Abstract

Ultrashort laser pulses can induce structural modifications in BK7 borosilicate optical glass leading to refractive index variations. These changes and the related optical functions are determined by specific electronic and thermo-mechanical factors, namely network modifiers and high expansion coefficient. We investigate here laser-induced soft positive index changes underpinning photo-physical transformations involving electronic and polarizabillity changes in a narrow processing window (type I), as well as contrasted positive or negative index changes based on thermomechanical mechanisms, non-uniform material expansion, and density redistribution in dense and rarefied regions (type II). These index changes resemble apriori those of pure silica networks despite different thermo-mechanical behavior of BK7 glass upon heating and cooling. The associated structural changes are discussed on the basis of phase contrast microscopy, photoluminescence of defects, and Raman spectroscopy. Material influences are emphasized, pointing out the increasing role of defects as compared to structural reorganization in type I refractive index changes, and mechanical rarefaction and compaction in type II, departing thus from a pure silicate scenario. The resulting optical properties are discussed based on their ability to guide light.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull.31, 620–625 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A76, 367–372 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, “Laser-induced defects in fused silica by femtosecond IR irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 224117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B,60, 9959–9964 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Bressel, D. de Ligny, C. Sonneville, V. Martinez, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser induced density changes in GeO2 and SiO2 glasses: fictive temperature effect,” Opt. Mater. Express, 1, 605–613 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. M. Efimov, K. Gabel, S. V. Garnov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, M. Richardson, and M. J. Soileau, “Color-center generation in silicate glasses exposed to infrared femtosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B15, 193–199 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. B. Lonzaga, S. M. Avanesyan, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4332–4340 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and H. Jain, “Laser-induced structural modification, its mechanisms, and applications in glassy optical materials,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 921–935 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, V. Maselli, A. Yin, M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, L. Aiello, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “Optical properties of waveguides written by a 26 MHz stretched cavity Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Express13, 612–620 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 083102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.239, 91–95 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 2496–2504 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Noncryst. Sol.345,346, 332–337 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104205 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.4, 105–110 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17, 9515–9525 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Bellouard and M. O. Hongler, “Femtosecond-laser generation of self-organized bubble patterns in fused silica,” Opt. Express19, 6807–6821 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Pasquarello and R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 5145–5147 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, “Raman studies of vitreous SiO2 versus fictive temperature,” Phys. Rev. B28, 3266–3271 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Reichman, J. W. Chan, and D. M. Krol, “Confocal fluorescence and Raman microscopy of femtosecond laser-modified fused silica,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter15, S2447–S2456 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Ródenas, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, D. Jaque, and P. Herman, “Confocal Raman imaging of optical waveguides in LiNbO3 fabricated by ultrafast high-repetition rate laser-writing,” Opt. Express16, 13979–13989 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun.284, 630–634 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B87, 21–27 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. Bonse, A. Mermillod-Blondin, H. Zhang, A. Rosenfeld, and P. R. Herman, “Low-loss waveguides fabricated in BK7 by high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Opt.47, 2098–2102 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, Ch. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectroscop.42, 715–718, (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Wei, H. He, Z. Deng, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Study of thermal behaviors in CO2 laser irradiated glass,” Opt. Eng.44, 044202 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.28, 55–57 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express15, 5676–5681 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Ruiz De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A104, 687–693 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Manara, A. Grandjean, and D.R. Neuville, “Structure of borosilicate glasses and melts : a revision of the Yun, Bray and Dell model,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.355, 2528–2532 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. Wang and J. F. Stebbins, “On the structure of borosilicate glasses: a triple-quantum magic-angle spinning 17O nuclear magnetic resonance study,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.231, 286–290 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. L. Konijnendijk and J. M. Stevels, “The structure of borate glasses studied by Raman scattering,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.18, 307–331 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. L. Konijnendijk, “The structure of borosilicate glasses,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technical University Eindhoven, 1975).
  36. A. Horn, E. W. Kreutz, and R. Poprawe, “Ultrafast time-resolved photography of femtosecond laser induced modifications in BK7 glass and fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A79, 923–925 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express15, 5674–5686 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction,” Opt. Express16, 5481–5492 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys.19, 1415–1422 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Koike and M. Tomozawa, “IR investigation of density changes of silica glass and soda-lime silicate glass caused by microhardness indentation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353, 2318–2327 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  41. R. Brückner, “Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids5, 123–175 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  42. A. V. Gomonnai, Yu. M. Azhniuk, D. B. Goyer, I. G. Megela, and V. V. Lopushansky, “Optical studies of alkali borosilicate glass irradiated with high-energy electrons,” J. Optoelec. Adv. Mater.337–44 (2001).
  43. J.H. Mackey, H.L. Smith, and A. Halperin, “Optical studies in x-irradiated high purity sodium silicate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Sol.27, 1759–1772 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  44. S. G. Lunter, “Luminescence of glasses activated with trivalent iron,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.8, 964–968 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  45. O. N. Bilan, E. S. Voropai, S. M. Gorbachev, N. D. Solov’eva, and D. M. Yudin, “Luminescence of radiation-oxydized iron in silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.51793–706 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  46. L. B. Glebov, “Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE4347, 343–358 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  47. S. M. Del Nery, W. M. Pontuschka, S. Isotani, and C. G. Rouse, “Luminescence quenching by iron in barium aluminoborate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B49, 3760–3765 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  48. A. F. Zatsepin, V. B. Guseva, and D. A. Zatsepin, “Luminescence of modified nonbridging oxygen hole centers in silica and alkali silicate glasses,” Glass Phys. Chem.34, 709–715 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  49. D. J. Little, “Glass modifcation in femtosecond laser written waveguides and the effect of laser polarisation,” Ph.D. thesis (Macquarie University, 2009).
  50. T. Furukawa and W. B. White, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of sodium borosilicate glass structure,” J. Mater. Sci.16, 2689–2700 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  51. P. McMillan, “Structural studies of silicate glasses and melts-applications and limitations of Raman spectroscopy,” Am. Mineral69, 622–644 (1984).
  52. T. W. Brill, “Raman Spectroscopy of crystalline and vitreous borates,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technical University Eindhoven, 1976).
  53. G. Pacchioni, M. Vezzoli, and M. Fanciulli, “Electronic structure of the paramagnetic boron oxygen hole center in B-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B64, 155201 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  54. B. Boizot, G. Petite, D. Ghaleb, B. Reynard, and G. Calas, “Raman study of β-irradiated glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.243, 268–272 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  55. L. Bressel, D. de Ligny, E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Observation of O2 inside voids formed in GeO2 glass by tightly-focused fs-laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express, 1, 1150–1157 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (7)

