Abstract

We have fabricated a series of thin (~50 nm) erbium-doped (by ion implantation) silicon-rich oxide films in the configuration that mitigates previously proposed mechanisms for loss of light emission capability of erbium ions. By combining the methods of optical, structural and electrical analysis, we identify the erbium ion clustering as a driving mechanism to low optical performance of this material. Experimental findings in this work clearly evidence inadequacy of the commonly employed optimization procedure when optical amplification is considered. We reveal that the significantly lower erbium ion concentrations are to be used in order to fully exploit the potential of this approach and achieve net optical gain.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Polman and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21(5), 871–895 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(20), 207401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(3), 031116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. A. Barrios and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide,” Opt. Express13(25), 10092–10101 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3732 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4472–4478 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Wang, P. Li, M. Malac, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “The spatial distribution of silicon NCs and erbium ion clusters by simultaneous high-resolution energy filtered and Z-contrast STEM and transmission electron tomography,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.8(3), 1038–1043 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Shah, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, M. P. Halsall, H. Li, and I. F. Crowe, “Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide,” J. Lumin. (to be published).
  25. A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Minissale, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Forcales, and R. G. Elliman, “On optical activity of Er3+ ions in Si-rich SiO2 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 171908 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Maurizio, F. Iacona, F. D’Acapito, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Er site in Er-implanted Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205428 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 183102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. de Dood, L. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Local optical density of states in SiO2 spherical microcavities: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033807 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express17(2), 906–911 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. L. Borowska, S. Fritzsche, P. G. Kik, and A. E. Masunov, “Near-field enhancement of infrared intensities for f-f transitions in Er3+ ions close to the surface of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Mol. Model.17(3), 423–428 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681 (1946).
  37. E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, “Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(13), 2459–2462 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. H. Urbach and G. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

X. Wang, P. Li, M. Malac, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “The spatial distribution of silicon NCs and erbium ion clusters by simultaneous high-resolution energy filtered and Z-contrast STEM and transmission electron tomography,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.8(3), 1038–1043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Borowska, S. Fritzsche, P. G. Kik, and A. E. Masunov, “Near-field enhancement of infrared intensities for f-f transitions in Er3+ ions close to the surface of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Mol. Model.17(3), 423–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express17(2), 906–911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 183102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(3), 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Maurizio, F. Iacona, F. D’Acapito, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Er site in Er-implanted Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Minissale, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Forcales, and R. G. Elliman, “On optical activity of Er3+ ions in Si-rich SiO2 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 171908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide,” Opt. Express13(25), 10092–10101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21(5), 871–895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. de Dood, L. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Local optical density of states in SiO2 spherical microcavities: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Urbach and G. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, “Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(13), 2459–2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1946

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681 (1946).

Alizadeh, H.

D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anopchenko, A.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arbiol, J.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bangert, U.

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Berencén, Y.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bongiorno, C.

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boninelli, S.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borowska, L.

L. Borowska, S. Fritzsche, P. G. Kik, and A. E. Masunov, “Near-field enhancement of infrared intensities for f-f transitions in Er3+ ions close to the surface of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Mol. Model.17(3), 423–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cardin, J.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carrada, M.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coffa, S.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, K.

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cognolato, L.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colonna, J.-P.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Creatore, C.

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, I. F.

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Shah, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, M. P. Halsall, H. Li, and I. F. Crowe, “Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide,” J. Lumin. (to be published).

Cueff, S.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Acapito, F.

C. Maurizio, F. Iacona, F. D’Acapito, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Er site in Er-implanted Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Dood, M.

M. de Dood, L. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Local optical density of states in SiO2 spherical microcavities: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elliman, R. G.

S. Minissale, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Forcales, and R. G. Elliman, “On optical activity of Er3+ ions in Si-rich SiO2 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 171908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferrarese Lupi, F.

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forcales, M.

S. Minissale, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Forcales, and R. G. Elliman, “On optical activity of Er3+ ions in Si-rich SiO2 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 171908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 183102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Maurizio, F. Iacona, F. D’Acapito, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Er site in Er-implanted Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, S.

L. Borowska, S. Fritzsche, P. G. Kik, and A. E. Masunov, “Near-field enhancement of infrared intensities for f-f transitions in Er3+ ions close to the surface of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Mol. Model.17(3), 423–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, M.

