Abstract

Strong scattering intensities in a broadband wavelength range from metallic nanoparticles are essential for diverse photonics applications. Conventional ways of controlling particle scattering are via the control of the size, shape and embedding dielectric environment. In this paper we demonstrate that tailoring the particle surface roughness is another effective way of controlling particle scattering. Roughly surfaced lumpy silver nanoparticles, which have anisotropic surface topography, are realized by a controlled shape- and size-selective wet chemical method. Through the systematic comparison with the smoothly surfaced nanoparticles of the same size and size distribution, we verify both experimentally and theoretically that the lumpy nanoparticles produce large-angle broadband plasmonic scattering due to their unique surface anisotropic structure.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012

N. Fahim, Z. Ouyang, Y. N. Zhang, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Efficiency enhancement of screen-printed multicrystalline silicon solar cells by integrating gold nanoparticles via a dip coating process,” Opt. Mater. Express2(2), 190–204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Fahim, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Simultaneous broadband light trapping and fill factor enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells induced by Ag nanoparticles and nanoshells,” Opt. Express20(S5Suppl 5), A694–A705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Singh, T. E. Lanier, H. Zhu, W. M. Dennis, R. A. Tripp, and Y. P. Zhao, “Highly sensitive and transparent surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by active coldly condensed Ag nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(38), 20550–20557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Q. Zhou, Y. P. He, J. Abell, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and surface enhanced Raman scattering of L-shaped silver nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(29), 14131–14140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express19(25), 25230–25241 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Plasmonic light-trapping for Si solar cells using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(7), 500–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. D. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 268–274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Jana, “Gram-scale synthesis of soluble, near-monodisperse gold nanorods and other anisotropic nanoparticles,” Small1(8-9), 875–882 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. Zhang, L. Qi, J. Yang, J. Ma, H. Cheng, and L. Huang, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanowire thin films at ambient temperature,” Chem. Mater.16(5), 872–876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesis of high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abell, J.

Q. Zhou, Y. P. He, J. Abell, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and surface enhanced Raman scattering of L-shaped silver nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(29), 14131–14140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, F. J.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express19(25), 25230–25241 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Plasmonic light-trapping for Si solar cells using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(7), 500–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B. Y.

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, P.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express19(25), 25230–25241 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Plasmonic light-trapping for Si solar cells using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(7), 500–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. C.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P. L.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

D. Zhang, L. Qi, J. Yang, J. Ma, H. Cheng, and L. Huang, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanowire thin films at ambient temperature,” Chem. Mater.16(5), 872–876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chien, F. C.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chon, J. W. M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dennis, W. M.

J. P. Singh, T. E. Lanier, H. Zhu, W. M. Dennis, R. A. Tripp, and Y. P. Zhao, “Highly sensitive and transparent surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by active coldly condensed Ag nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(38), 20550–20557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Derkacs, D.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duche, D.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fahim, N.

Fahim, N. F.

Feng, B.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flory, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gearheart, L.

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesis of high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

N. Fahim, Z. Ouyang, Y. N. Zhang, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Efficiency enhancement of screen-printed multicrystalline silicon solar cells by integrating gold nanoparticles via a dip coating process,” Opt. Mater. Express2(2), 190–204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Fahim, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Simultaneous broadband light trapping and fill factor enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells induced by Ag nanoparticles and nanoshells,” Opt. Express20(S5Suppl 5), A694–A705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hägglund, C.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y. P.

Q. Zhou, Y. P. He, J. Abell, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and surface enhanced Raman scattering of L-shaped silver nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(29), 14131–14140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henzie, J.

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. D. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 268–274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, Y. S.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. S.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

D. Zhang, L. Qi, J. Yang, J. Ma, H. Cheng, and L. Huang, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanowire thin films at ambient temperature,” Chem. Mater.16(5), 872–876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jana, N. R.

N. R. Jana, “Gram-scale synthesis of soluble, near-monodisperse gold nanorods and other anisotropic nanoparticles,” Small1(8-9), 875–882 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesis of high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B. H.

N. F. Fahim, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Simultaneous broadband light trapping and fill factor enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells induced by Ag nanoparticles and nanoshells,” Opt. Express20(S5Suppl 5), A694–A705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fahim, Z. Ouyang, Y. N. Zhang, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Efficiency enhancement of screen-printed multicrystalline silicon solar cells by integrating gold nanoparticles via a dip coating process,” Opt. Mater. Express2(2), 190–204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kasemo, B.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koh, W. S.

Kunz, O.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanier, T. E.

J. P. Singh, T. E. Lanier, H. Zhu, W. M. Dennis, R. A. Tripp, and Y. P. Zhao, “Highly sensitive and transparent surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by active coldly condensed Ag nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(38), 20550–20557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ling, X. Y.

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. D. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 268–274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, P.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

D. Zhang, L. Qi, J. Yang, J. Ma, H. Cheng, and L. Huang, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanowire thin films at ambient temperature,” Chem. Mater.16(5), 872–876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mar, W.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matheu, P.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mathian, G.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mokkapati, S.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express19(25), 25230–25241 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Plasmonic light-trapping for Si solar cells using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(7), 500–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monestier, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, E.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mulvihill, M. J.

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. D. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 268–274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munday, J. N.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesis of high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ostrikov, K.

Ouyang, Z.

N. Fahim, Z. Ouyang, Y. N. Zhang, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Efficiency enhancement of screen-printed multicrystalline silicon solar cells by integrating gold nanoparticles via a dip coating process,” Opt. Mater. Express2(2), 190–204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersson, G.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qi, L.