A. Ruiz De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A104, 687–693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun.284, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, Ch. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectroscop.42, 715–718, (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard and M. O. Hongler, “Femtosecond-laser generation of self-organized bubble patterns in fused silica,” Opt. Express19, 6807–6821 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bressel, D. de Ligny, C. Sonneville, V. Martinez, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser induced density changes in GeO2 and SiO2 glasses: fictive temperature effect,” Opt. Mater. Express, 1, 605–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and H. Jain, “Laser-induced structural modification, its mechanisms, and applications in glassy optical materials,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 921–935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bressel, D. de Ligny, E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Observation of O2 inside voids formed in GeO2 glass by tightly-focused fs-laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express, 1, 1150–1157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17, 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Manara, A. Grandjean, and D.R. Neuville, “Structure of borosilicate glasses and melts : a revision of the Yun, Bray and Dell model,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.355, 2528–2532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys.19, 1415–1422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

A. F. Zatsepin, V. B. Guseva, and D. A. Zatsepin, “Luminescence of modified nonbridging oxygen hole centers in silica and alkali silicate glasses,” Glass Phys. Chem.34, 709–715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction,” Opt. Express16, 5481–5492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. Bonse, A. Mermillod-Blondin, H. Zhang, A. Rosenfeld, and P. R. Herman, “Low-loss waveguides fabricated in BK7 by high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Opt.47, 2098–2102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, D. Jaque, and P. Herman, “Confocal Raman imaging of optical waveguides in LiNbO3 fabricated by ultrafast high-repetition rate laser-writing,” Opt. Express16, 13979–13989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express15, 5674–5686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Koike and M. Tomozawa, “IR investigation of density changes of silica glass and soda-lime silicate glass caused by microhardness indentation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353, 2318–2327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull.31, 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, “Laser-induced defects in fused silica by femtosecond IR irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express15, 5676–5681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Wei, H. He, Z. Deng, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Study of thermal behaviors in CO2 laser irradiated glass,” Opt. Eng.44, 044202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, V. Maselli, A. Yin, M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, L. Aiello, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “Optical properties of waveguides written by a 26 MHz stretched cavity Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Express13, 612–620 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Horn, E. W. Kreutz, and R. Poprawe, “Ultrafast time-resolved photography of femtosecond laser induced modifications in BK7 glass and fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A79, 923–925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Noncryst. Sol.345,346, 332–337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

W. Reichman, J. W. Chan, and D. M. Krol, “Confocal fluorescence and Raman microscopy of femtosecond laser-modified fused silica,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter15, S2447–S2456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A76, 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Lonzaga, S. M. Avanesyan, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4332–4340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.28, 55–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19, 2496–2504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.4, 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. V. Gomonnai, Yu. M. Azhniuk, D. B. Goyer, I. G. Megela, and V. V. Lopushansky, “Optical studies of alkali borosilicate glass irradiated with high-energy electrons,” J. Optoelec. Adv. Mater.337–44 (2001).