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, C.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García, C.

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, B.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gourbilleau, F.

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minissale, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Forcales, and R. G. Elliman, “On optical activity of Er3+ ions in Si-rich SiO2 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 171908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grimaldi, M. G.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, O.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R. M.

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Halsall, M. P.

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Shah, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, M. P. Halsall, H. Li, and I. F. Crowe, “Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide,” J. Lumin. (to be published).

Hayashi, S.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, H.

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helmy, A.

D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hijazi, K.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

Iacona, F.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 183102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Maurizio, F. Iacona, F. D’Acapito, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Er site in Er-implanted Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, A.

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Izeddin, I.

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jambois, O.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, Y.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kashtiban, R. J.

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, A. J.

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express17(2), 906–911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(3), 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Shah, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, M. P. Halsall, H. Li, and I. F. Crowe, “Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide,” J. Lumin. (to be published).

Kherani, N. P.

D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khomenkova, L.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P.

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

L. Borowska, S. Fritzsche, P. G. Kik, and A. E. Masunov, “Near-field enhancement of infrared intensities for f-f transitions in Er3+ ions close to the surface of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Mol. Model.17(3), 423–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klik, M.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Labbé, C.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagendijk, A.

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, “Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(13), 2459–2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lebour, Y.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

M. Shah, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, M. P. Halsall, H. Li, and I. F. Crowe, “Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide,” J. Lumin. (to be published).

Li, P.

X. Wang, P. Li, M. Malac, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “The spatial distribution of silicon NCs and erbium ion clusters by simultaneous high-resolution energy filtered and Z-contrast STEM and transmission electron tomography,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.8(3), 1038–1043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lo Savio, R.

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, R.

X. Wang, P. Li, M. Malac, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “The spatial distribution of silicon NCs and erbium ion clusters by simultaneous high-resolution energy filtered and Z-contrast STEM and transmission electron tomography,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.8(3), 1038–1043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express17(2), 906–911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(3), 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malac, M.

X. Wang, P. Li, M. Malac, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “The spatial distribution of silicon NCs and erbium ion clusters by simultaneous high-resolution energy filtered and Z-contrast STEM and transmission electron tomography,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.8(3), 1038–1043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, A.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Masunov, A. E.

L. Borowska, S. Fritzsche, P. G. Kik, and A. E. Masunov, “Near-field enhancement of infrared intensities for f-f transitions in Er3+ ions close to the surface of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Mol. Model.17(3), 423–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maurizio, C.

C. Maurizio, F. Iacona, F. D’Acapito, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Er site in Er-implanted Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Melchiorri, M.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meldrum, A.

X. Wang, P. Li, M. Malac, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “The spatial distribution of silicon NCs and erbium ion clusters by simultaneous high-resolution energy filtered and Z-contrast STEM and transmission electron tomography,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.8(3), 1038–1043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Milesi, F.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Minissale, S.

S. Minissale, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Forcales, and R. G. Elliman, “On optical activity of Er3+ ions in Si-rich SiO2 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 171908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miritello, M.

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Montserrat, J.

Morante, J. R.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moroz, A.

M. de Dood, L. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Local optical density of states in SiO2 spherical microcavities: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moskalenko, A.

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moskalenko, A. S.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicotra, G.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nukala, H.

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C. J.

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(3), 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Pavesi, L.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pecora, E.

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 183102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P.

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pitanti, A.

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

A. Polman and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21(5), 871–895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. de Dood, L. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Local optical density of states in SiO2 spherical microcavities: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, “Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(13), 2459–2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Portier, X.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Priolo, F.

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 183102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Maurizio, F. Iacona, F. D’Acapito, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Er site in Er-implanted Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prokofiev, A.

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prtljaga, N.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681 (1946).

Qian, L.

D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ramírez, J. M.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G.

H. Urbach and G. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rizk, R.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Ruhge, F.

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sada, C.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savchyn, O.

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-Y.

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shah, M.

M. Shah, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, M. P. Halsall, H. Li, and I. F. Crowe, “Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide,” J. Lumin. (to be published).

Sherliker, B.

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slooff, L.