D. Zhang, L. Qi, J. Yang, J. Ma, H. Cheng, and L. Huang, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanowire thin films at ambient temperature,” Chem. Mater.16(5), 872–876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Q.

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, F.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saha, J. K.

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaadt, D. M.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Z. R.

N. Fahim, Z. Ouyang, Y. N. Zhang, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Efficiency enhancement of screen-printed multicrystalline silicon solar cells by integrating gold nanoparticles via a dip coating process,” Opt. Mater. Express2(2), 190–204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Fahim, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Simultaneous broadband light trapping and fill factor enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells induced by Ag nanoparticles and nanoshells,” Opt. Express20(S5Suppl 5), A694–A705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, J. J.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

J. P. Singh, T. E. Lanier, H. Zhu, W. M. Dennis, R. A. Tripp, and Y. P. Zhao, “Highly sensitive and transparent surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by active coldly condensed Ag nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(38), 20550–20557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, N.

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sukmanowski, J.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tripp, R. A.

J. P. Singh, T. E. Lanier, H. Zhu, W. M. Dennis, R. A. Tripp, and Y. P. Zhao, “Highly sensitive and transparent surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by active coldly condensed Ag nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(38), 20550–20557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varlamov, S.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Q.

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. L.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

D. Zhang, L. Qi, J. Yang, J. Ma, H. Cheng, and L. Huang, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanowire thin films at ambient temperature,” Chem. Mater.16(5), 872–876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. D. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 268–274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, E. T.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zach, M.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, L. Qi, J. Yang, J. Ma, H. Cheng, and L. Huang, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanowire thin films at ambient temperature,” Chem. Mater.16(5), 872–876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. N.

N. Fahim, Z. Ouyang, Y. N. Zhang, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Efficiency enhancement of screen-printed multicrystalline silicon solar cells by integrating gold nanoparticles via a dip coating process,” Opt. Mater. Express2(2), 190–204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. J.

Q. Zhou, Y. P. He, J. Abell, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and surface enhanced Raman scattering of L-shaped silver nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(29), 14131–14140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. P.

J. P. Singh, T. E. Lanier, H. Zhu, W. M. Dennis, R. A. Tripp, and Y. P. Zhao, “Highly sensitive and transparent surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by active coldly condensed Ag nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(38), 20550–20557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou, Y. P. He, J. Abell, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and surface enhanced Raman scattering of L-shaped silver nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(29), 14131–14140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, Y. P. He, J. Abell, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and surface enhanced Raman scattering of L-shaped silver nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(29), 14131–14140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

J. P. Singh, T. E. Lanier, H. Zhu, W. M. Dennis, R. A. Tripp, and Y. P. Zhao, “Highly sensitive and transparent surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by active coldly condensed Ag nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(38), 20550–20557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zijlstra, P.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. L. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. H. Jia, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

D. Zhang, L. Qi, J. Yang, J. Ma, H. Cheng, and L. Huang, “Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanowire thin films at ambient temperature,” Chem. Mater.16(5), 872–876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. D. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 268–274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesis of high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

J. P. Singh, T. E. Lanier, H. Zhu, W. M. Dennis, R. A. Tripp, and Y. P. Zhao, “Highly sensitive and transparent surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by active coldly condensed Ag nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(38), 20550–20557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou, Y. P. He, J. Abell, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and surface enhanced Raman scattering of L-shaped silver nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(29), 14131–14140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

X. Chen, B. H. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Y. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Q. Wang, Z. R. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater. Express

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Plasmonic light-trapping for Si solar cells using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(7), 500–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

N. R. Jana, “Gram-scale synthesis of soluble, near-monodisperse gold nanorods and other anisotropic nanoparticles,” Small1(8-9), 875–882 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

Lumerical, “FDTD solutions” (Lumerical, Toronto, Canada, accessed August 2012), http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/ .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing of a lumpy nanoparticle. (b-d) SEM images of the lumpy silver nanoparticles with diameters of (b) 150 nm, (c) 200 nm and (d) 250 nm. (e) Schematic drawing of a smoothly surfaced nanoparticle. (f-h) SEM images of the smoothly surfaced silver nanoparticles with diameters of (f) 150 nm, (g) 200 nm and (h) 250 nm. Scale bar: 200 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Size distribution graphs of (a-c) 150 nm, 200 nm and 250 nm lumpy silver nanoparticles, respectively, and (d-f) 150 nm, 200 nm and 250 nm smoothly surfaced silver nanoparticles, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured UV-visible extinction spectra of silver lumpy (solid) and smoothly surfaced (dash dot) nanoparticle suspension with different diameters of 150 nm (red), 200 nm (blue), and 250 nm (magenta), respectively. Each extinction spectrum is averaged from three measurements. The measurement error is estimated to be within ±1%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FDTD simulation of the scattering intensity mappings as a function of the scattering angle and the incident wavelength of a 200 nm (a) smoothly surfaced nanoparticle; (b) lumpy nanoparticle; (c) the scattering enhancement mapping by dividing (a) by (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated scattering cross-sections for lumpy and smoothly surfaced nanoparticles with diameters of 150 nm, 200 nm and 250 nm in a ZnO:Al layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Jsc enhancements of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with silver lumpy nanoparticles and smoothly surfaced nanoparticles with the same size and size distribution. Inset: schematic drawings of the lumpy silver particle integration into the ZnO:Al layer of the amorphous silicon solar cells.

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