Abstract

We report the properties of thermally evaporated Ge11.5As24Se64.5 chalcogenide films ion implanted at energies of 2.25MeV with Erbium at concentrations up to 0.4 mol%. The effect of post implant annealing on the refractive index of the films and on the 4I13/24I15/2 Er transition was studied. Photoluminescence was found to increase significantly and a lifetime of 1.35 ms was obtained in films annealed at 180°C. Different apparent lifetimes for the 4I13/24I15/2 transition were obtained for 980nm and 1470nm pumps and the origins of this phenomenon are discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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  22. A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge-S-Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(1), 107–110 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Tronc, M. Bensoussan, A. Brenac, G. Errandonea, and C. Sebenne, “Raman-Scattering and Local Order in GexSe1-X Glasses for 1/3≤X≤1/2,” J. Phys.38(12), 1493–1498 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Mamedov, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, and P. Boolchand, “Evidence for nanoscale phase separation of stressed-rigid glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15(31), S2397–S2411 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

R. P. Wang, D. Bulla, A. Smith, T. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Structure and physical properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses with the same mean coordination number of 2.5,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 023517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, A. Fuchs, and J. Fick, “Effect of annealing on the photoluminescence in sputtered films of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B47(2), 162–166 (2006).

2005 (2)

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1271–1276 (2005).

2004 (2)

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

D. T. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er3+-doped (GaSe)x(As2Se3)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 364–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids331(1-3), 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge-S-Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Mamedov, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, and P. Boolchand, “Evidence for nanoscale phase separation of stressed-rigid glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15(31), S2397–S2411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

J. Fick, É. J. Knystautas, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Q. Gu, S. Ramachandran, E. E. Reuter, D. A. Turnbull, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Novel broad-band excitation of Er3+ luminescence in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(6), 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. Tronc, M. Bensoussan, A. Brenac, G. Errandonea, and C. Sebenne, “Raman-Scattering and Local Order in GexSe1-X Glasses for 1/3≤X≤1/2,” J. Phys.38(12), 1493–1498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Allen, T. W.

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ashkinadze, B.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bensoussan, M.

P. Tronc, M. Bensoussan, A. Brenac, G. Errandonea, and C. Sebenne, “Raman-Scattering and Local Order in GexSe1-X Glasses for 1/3≤X≤1/2,” J. Phys.38(12), 1493–1498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, S. G.

S. Q. Gu, S. Ramachandran, E. E. Reuter, D. A. Turnbull, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Novel broad-band excitation of Er3+ luminescence in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(6), 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boolchand, P.

S. Mamedov, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, and P. Boolchand, “Evidence for nanoscale phase separation of stressed-rigid glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15(31), S2397–S2411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D.

Brenac, A.

P. Tronc, M. Bensoussan, A. Brenac, G. Errandonea, and C. Sebenne, “Raman-Scattering and Local Order in GexSe1-X Glasses for 1/3≤X≤1/2,” J. Phys.38(12), 1493–1498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brik, M. G.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

R. P. Wang, D. Bulla, A. Smith, T. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Structure and physical properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses with the same mean coordination number of 2.5,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 023517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W−1m−1 at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulla, D. A.

Bulla, D. A. P.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cernosek, Z.

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge-S-Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cernoskova, E.

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge-S-Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, D.-Y.

Coleman, D. J.

Decorby, R. G.

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er3+-doped (GaSe)x(As2Se3)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 364–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Errandonea, G.

P. Tronc, M. Bensoussan, A. Brenac, G. Errandonea, and C. Sebenne, “Raman-Scattering and Local Order in GexSe1-X Glasses for 1/3≤X≤1/2,” J. Phys.38(12), 1493–1498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fick, J.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, A. Fuchs, and J. Fick, “Effect of annealing on the photoluminescence in sputtered films of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B47(2), 162–166 (2006).

J. Fick, É. J. Knystautas, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, A.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, A. Fuchs, and J. Fick, “Effect of annealing on the photoluminescence in sputtered films of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B47(2), 162–166 (2006).

Gai, X.

Georgiev, D. G.

S. Mamedov, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, and P. Boolchand, “Evidence for nanoscale phase separation of stressed-rigid glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15(31), S2397–S2411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golding, P.

Gu, S. Q.

S. Q. Gu, S. Ramachandran, E. E. Reuter, D. A. Turnbull, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Novel broad-band excitation of Er3+ luminescence in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(6), 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, C. J.

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er3+-doped (GaSe)x(As2Se3)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 364–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hawkeye, M. M.

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, D. Brady, and D. W. Hewak, “Fabrication and spectroscopy of erbium doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass fibres for mid-infrared laser applications,” Opt. Express1(4), 102–107 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B.-C.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids331(1-3), 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, Z. G.

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1271–1276 (2005).

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge-S-Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Jiang, S.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids331(1-3), 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kadono, K.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids331(1-3), 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S. O.

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1271–1276 (2005).

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er3+-doped (GaSe)x(As2Se3)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 364–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

Klebanov, M.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knystautas, É. J.

J. Fick, É. J. Knystautas, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koughia, K.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1271–1276 (2005).

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

X. Gai, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Polarization-independent chalcogenide glass nanowires with anomalous dispersion for all-optical processing,” Opt. Express20(12), 13513–13521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

R. P. Wang, D. Bulla, A. Smith, T. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Structure and physical properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses with the same mean coordination number of 2.5,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 023517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Dispersion engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 nanowires with a nonlinear parameter of 136 W−1m−1 at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express18(18), 18866–18874 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyubin, V.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mamedov, S.

