Abstract

We report on the investigations of spin wave modes in arrays of densely packed Co nanorods using Brillouin light scattering. We have observed a significant role of spin wave modes along the nanorod axis in contrast to infinite magnetic nanowires. Unusual optical properties featuring an inverted Stokes/anti-Stokes asymmetry of the Brillouin scattering spectra have been observed. The spectrum of spin wave modes in the nanorod array has been calculated and compared with the experiment. Experimental observations are explained in terms of a combined numerical–analytical approach taking into account both the low aspect ratio of individual magnetic nanorods and dipolar magnetic coupling between the nanorods in the array. The optical studies of spin-wave modes in the metamaterials with low aspect ratio nanorods have revealed new magnetic and magneto-optical properties compared to continuous magnetic films or infinite magnetic nanowires. Such magnetic metamaterials are important class of active metamaterials needed for prospective data storage and signal processing applications.

© 2012 OSA

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2009

V. Boucher, L.-P. Carignan, T. Kodera, C. Caloz, A. Yelon, and D. Ménard, “Effective permeability tensor and double resonance of interacting bistable ferromagnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B80(22), 224402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Kuanr, V. Veerakumar, R. Marson, S. R. Mishra, R. E. Camley, and Z. Celinski, “Nonreciprocal microwave devices based on magnetic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 202505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, “Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology17(23), 5746–5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. D. McMichael and M. D. Stiles, “Magnetic normal modes of nanoelements,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 10J901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Tsoi, J. Z. Sun, M. J. Rooks, R. H. Koch, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Current-driven excitations in magnetic multilayer nanopillars from 4.2 to 300 K,” Phys. Rev. B69(10), 100406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J.-E. Wegrowe, T. Wade, X. Hoffer, L. Gravier, J.-M. Bonard, and J.-P. Ansermet, “Magnetoresistance of nanocontacts with constrained magnetic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. B67(10), 104418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Roussigné, S. M. Cherif, and P. Moch, “Spin waves calculations in magnetic stripes,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.263(3), 289–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Yu. Guslienko, S. O. Demokritov, B. Hillebrands, and A. N. Slavin, “Effective dipolar boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization in thin magnetic stripes,” Phys. Rev. B66(13), 132402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Encinas-Oropesa, M. Demand, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, and U. Ebels, “Dipolar interactions in arrays of nickel nanowires studied by ferromagnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. B63(10), 104415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Ebels, J.-L. Duvail, P. E. Wigen, L. Piraux, L. D. Buda, and K. Ounadjela, “Ferromagnetic resonance studies of Ni nanowire arrays,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, H. J. Fan, D. J. Lockwood, K. Nielsch, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Magnetic and acoustic excitations in confined nickel nanowires,” Mater. Phys. Mech.4(1), 22–24 (2001).

1999

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fert and L. Piraux, “Magnetic nanowires,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.200(1-3), 338–358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Liu, K. Nagodawithana, P. C. Searson, and C. L. Chien, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of multilayered Co/Cu nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(11), 7381–7384 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

1974

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd,” Phys. Rev. B9(12), 5056–5070 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1948

E. C. Stoner and E. P. Wohlfarth, “A mechanism of magnetic hysteresis in heterogeneous alloys,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond.A240, 599–642 (1948).

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ansermet, J.-P.

J.-E. Wegrowe, T. Wade, X. Hoffer, L. Gravier, J.-M. Bonard, and J.-P. Ansermet, “Magnetoresistance of nanocontacts with constrained magnetic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. B67(10), 104418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, “Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology17(23), 5746–5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beuken, J. M.

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blon, T.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonard, J.-M.

J.-E. Wegrowe, T. Wade, X. Hoffer, L. Gravier, J.-M. Bonard, and J.-P. Ansermet, “Magnetoresistance of nanocontacts with constrained magnetic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. B67(10), 104418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, V.

V. Boucher, L.-P. Carignan, T. Kodera, C. Caloz, A. Yelon, and D. Ménard, “Effective permeability tensor and double resonance of interacting bistable ferromagnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B80(22), 224402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouzehouane, K.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buda, L. D.

U. Ebels, J.-L. Duvail, P. E. Wigen, L. Piraux, L. D. Buda, and K. Ounadjela, “Ferromagnetic resonance studies of Ni nanowire arrays,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caloz, C.

V. Boucher, L.-P. Carignan, T. Kodera, C. Caloz, A. Yelon, and D. Ménard, “Effective permeability tensor and double resonance of interacting bistable ferromagnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B80(22), 224402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camley, R. E.

B. K. Kuanr, V. Veerakumar, R. Marson, S. R. Mishra, R. E. Camley, and Z. Celinski, “Nonreciprocal microwave devices based on magnetic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 202505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carignan, L.-P.