M. de Dood, L. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Local optical density of states in SiO2 spherical microcavities: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, “Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(13), 2459–2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinella, C.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, D. A.

D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tengattini, A.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Timmerman, D.

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Todi, R.

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H.

H. Urbach and G. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Blaaderen, A.

M. de Dood, L. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Local optical density of states in SiO2 spherical microcavities: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

Vinciguerra, V.

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, P. Li, M. Malac, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “The spatial distribution of silicon NCs and erbium ion clusters by simultaneous high-resolution energy filtered and Z-contrast STEM and transmission electron tomography,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.8(3), 1038–1043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wojdak, M.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Shah, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, M. P. Halsall, H. Li, and I. F. Crowe, “Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide,” J. Lumin. (to be published).

Yamamoto, K.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yassievich, I.

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yassievich, I. N.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zukotynski, S.

D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3871–3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(3), 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Ferrarese Lupi, N. Prtljaga, A. Pitanti, O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Copropagating pump and probe experiments on Si-nc in SiO2 rib waveguides doped with Er: the optical role of non-emitting ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, “Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(12), 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Minissale, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Forcales, and R. G. Elliman, “On optical activity of Er3+ ions in Si-rich SiO2 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 171908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 183102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, C. Sada, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(26), 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er3+ ions in SiO2 codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramírez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. F. Crowe, R. J. Kashtiban, B. Sherliker, U. Bangert, M. P. Halsall, A. P. Knights, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal,” J. Appl. Phys.107(4), 044316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.89(1), 264–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

D. A. Stanley, H. Alizadeh, A. Helmy, N. P. Kherani, L. Qian, and S. Zukotynski, “SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Lumin.131(1), 72–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Shah, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, M. P. Halsall, H. Li, and I. F. Crowe, “Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide,” J. Lumin. (to be published).

J. Mol. Model.

L. Borowska, S. Fritzsche, P. G. Kik, and A. E. Masunov, “Near-field enhancement of infrared intensities for f-f transitions in Er3+ ions close to the surface of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Mol. Model.17(3), 423–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nanoscale Res. Lett.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. A

H. Urbach and G. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. de Dood, L. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Local optical density of states in SiO2 spherical microcavities: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

C. Maurizio, F. Iacona, F. D’Acapito, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Er site in Er-implanted Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Savchyn, F. Ruhge, P. Kik, R. Todi, K. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Izeddin, D. Timmerman, T. Gregorkiewicz, A. Moskalenko, A. Prokofiev, I. Yassievich, and M. Fujii, “Energy transfer in Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B78(3), 035327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, “Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(13), 2459–2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.

X. Wang, P. Li, M. Malac, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “The spatial distribution of silicon NCs and erbium ion clusters by simultaneous high-resolution energy filtered and Z-contrast STEM and transmission electron tomography,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.8(3), 1038–1043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Semi-log plot of erbium concentration profile in the studied samples obtained by SIMS. Thick vertical dashed lines indicate interfaces between air/SRO and SRO/silicon substrate. Vertical red dotted line corresponds to the peak Er3+ concentration, and the horizontal red dotted line to an average Er3+ concentration in the active layer. The shaded area corresponds to the layer where erbium clusters are visible in TEM images. (b) Bright field scanning TEM (STEM) image of the sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PL spectrum of the 4I13/24I15/2 radiative erbium transition in the studied sample under non-resonant optical excitation. (b) Normalized visible PL spectrum under CW UV optical excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The best fit (red line) of experimental data (black spheres) obtained using non-resonant optical excitation by Eq. (1). Dashed horizontal line represents the time decay in absence of cooperative upconversion. (b) The best fit (red line) of experimental data (black spheres) obtained using resonant optical excitation by Eq. (2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) EFTEM image of the sample. (b) High angle annular dark field STEM image of the sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EL spectrum of the 4I13/24I15/2 radiative erbium transition in the studied samples.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 τ PL ( Φ exc ) = n 2 * C up ln(1+ τ 0 * n 2 * C up )
n 2 = [ ( σ abs (974nm)* Φ exc + 1 τ 0 ) 2 +4* σ abs (974nm)* C up * n active * Φ exc ] 1/2 2* C up ( σ abs (974nm)* Φ exc + 1 τ 0 ) 2* C up .

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