G. Pacchioni, M. Vezzoli, and M. Fanciulli, “Electronic structure of the paramagnetic boron oxygen hole center in B-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B64, 155201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, “Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE4347, 343–358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. Boizot, G. Petite, D. Ghaleb, B. Reynard, and G. Calas, “Raman study of β-irradiated glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.243, 268–272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B,60, 9959–9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Pasquarello and R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 5145–5147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang and J. F. Stebbins, “On the structure of borosilicate glasses: a triple-quantum magic-angle spinning 17O nuclear magnetic resonance study,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.231, 286–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.239, 91–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, K. Gabel, S. V. Garnov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, M. Richardson, and M. J. Soileau, “Color-center generation in silicate glasses exposed to infrared femtosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B15, 193–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. M. Del Nery, W. M. Pontuschka, S. Isotani, and C. G. Rouse, “Luminescence quenching by iron in barium aluminoborate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B49, 3760–3765 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

O. N. Bilan, E. S. Voropai, S. M. Gorbachev, N. D. Solov’eva, and D. M. Yudin, “Luminescence of radiation-oxydized iron in silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.51793–706 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. McMillan, “Structural studies of silicate glasses and melts-applications and limitations of Raman spectroscopy,” Am. Mineral69, 622–644 (1984).

1983 (1)

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, “Raman studies of vitreous SiO2 versus fictive temperature,” Phys. Rev. B28, 3266–3271 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. Furukawa and W. B. White, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of sodium borosilicate glass structure,” J. Mater. Sci.16, 2689–2700 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. L. Konijnendijk and J. M. Stevels, “The structure of borate glasses studied by Raman scattering,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.18, 307–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. Brückner, “Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids5, 123–175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

S. G. Lunter, “Luminescence of glasses activated with trivalent iron,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.8, 964–968 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J.H. Mackey, H.L. Smith, and A. Halperin, “Optical studies in x-irradiated high purity sodium silicate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Sol.27, 1759–1772 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, L.

Ams, M.

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J. B. Lonzaga, S. M. Avanesyan, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4332–4340 (2003).
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L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.4, 105–110 (2002).
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A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104205 (2008).
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J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A76, 367–372 (2003).
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W. Reichman, J. W. Chan, and D. M. Krol, “Confocal fluorescence and Raman microscopy of femtosecond laser-modified fused silica,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter15, S2447–S2456 (2003).
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J. B. Lonzaga, S. M. Avanesyan, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4332–4340 (2003).
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L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.4, 105–110 (2002).
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M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express15, 5676–5681 (2005).
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M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B,60, 9959–9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mauclair, C.

McMillan, P.

P. McMillan, “Structural studies of silicate glasses and melts-applications and limitations of Raman spectroscopy,” Am. Mineral69, 622–644 (1984).

Megela, I. G.

A. V. Gomonnai, Yu. M. Azhniuk, D. B. Goyer, I. G. Megela, and V. V. Lopushansky, “Optical studies of alkali borosilicate glass irradiated with high-energy electrons,” J. Optoelec. Adv. Mater.337–44 (2001).

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction,” Opt. Express16, 5481–5492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. Bonse, A. Mermillod-Blondin, H. Zhang, A. Rosenfeld, and P. R. Herman, “Low-loss waveguides fabricated in BK7 by high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Opt.47, 2098–2102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meshcheryakov, Yu. P.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys.19, 1415–1422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Miese, Ch. T.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, Ch. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectroscop.42, 715–718, (2011).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B,60, 9959–9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mishchik, K.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express15, 5674–5686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.239, 91–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

Musgraves, J. D.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Neuville, D.R.

D. Manara, A. Grandjean, and D.R. Neuville, “Structure of borosilicate glasses and melts : a revision of the Yun, Bray and Dell model,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.355, 2528–2532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. L.