V. Boucher, L.-P. Carignan, T. Kodera, C. Caloz, A. Yelon, and D. Ménard, “Effective permeability tensor and double resonance of interacting bistable ferromagnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B80(22), 224402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Celinski, Z.

B. K. Kuanr, V. Veerakumar, R. Marson, S. R. Mishra, R. E. Camley, and Z. Celinski, “Nonreciprocal microwave devices based on magnetic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 202505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaboussant, G.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cherif, S. M.

Y. Roussigné, S. M. Cherif, and P. Moch, “Spin waves calculations in magnetic stripes,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.263(3), 289–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chérif, S. M.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. L.

K. Liu, K. Nagodawithana, P. C. Searson, and C. L. Chien, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of multilayered Co/Cu nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(11), 7381–7384 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd,” Phys. Rev. B9(12), 5056–5070 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cottam, M. G.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cros, V.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Demand, M.

M. Encinas-Oropesa, M. Demand, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, and U. Ebels, “Dipolar interactions in arrays of nickel nanowires studied by ferromagnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. B63(10), 104415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Demokritov, S. O.

K. Yu. Guslienko, S. O. Demokritov, B. Hillebrands, and A. N. Slavin, “Effective dipolar boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization in thin magnetic stripes,” Phys. Rev. B66(13), 132402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deranlot, C.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Despres, J. F.

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

Dickson, W.

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, “Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology17(23), 5746–5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djemia, P.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, S.

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duvail, J. L.

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duvail, J.-L.

U. Ebels, J.-L. Duvail, P. E. Wigen, L. Piraux, L. D. Buda, and K. Ounadjela, “Ferromagnetic resonance studies of Ni nanowire arrays,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebels, U.

M. Encinas-Oropesa, M. Demand, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, and U. Ebels, “Dipolar interactions in arrays of nickel nanowires studied by ferromagnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. B63(10), 104415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Ebels, J.-L. Duvail, P. E. Wigen, L. Piraux, L. D. Buda, and K. Ounadjela, “Ferromagnetic resonance studies of Ni nanowire arrays,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Encinas-Oropesa, M.

M. Encinas-Oropesa, M. Demand, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, and U. Ebels, “Dipolar interactions in arrays of nickel nanowires studied by ferromagnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. B63(10), 104415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, “Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology17(23), 5746–5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. R.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H. J.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, H. J. Fan, D. J. Lockwood, K. Nielsch, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Magnetic and acoustic excitations in confined nickel nanowires,” Mater. Phys. Mech.4(1), 22–24 (2001).

Ferain, E.

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

Fert, A.

A. Fert and L. Piraux, “Magnetic nanowires,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.200(1-3), 338–358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

Fusil, S.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gan’shina, E. A.

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

George, J. M.

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

Goglio, G.

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gravier, L.

J.-E. Wegrowe, T. Wade, X. Hoffer, L. Gravier, J.-M. Bonard, and J.-P. Ansermet, “Magnetoresistance of nanocontacts with constrained magnetic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. B67(10), 104418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guillemet, R.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guslienko, K. Yu.

K. Yu. Guslienko, S. O. Demokritov, B. Hillebrands, and A. N. Slavin, “Effective dipolar boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization in thin magnetic stripes,” Phys. Rev. B66(13), 132402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hendren, W. R.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, “Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology17(23), 5746–5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hillebrands, B.

K. Yu. Guslienko, S. O. Demokritov, B. Hillebrands, and A. N. Slavin, “Effective dipolar boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization in thin magnetic stripes,” Phys. Rev. B66(13), 132402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoffer, X.

J.-E. Wegrowe, T. Wade, X. Hoffer, L. Gravier, J.-M. Bonard, and J.-P. Ansermet, “Magnetoresistance of nanocontacts with constrained magnetic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. B67(10), 104418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huynen, I.

M. Encinas-Oropesa, M. Demand, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, and U. Ebels, “Dipolar interactions in arrays of nickel nanowires studied by ferromagnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. B63(10), 104415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd,” Phys. Rev. B9(12), 5056–5070 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R. H.

M. Tsoi, J. Z. Sun, M. J. Rooks, R. H. Koch, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Current-driven excitations in magnetic multilayer nanopillars from 4.2 to 300 K,” Phys. Rev. B69(10), 100406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kodera, T.

V. Boucher, L.-P. Carignan, T. Kodera, C. Caloz, A. Yelon, and D. Ménard, “Effective permeability tensor and double resonance of interacting bistable ferromagnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B80(22), 224402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuanr, B. K.

