Abstract

Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass is a photosensitive multi-component silicate glass that exhibits refractive index change after successive UV-exposure and thermal treatment. The refractive index change was demonstrated to be associated with the precipitation of NaF nano-crystals in the glass matrix. This paper presents a systematic study of the dependence of the refractive index change on dosage of UV-exposure and thermal treatment duration and temperature in already UV-exposed and nucleated samples. It is shown using Avrami plots that the refractive index change in PTR glass is determined by a diffusion-controlled growth of particles from pre-existing nuclei while all coefficients have exponential dependence on temperature (Boltzmann law). The developed model, which includes both photo-chemistry and crystallization processes, allow describing the refractive index change dependence on dosage for a wide range of thermal treatment duration and temperature and an accuracy better than 10%.

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  1. S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive glass,” Ind. Eng. Chem.41(4), 856–861 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).
  3. O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, K. C. Richardson, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass,” Appl. Opt.38(4), 619–627 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Papernov, and A. W. Schmid, “Laser-induced damage of photo-thermo-refractive glasses for optical-holographic-element writing,” Proc. SPIE3578, 564–575 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-frequency Bragg gratings in a photothermorefractive glass,” Opt. Lett.25(23), 1693–1695 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE4724, 101–109 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass—new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B48(3), 123–128 (2007).
  9. S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5114–5123 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, and H. P. Andre, “Measurement of the induced refractive index in a photothermorefractive glass by a liquid-cell shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt.41(10), 1864–1871 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. B. Glebov and L. Glebova, “Swelling of photo-thermo-refractive glass resulted from thermal development,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C2), 294–297 (2002).
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  13. J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. B. Glebov, “Linear and nonlinear photoionization of silicate glasses,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C1), 73–90 (2002).
  15. J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Evolution of absorption spectra in the process of nucleation in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Adv. Mater. Res.39–40, 395–398 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Method to assess the homogeneity of partially crystallized glasses: application to a photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(34-36), 1760–1768 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. N. Kolmogorov, “On the statistical theory of crystallization of metals,” Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Mat.1, 355–359 (1937).
  18. W. A. Johnson and R. F. Mehl, “Reaction kinetics in processes of nucleation and growth,” Trans. AIME135, 416–442 (1939).
  19. M. Avrami and J. Chem, “Kinetics of phase change. I. General theory,” J. Chem. Phys.7(12), 1103–1112 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, N. Yuritsyn, and J. W. Schmelzer, “Homogeneous crystal nucleation in silicate glasses: a 40 years perspective,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(26-27), 2681–2714 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Chamma, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of dosage and thermal treatment on photo-thermo-refractive glass crystallization properties,” International Congress on Glass (Salvador, Brazil) (September 2010), paper 326.
  22. G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).
  23. J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Diffusion zone in crystallized photo-thermo-refractive glass,” in 8th Pacific Rim Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology (PACRIM 8) (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) (June 2009), paper PACRIM8–S23–P176–2009.
  25. L. B. Glebov, “Kinetics modeling in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Mater.25(4), 413–418 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Method to assess the homogeneity of partially crystallized glasses: application to a photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(34-36), 1760–1768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Evolution of absorption spectra in the process of nucleation in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Adv. Mater. Res.39–40, 395–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass—new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B48(3), 123–128 (2007).

2006 (1)

V. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, N. Yuritsyn, and J. W. Schmelzer, “Homogeneous crystal nucleation in silicate glasses: a 40 years perspective,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(26-27), 2681–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. B. Glebov, “Kinetics modeling in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Mater.25(4), 413–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, “Linear and nonlinear photoionization of silicate glasses,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C1), 73–90 (2002).

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, and H. P. Andre, “Measurement of the induced refractive index in a photothermorefractive glass by a liquid-cell shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt.41(10), 1864–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Glebov and L. Glebova, “Swelling of photo-thermo-refractive glass resulted from thermal development,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C2), 294–297 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, K. C. Richardson, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass,” Appl. Opt.38(4), 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Papernov, and A. W. Schmid, “Laser-induced damage of photo-thermo-refractive glasses for optical-holographic-element writing,” Proc. SPIE3578, 564–575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

1978 (1)

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5114–5123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive glass,” Ind. Eng. Chem.41(4), 856–861 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1939 (2)

W. A. Johnson and R. F. Mehl, “Reaction kinetics in processes of nucleation and growth,” Trans. AIME135, 416–442 (1939).

M. Avrami and J. Chem, “Kinetics of phase change. I. General theory,” J. Chem. Phys.7(12), 1103–1112 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

A. N. Kolmogorov, “On the statistical theory of crystallization of metals,” Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Mat.1, 355–359 (1937).