Nolte, S.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull.31, 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Noncryst. Sol.345,346, 332–337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys.19, 1415–1422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Pacchioni, G.

G. Pacchioni, M. Vezzoli, and M. Fanciulli, “Electronic structure of the paramagnetic boron oxygen hole center in B-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B64, 155201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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A. Pasquarello and R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80, 5145–5147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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B. Boizot, G. Petite, D. Ghaleb, B. Reynard, and G. Calas, “Raman study of β-irradiated glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.243, 268–272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

Pontuschka, W. M.

S. M. Del Nery, W. M. Pontuschka, S. Isotani, and C. G. Rouse, “Luminescence quenching by iron in barium aluminoborate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B49, 3760–3765 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poprawe, R.

A. Horn, E. W. Kreutz, and R. Poprawe, “Ultrafast time-resolved photography of femtosecond laser induced modifications in BK7 glass and fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A79, 923–925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reichman, W.

W. Reichman, J. W. Chan, and D. M. Krol, “Confocal fluorescence and Raman microscopy of femtosecond laser-modified fused silica,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter15, S2447–S2456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reynard, B.

B. Boizot, G. Petite, D. Ghaleb, B. Reynard, and G. Calas, “Raman study of β-irradiated glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.243, 268–272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and H. Jain, “Laser-induced structural modification, its mechanisms, and applications in glassy optical materials,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 921–935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, “Laser-induced defects in fused silica by femtosecond IR irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, “Laser-induced defects in fused silica by femtosecond IR irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, K. Gabel, S. V. Garnov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, M. Richardson, and M. J. Soileau, “Color-center generation in silicate glasses exposed to infrared femtosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B15, 193–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A76, 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, “Laser-induced defects in fused silica by femtosecond IR irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

Ródenas, A.

Rosenfeld, A.

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. Bonse, A. Mermillod-Blondin, H. Zhang, A. Rosenfeld, and P. R. Herman, “Low-loss waveguides fabricated in BK7 by high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Opt.47, 2098–2102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rouse, C. G.

S. M. Del Nery, W. M. Pontuschka, S. Isotani, and C. G. Rouse, “Luminescence quenching by iron in barium aluminoborate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B49, 3760–3765 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz De la Cruz, A.

A. Ruiz De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A104, 687–693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

Schaffer, C.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull.31, 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, H.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys.19, 1415–1422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

C. Wei, H. He, Z. Deng, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Study of thermal behaviors in CO2 laser irradiated glass,” Opt. Eng.44, 044202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shihoyama, K.

Shimotsuma, Y.

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express15, 5674–5686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, J.

A. Ruiz De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A104, 687–693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H.L.

J.H. Mackey, H.L. Smith, and A. Halperin, “Optical studies in x-irradiated high purity sodium silicate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Sol.27, 1759–1772 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Solis, J.

A. Ruiz De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A104, 687–693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solov’eva, N. D.

O. N. Bilan, E. S. Voropai, S. M. Gorbachev, N. D. Solov’eva, and D. M. Yudin, “Luminescence of radiation-oxydized iron in silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.51793–706 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sonneville, C.

Spence, D. J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express15, 5676–5681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stebbins, J. F.

S. Wang and J. F. Stebbins, “On the structure of borosilicate glasses: a triple-quantum magic-angle spinning 17O nuclear magnetic resonance study,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.231, 286–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stevels, J. M.

W. L. Konijnendijk and J. M. Stevels, “The structure of borate glasses studied by Raman scattering,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.18, 307–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17, 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction,” Opt. Express16, 5481–5492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.-B.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B,60, 9959–9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terazima, M.

Tomozawa, M.

A. Koike and M. Tomozawa, “IR investigation of density changes of silica glass and soda-lime silicate glass caused by microhardness indentation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353, 2318–2327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Tünnermann, A.

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Noncryst. Sol.345,346, 332–337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vezzoli, M.

G. Pacchioni, M. Vezzoli, and M. Fanciulli, “Electronic structure of the paramagnetic boron oxygen hole center in B-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B64, 155201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voropai, E. S.

O. N. Bilan, E. S. Voropai, S. M. Gorbachev, N. D. Solov’eva, and D. M. Yudin, “Luminescence of radiation-oxydized iron in silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.51793–706 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.4, 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang and J. F. Stebbins, “On the structure of borosilicate glasses: a triple-quantum magic-angle spinning 17O nuclear magnetic resonance study,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.231, 286–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B,60, 9959–9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull.31, 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.