S. Mamedov, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, and P. Boolchand, “Evidence for nanoscale phase separation of stressed-rigid glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15(31), S2397–S2411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. N.

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er3+-doped (GaSe)x(As2Se3)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 364–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Munzar, M.

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M. D.

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids331(1-3), 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pivin, J. C.

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1271–1276 (2005).

Porque, J.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids331(1-3), 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pradel, A.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, A. Fuchs, and J. Fick, “Effect of annealing on the photoluminescence in sputtered films of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B47(2), 162–166 (2006).

Prasad, A.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, T.

S. Mamedov, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, and P. Boolchand, “Evidence for nanoscale phase separation of stressed-rigid glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15(31), S2397–S2411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

S. Q. Gu, S. Ramachandran, E. E. Reuter, D. A. Turnbull, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Novel broad-band excitation of Er3+ luminescence in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(6), 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, E. E.

S. Q. Gu, S. Ramachandran, E. E. Reuter, D. A. Turnbull, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Novel broad-band excitation of Er3+ luminescence in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(6), 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Richardson, K. A.

J. Fick, É. J. Knystautas, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, S.

J. Fick, É. J. Knystautas, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B. N.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schiettekatte, F.

J. Fick, É. J. Knystautas, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

Sebenne, C.

P. Tronc, M. Bensoussan, A. Brenac, G. Errandonea, and C. Sebenne, “Raman-Scattering and Local Order in GexSe1-X Glasses for 1/3≤X≤1/2,” J. Phys.38(12), 1493–1498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sfez, B.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

R. P. Wang, D. Bulla, A. Smith, T. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Structure and physical properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses with the same mean coordination number of 2.5,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 023517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soundararajan, G.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tonchev, D.

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1271–1276 (2005).

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, D. T.

D. T. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er3+-doped (GaSe)x(As2Se3)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 364–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tronc, P.

P. Tronc, M. Bensoussan, A. Brenac, G. Errandonea, and C. Sebenne, “Raman-Scattering and Local Order in GexSe1-X Glasses for 1/3≤X≤1/2,” J. Phys.38(12), 1493–1498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, D. A.

S. Q. Gu, S. Ramachandran, E. E. Reuter, D. A. Turnbull, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Novel broad-band excitation of Er3+ luminescence in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(6), 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vassilev, V. S.

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge-S-Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Verdeyen, J. T.

S. Q. Gu, S. Ramachandran, E. E. Reuter, D. A. Turnbull, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Novel broad-band excitation of Er3+ luminescence in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(6), 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vigreux-Bercovici, C.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, A. Fuchs, and J. Fick, “Effect of annealing on the photoluminescence in sputtered films of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B47(2), 162–166 (2006).

Villeneuve, A.

J. Fick, É. J. Knystautas, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vu, K.

Wang, R. P.

R. P. Wang, D. Bulla, A. Smith, T. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Structure and physical properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses with the same mean coordination number of 2.5,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 023517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

R. P. Wang, D. Bulla, A. Smith, T. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Structure and physical properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses with the same mean coordination number of 2.5,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 023517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yazawa, T.

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids331(1-3), 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. C.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zha, C. J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Q. Gu, S. Ramachandran, E. E. Reuter, D. A. Turnbull, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Novel broad-band excitation of Er3+ luminescence in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(6), 670–672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. P. Wang, D. Bulla, A. Smith, T. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Structure and physical properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses with the same mean coordination number of 2.5,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 023517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses,” J. Lumin.112(1-4), 92–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

J. Fick, É. J. Knystautas, A. Villeneuve, F. Schiettekatte, S. Roorda, and K. A. Richardson, “High photoluminescence in Erbium-doped chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids272(2-3), 200–208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids208(1-2), 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kadono, T. Yazawa, S. Jiang, J. Porque, B.-C. Hwang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Rate equation analysis and energy transfer of Er3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids331(1-3), 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Tonchev, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er3+-doped (GaSe)x(As2Se3)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 364–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J. C. Pivin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1271–1276 (2005).

J. Phys. (1)

P. Tronc, M. Bensoussan, A. Brenac, G. Errandonea, and C. Sebenne, “Raman-Scattering and Local Order in GexSe1-X Glasses for 1/3≤X≤1/2,” J. Phys.38(12), 1493–1498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge-S-Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. Mamedov, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, and P. Boolchand, “Evidence for nanoscale phase separation of stressed-rigid glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15(31), S2397–S2411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

T. W. Allen, M. M. Hawkeye, C. J. Haugen, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A22(3), 921–924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, B. Sfez, and B. Ashkinadze, “Photoluminescence and photodarkening effect in erbium-doped chalcogenide glassy films,” Mater. Lett.58(11), 1706–1708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Chem. Glasses-B (1)

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, A. Fuchs, and J. Fick, “Effect of annealing on the photoluminescence in sputtered films of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B47(2), 162–166 (2006).

Other (1)

S. Q. Gu, Q. Xu, E. E. Reuter, J. T. Verdeyen, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and excitation spectroscopy in Er:As2S3 glass,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, 1993, LEOS '93 Conference Proceedings, IEEE (IEEE, 1993), pp. 206–207.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Raman spectra of 0.4 mol% concentration film with different anneal times.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thicknesses (a) and linear refractive indices at 1550 nm wavelength. Note: −1 hour means before implantation. (b) The lines are guides to the eye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room temperature normalized PL obtained from the 10 hours annealing films with different concentrations (a) and room temperature PL of 0.4 mol% doped film before and after 2 hours annealing (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of decay curve for the not annealed and 10 hours annealed samples (a) and PL lifetimes versus the annealing time (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decay curve for 10 hours annealed samples with different pump lasers.

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