Andre, H. P.

Avrami, M.

M. Avrami and J. Chem, “Kinetics of phase change. I. General theory,” J. Chem. Phys.7(12), 1103–1112 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Beall, G. H.

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5114–5123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem, J.

M. Avrami and J. Chem, “Kinetics of phase change. I. General theory,” J. Chem. Phys.7(12), 1103–1112 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Ciapurin, I. V.

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, O. M.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, and H. P. Andre, “Measurement of the induced refractive index in a photothermorefractive glass by a liquid-cell shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt.41(10), 1864–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-frequency Bragg gratings in a photothermorefractive glass,” Opt. Lett.25(23), 1693–1695 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Papernov, and A. W. Schmid, “Laser-induced damage of photo-thermo-refractive glasses for optical-holographic-element writing,” Proc. SPIE3578, 564–575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, K. C. Richardson, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass,” Appl. Opt.38(4), 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fokin, V.

V. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, N. Yuritsyn, and J. W. Schmelzer, “Homogeneous crystal nucleation in silicate glasses: a 40 years perspective,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(26-27), 2681–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fokin, V. M.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).

Francois-Saint-Cyr, H. G.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Method to assess the homogeneity of partially crystallized glasses: application to a photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(34-36), 1760–1768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Evolution of absorption spectra in the process of nucleation in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Adv. Mater. Res.39–40, 395–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass—new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B48(3), 123–128 (2007).

L. B. Glebov, “Kinetics modeling in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Mater.25(4), 413–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, and H. P. Andre, “Measurement of the induced refractive index in a photothermorefractive glass by a liquid-cell shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt.41(10), 1864–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Glebov and L. Glebova, “Swelling of photo-thermo-refractive glass resulted from thermal development,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C2), 294–297 (2002).

L. B. Glebov, “Linear and nonlinear photoionization of silicate glasses,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C1), 73–90 (2002).

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-frequency Bragg gratings in a photothermorefractive glass,” Opt. Lett.25(23), 1693–1695 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Papernov, and A. W. Schmid, “Laser-induced damage of photo-thermo-refractive glasses for optical-holographic-element writing,” Proc. SPIE3578, 564–575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, K. C. Richardson, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass,” Appl. Opt.38(4), 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

Glebova, L.

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Method to assess the homogeneity of partially crystallized glasses: application to a photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(34-36), 1760–1768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Evolution of absorption spectra in the process of nucleation in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Adv. Mater. Res.39–40, 395–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov and L. Glebova, “Swelling of photo-thermo-refractive glass resulted from thermal development,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C2), 294–297 (2002).

Glebova, L. N.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, K. C. Richardson, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass,” Appl. Opt.38(4), 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golubkov, V.

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. A.

W. A. Johnson and R. F. Mehl, “Reaction kinetics in processes of nucleation and growth,” Trans. AIME135, 416–442 (1939).

Kolmogorov, A. N.

A. N. Kolmogorov, “On the statistical theory of crystallization of metals,” Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Mat.1, 355–359 (1937).

Lumeau, J.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Method to assess the homogeneity of partially crystallized glasses: application to a photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(34-36), 1760–1768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Evolution of absorption spectra in the process of nucleation in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Adv. Mater. Res.39–40, 395–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mehl, R. F.

W. A. Johnson and R. F. Mehl, “Reaction kinetics in processes of nucleation and growth,” Trans. AIME135, 416–442 (1939).

Nikonorov, N. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

Panysheva, E. I.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

Papernov, S.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Papernov, and A. W. Schmid, “Laser-induced damage of photo-thermo-refractive glasses for optical-holographic-element writing,” Proc. SPIE3578, 564–575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petrovskii, G. T.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

Pierson, J. E.

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5114–5123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. C.

Savvin, V. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

Schmelzer, J. W.

V. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, N. Yuritsyn, and J. W. Schmelzer, “Homogeneous crystal nucleation in silicate glasses: a 40 years perspective,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(26-27), 2681–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A. W.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Papernov, and A. W. Schmid, “Laser-induced damage of photo-thermo-refractive glasses for optical-holographic-element writing,” Proc. SPIE3578, 564–575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sinitskii, A.

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Method to assess the homogeneity of partially crystallized glasses: application to a photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(34-36), 1760–1768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V. I.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-frequency Bragg gratings in a photothermorefractive glass,” Opt. Lett.25(23), 1693–1695 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, K. C. Richardson, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass,” Appl. Opt.38(4), 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souza, G. P.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stickley, C. M.

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stookey, S. D.

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5114–5123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive glass,” Ind. Eng. Chem.41(4), 856–861 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Tsekhomskii, V. A.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

Tunimanova, I. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

Yuritsyn, N.

V. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, N. Yuritsyn, and J. W. Schmelzer, “Homogeneous crystal nucleation in silicate glasses: a 40 years perspective,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(26-27), 2681–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zanotto, E. D.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Method to assess the homogeneity of partially crystallized glasses: application to a photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(34-36), 1760–1768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, N. Yuritsyn, and J. W. Schmelzer, “Homogeneous crystal nucleation in silicate glasses: a 40 years perspective,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(26-27), 2681–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. Res. (1)

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Evolution of absorption spectra in the process of nucleation in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Adv. Mater. Res.39–40, 395–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Glass Sci. Technol. (2)

L. B. Glebov and L. Glebova, “Swelling of photo-thermo-refractive glass resulted from thermal development,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C2), 294–297 (2002).

L. B. Glebov, “Linear and nonlinear photoionization of silicate glasses,” Glass Sci. Technol.75(C1), 73–90 (2002).

Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive glass,” Ind. Eng. Chem.41(4), 856–861 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Mat. (1)

A. N. Kolmogorov, “On the statistical theory of crystallization of metals,” Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Mat.1, 355–359 (1937).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5114–5123 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Avrami and J. Chem, “Kinetics of phase change. I. General theory,” J. Chem. Phys.7(12), 1103–1112 (1939).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

V. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, N. Yuritsyn, and J. W. Schmelzer, “Homogeneous crystal nucleation in silicate glasses: a 40 years perspective,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(26-27), 2681–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Method to assess the homogeneity of partially crystallized glasses: application to a photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(34-36), 1760–1768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (2)

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, “Kinetics modeling in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Mater.25(4), 413–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B (2)

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallization of PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B50(5), 311–320 (2009).

L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass—new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B48(3), 123–128 (2007).

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Papernov, and A. W. Schmid, “Laser-induced damage of photo-thermo-refractive glasses for optical-holographic-element writing,” Proc. SPIE3578, 564–575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Polychromatic glasses—a new material for recording volume phase holograms,” Sov. Phys. Dokl.35, 878–880 (1990).

Trans. AIME (1)

W. A. Johnson and R. F. Mehl, “Reaction kinetics in processes of nucleation and growth,” Trans. AIME135, 416–442 (1939).

Other (3)

L. Glebov, L. Glebova, V. Tsechomskii, and V. Golubkov, “Study of structural transformations in photo-thermo-refractive glass by SAXS and XRD,” Proceedings of XX International Congress on Glass, Kyoto, Japan (September 2004), paper O-07–082.

K. Chamma, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of dosage and thermal treatment on photo-thermo-refractive glass crystallization properties,” International Congress on Glass (Salvador, Brazil) (September 2010), paper 326.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Diffusion zone in crystallized photo-thermo-refractive glass,” in 8th Pacific Rim Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology (PACRIM 8) (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) (June 2009), paper PACRIM8–S23–P176–2009.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the refractive index change (RIC) on dosage of UV-exposure measured in PTR glass after nucleation and thermal treatment at ~515°C for different durations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the maximum refractive index change (RIC) on thermal treatment duration measured in PTR glass UV-exposed with dosage E0 of 0.9 J/cm2 and developed at different temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of the slope of the refractive index change versus thermal treatment duration at t = 0 (extracted from Fig. 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the maximum refractive index change (Δnmax) at dosage E0 versus thermal treatment temperature (extracted from Fig. 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Avrami plots calculated from the curves of Fig. 2 and using the data from Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of ln(K(T)) on 1/T.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of a fit of the dependence on thermal treatment duration of the refractive index change (RIC) measured in PTR glass UV-exposed with dosage E0 of 0.9 J/cm2 and thermally developed at ~515°C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of a fit of the dependence on the dosage of UV-exposure of the refractive index change (RIC) measured in PTR glass developed for ~60 minutes at ~515°C.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of 1/ε(t) on the thermal treatment duration at ~515°C.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of ln(β(T)) on 1/T.

Equations (8)

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Δn( E 0 ,t,T )=Δ n max ( E 0 ,T )( 1exp( K( T ) t n ) )
ln( ln( 1 Δn( E 0 ,t,T ) Δ n max ( E 0 ,T ) ) )=ln( K( T ) )+nln( t )
Δ n max ( E 0 ,T )=Δn( E 0 ,,T )=5.22( T o C460 )+777
K( T )= K 0 ×exp( E K RT )
Δn( D )= n S D D+ε
Δn( D,t,T )= Δn( E 0 ,t,T )( E 0 +ε( t,T ) )D E 0 ( D+ε( t,T ) )
1 ε( t,T ) =exp( β( T )t )
β( T )= β 0 ×exp( E β RT )

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