C. Wei, H. He, Z. Deng, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Study of thermal behaviors in CO2 laser irradiated glass,” Opt. Eng.44, 044202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, W. B.

T. Furukawa and W. B. White, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of sodium borosilicate glass structure,” J. Mater. Sci.16, 2689–2700 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Noncryst. Sol.345,346, 332–337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, Ch. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectroscop.42, 715–718, (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express15, 5676–5681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.4, 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, A.

Yudin, D. M.

O. N. Bilan, E. S. Voropai, S. M. Gorbachev, N. D. Solov’eva, and D. M. Yudin, “Luminescence of radiation-oxydized iron in silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.51793–706 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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A. F. Zatsepin, V. B. Guseva, and D. A. Zatsepin, “Luminescence of modified nonbridging oxygen hole centers in silica and alkali silicate glasses,” Glass Phys. Chem.34, 709–715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zatsepin, D. A.

A. F. Zatsepin, V. B. Guseva, and D. A. Zatsepin, “Luminescence of modified nonbridging oxygen hole centers in silica and alkali silicate glasses,” Glass Phys. Chem.34, 709–715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

Zhang, H.

Zimmer, J.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, “Laser-induced defects in fused silica by femtosecond IR irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Am. Mineral (1)

P. McMillan, “Structural studies of silicate glasses and melts-applications and limitations of Raman spectroscopy,” Am. Mineral69, 622–644 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (3)

A. Ruiz De la Cruz, A. Ferrer, J. del Hoyo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects,” Appl. Phys. A104, 687–693 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Horn, E. W. Kreutz, and R. Poprawe, “Ultrafast time-resolved photography of femtosecond laser induced modifications in BK7 glass and fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A79, 923–925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A76, 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glass Phys. Chem. (1)

A. F. Zatsepin, V. B. Guseva, and D. A. Zatsepin, “Luminescence of modified nonbridging oxygen hole centers in silica and alkali silicate glasses,” Glass Phys. Chem.34, 709–715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Lonzaga, S. M. Avanesyan, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4332–4340 (2003).
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J. Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

S. G. Lunter, “Luminescence of glasses activated with trivalent iron,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.8, 964–968 (1968).
[CrossRef]

O. N. Bilan, E. S. Voropai, S. M. Gorbachev, N. D. Solov’eva, and D. M. Yudin, “Luminescence of radiation-oxydized iron in silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.51793–706 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. Furukawa and W. B. White, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of sodium borosilicate glass structure,” J. Mater. Sci.16, 2689–2700 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (5)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.239, 91–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Manara, A. Grandjean, and D.R. Neuville, “Structure of borosilicate glasses and melts : a revision of the Yun, Bray and Dell model,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.355, 2528–2532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang and J. F. Stebbins, “On the structure of borosilicate glasses: a triple-quantum magic-angle spinning 17O nuclear magnetic resonance study,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.231, 286–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Konijnendijk and J. M. Stevels, “The structure of borate glasses studied by Raman scattering,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.18, 307–331 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. Boizot, G. Petite, D. Ghaleb, B. Reynard, and G. Calas, “Raman study of β-irradiated glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.243, 268–272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

A. Koike and M. Tomozawa, “IR investigation of density changes of silica glass and soda-lime silicate glass caused by microhardness indentation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353, 2318–2327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Brückner, “Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids5, 123–175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Noncryst. Sol. (1)

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Noncryst. Sol.345,346, 332–337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Luo, D. Wang, C. Li, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Formation of diversiform microstructures in wide-bandgap materials by tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.4, 105–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Optoelec. Adv. Mater. (1)

A. V. Gomonnai, Yu. M. Azhniuk, D. B. Goyer, I. G. Megela, and V. V. Lopushansky, “Optical studies of alkali borosilicate glass irradiated with high-energy electrons,” J. Optoelec. Adv. Mater.337–44 (2001).

J. Phys. Chem. Sol. (1)

J.H. Mackey, H.L. Smith, and A. Halperin, “Optical studies in x-irradiated high purity sodium silicate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Sol.27, 1759–1772 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

W. Reichman, J. W. Chan, and D. M. Krol, “Confocal fluorescence and Raman microscopy of femtosecond laser-modified fused silica,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter15, S2447–S2456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectroscop. (1)

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, Ch. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectroscop.42, 715–718, (2011).
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Laser Phys. (1)

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys.19, 1415–1422 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

