Gecevicius, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Greening, B. K.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gundlach, D. J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, M. S.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, F.

Hess, L. D.

Hill, I. G.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

Hirao, K.

Hiromatsu, K.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoenninger, C.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hopper, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. R.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1-3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. J.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, T. N.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, Y.

Ju, Y. F.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1-3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kane, M. G.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Kazansky, P.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kral, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lenssen, B.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1-3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of microelectrodes deeply embedded in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(21), 7018–7021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, J.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luk, Y. Y.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, F. F.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1-3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mabillard, Y.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevi Ius, A.

Marshall, G. D.

Masuda, M.

Matsuo, S.

Matteucci, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, J. C. F.

Midorikawa, K.

Misawa, H.

Miura, K.

Miwa, M.

Mottay, E.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ngamsom, B.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

O’Brien, J. L.

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Politi, A.

Pollnau, M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramponi, R.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A.

Schaap, A.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Sheraw, C. D.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shihoyama, K.

Song, J.

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of microelectrodes deeply embedded in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(21), 7018–7021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of microelectrodes deeply embedded in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(21), 7018–7021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

van den Vlekkert, H. H.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voldman, J.

J. Voldman, “Electrical forces for microscale cell manipulation,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.8(1), 425–454 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of microelectrodes deeply embedded in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(21), 7018–7021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Watts, P.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Wu, S. T.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Xu, J.

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of microelectrodes deeply embedded in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(21), 7018–7021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1-3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, L.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. Voldman, “Electrical forces for microscale cell manipulation,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.8(1), 425–454 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of microelectrodes deeply embedded in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(21), 7018–7021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1-3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. (1)

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

O. Castany and L. Dupont, “Liquid crystal micro-cells: collective fabrication of individual micro-cells,” J. Micromech. Microeng.20(6), 065019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (3)

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser processing for optofluidic fabrication,” Lab Chip12(19), 3576–3589 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and alignment of adjacent nematic liquid-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 3D schematic diagram of a LC modulator in fused silica (b) Top-view optical micrograph of the fabricated device

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of femtosecond laser direct writing of embedded microcell. The laser propagation direction (k), the writing direction (S), and the laser polarization direction (E) are indicated. (b) SEM image of inner walls of the fabricated micro-cells.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)-(c) Schematic diagrams of fabrication process of embedded microelectrodes. (d) 2D numeric simulation of the electric field producd by the microelectrodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic diagram of experimental setup for the electro-optic phase modulation. P1and P2: polarizers, OBJ: objective, (b) and (c) Near-field intensity distributions at the exit of optical waveguide for “on” and “off” states, respectively.

Equations (1)

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δ = 2 π d Δ n λ

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