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Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Wei, H. He, Z. Deng, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Study of thermal behaviors in CO2 laser irradiated glass,” Opt. Eng.44, 044202 (2005).
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Opt. Express (7)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express15, 5676–5681 (2005).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical ultrafast laser-induced static transformations in BK7. Top row: The evolution of the static index change with energy (a) (for single pulse exposures), number of pulses at constant energy per pulse (b), and pulse duration (c) for low repetition rates (166 Hz). The pulse duration in (a,b) is 160 fs and the input energy for (b,c) is 1 μJ. Bottom row: The evolution of the static index change with the energy (d), number of pulses (e) and pulse duration (f) for high repetition rates (100 kHz). The exposure dose corresponds to 50000 pulses in (d,f). The pulse duration in (d,e) is 160 fs. The input power in (e) and (f) is 65 mW, 17 mW (0,65 and 0,17 μJ), respectively. Other experimental conditions are marked on the figure. All structures are made at a depth of 250 μm below the input surface using the OB2 with NAeff =0.42.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Various regimes of modification induced by longitudinally-scanned (LW) femtosecond (160 fs) laser pulses at 100 kHz repetition rate in BK7 glass as a function of the writing conditions. These are: (a) PCM image of type I weak positive RIC, (b) PCM image of type II-NGN with negative RIC, and (c) strong positive RIC type II-GP region in the core surrounded by negative RIC cladding type II-GN. The insert shows the corresponding static traces. The irradiation conditions are given on the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Side PCM and OTM images of type I traces made by slit-shaping transverse scanning (200 fs). Note the coloration of the glass in OTM. (b) Axial transillumination microscopy images for traces written at different energies corresponding to those shown in (e) and corresponding guided modes at 633 nm, (c) Simulated footprint of the nonlinear irradiance distribution in the exposure region, (d) Red PL (650 nm) signal distribution after 633 nm excitation (upper part) and green PL (550 nm) after 488 nm excitation (bottom) in highest energy traces (b). (e) Dependence of the positive index change on the input energy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Guiding properties of type II traces in different ultrafast photoinscription settings. Depending on the photo-writing geometry, guiding compacted regions are either central or off axis. (a) Side image of longitudinal trace type II G (with GP, GN parts) written at 100 kHz, (b) Side image of a transverse trace at 100 kHz, (c) Axial image of a transverse trace at 1 kHz. Typical guided modes are indicated at the right side, showing either central or lateral guiding in stressed regions. The direction of the laser beam is marked.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) PL spectra of the pristine BK7 glass for different excitation wavelengths indicated respectively by different colors. The red line is the HeNe 633 nm (2 eV) excitation, light blue - Ar+ 488 nm (2.54 eV), blue – HeCd 442 nm (2.81 eV), and magenta – HeCd 325 nm (3.8 eV). (b) PL spectra observed for type I structures, showing bands at 540 nm, 650 nm, and in the 750–775 nm range, with the potential assignment given in the text. The PCM image of type I modification is given in the insert.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) PCM image of type II-NGN modification in BK7 glass showing schematically the geometry of cross-section map spectroscopy. (b) The associated PL spectra measured in the trace cross-section. Color assignment of different excitation sources is the same as in Fig. 5. Bottom: 2D spectral maps of (c) the 540 nm band. (d) 650–775 nm band intensities and (e) 775 nm band shift upon excitation with HeCd (442 nm) light. (f) 775 nm band intensities and (g) 775 nm band shift upon excitation with HeNe (633 nm) light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) PCM image of type II-G modification in BK7 glass showing schematically the geometry of cross-section map spectroscopy. PL spectra of (b) type II-GP and (c) type II-GN regions. Color assignment of different excitation sources is the same as in Fig. 5. Bottom: 2D spectral maps of (d) the 540 nm band. (e) 650–775 nm band intensities and (f) 775 nm band shift upon excitation with HeCd (442 nm) light. (g) 775 nm band intensities and (h) 775 nm band shift upon excitation with HeNe (633 nm) light.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Raman spectrum of the pristine BK7 glass. (b) Raman spectrum of type I positive RIC longitudinal trace (made by slit-shaping with circular polarization, index contrast 1.76×10−4). (c) Raman spectrum of nonguiding longitudinal trace of negative RIC (type II-NGN). (d) Raman spectrum of the negative RIC cladding region for the guiding longitudinal trace (type II-GN). (e) Raman spectrum of the positive RIC core region of the guiding longitudinal trace (type II-GP). For type II, Raman spectroscopy was realized in cross-section.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Absorption and PL bands of point defects reported for borosilicate glasses.

Equations (1)

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Si O Si + R 2 O 2 Si O : R ,

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