B. K. Kuanr, V. Veerakumar, R. Marson, S. R. Mishra, R. E. Camley, and Z. Celinski, “Nonreciprocal microwave devices based on magnetic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 202505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuok, M. H.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, H. J. Fan, D. J. Lockwood, K. Nielsch, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Magnetic and acoustic excitations in confined nickel nanowires,” Mater. Phys. Mech.4(1), 22–24 (2001).

Legras, R.

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

Leroy, C.

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

Liu, K.

K. Liu, K. Nagodawithana, P. C. Searson, and C. L. Chien, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of multilayered Co/Cu nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(11), 7381–7384 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lockwood, D. J.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, H. J. Fan, D. J. Lockwood, K. Nielsch, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Magnetic and acoustic excitations in confined nickel nanowires,” Mater. Phys. Mech.4(1), 22–24 (2001).

Maidykovski, A. I.

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marchal, C.

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marson, R.

B. K. Kuanr, V. Veerakumar, R. Marson, S. R. Mishra, R. E. Camley, and Z. Celinski, “Nonreciprocal microwave devices based on magnetic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 202505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mátéfi-Tempfli, S.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, J. L.

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McMichael, R. D.

R. D. McMichael and M. D. Stiles, “Magnetic normal modes of nanoelements,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 10J901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ménard, D.

V. Boucher, L.-P. Carignan, T. Kodera, C. Caloz, A. Yelon, and D. Ménard, “Effective permeability tensor and double resonance of interacting bistable ferromagnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B80(22), 224402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, S. R.

B. K. Kuanr, V. Veerakumar, R. Marson, S. R. Mishra, R. E. Camley, and Z. Celinski, “Nonreciprocal microwave devices based on magnetic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 202505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moch, P.

Y. Roussigné, S. M. Cherif, and P. Moch, “Spin waves calculations in magnetic stripes,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.263(3), 289–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, A. P.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murzina, T. V.

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagodawithana, K.

K. Liu, K. Nagodawithana, P. C. Searson, and C. L. Chien, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of multilayered Co/Cu nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(11), 7381–7384 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, S. C.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, H. J. Fan, D. J. Lockwood, K. Nielsch, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Magnetic and acoustic excitations in confined nickel nanowires,” Mater. Phys. Mech.4(1), 22–24 (2001).

Nielsch, K.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, H. J. Fan, D. J. Lockwood, K. Nielsch, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Magnetic and acoustic excitations in confined nickel nanowires,” Mater. Phys. Mech.4(1), 22–24 (2001).

Novitski, N. N.

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ott, F.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ounadjela, K.

U. Ebels, J.-L. Duvail, P. E. Wigen, L. Piraux, L. D. Buda, and K. Ounadjela, “Ferromagnetic resonance studies of Ni nanowire arrays,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

Parkin, S. S. P.

M. Tsoi, J. Z. Sun, M. J. Rooks, R. H. Koch, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Current-driven excitations in magnetic multilayer nanopillars from 4.2 to 300 K,” Phys. Rev. B69(10), 100406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pignard, S.

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piraux, L.

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Ebels, J.-L. Duvail, P. E. Wigen, L. Piraux, L. D. Buda, and K. Ounadjela, “Ferromagnetic resonance studies of Ni nanowire arrays,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Encinas-Oropesa, M. Demand, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, and U. Ebels, “Dipolar interactions in arrays of nickel nanowires studied by ferromagnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. B63(10), 104415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fert and L. Piraux, “Magnetic nanowires,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.200(1-3), 338–358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

Pollard, R. J.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, “Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology17(23), 5746–5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radulescu, A.

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

M. Tsoi, J. Z. Sun, M. J. Rooks, R. H. Koch, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Current-driven excitations in magnetic multilayer nanopillars from 4.2 to 300 K,” Phys. Rev. B69(10), 100406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roussigné, Y.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Roussigné, S. M. Cherif, and P. Moch, “Spin waves calculations in magnetic stripes,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.263(3), 289–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Searson, P. C.

K. Liu, K. Nagodawithana, P. C. Searson, and C. L. Chien, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of multilayered Co/Cu nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter51(11), 7381–7384 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shebarshin, A. V.

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slavin, A. N.

K. Yu. Guslienko, S. O. Demokritov, B. Hillebrands, and A. N. Slavin, “Effective dipolar boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization in thin magnetic stripes,” Phys. Rev. B66(13), 132402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stashkevich, A.

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stashkevich, A. A.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, M. D.

R. D. McMichael and M. D. Stiles, “Magnetic normal modes of nanoelements,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 10J901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stognij, A. I.

T. V. Murzina, A. V. Shebarshin, A. I. Maidykovski, E. A. Gan’shina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Novitski, A. I. Stognij, and A. Stashkevich, “Linear and nonlinear magnetooptics of planar Au/Co/Si nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films517(20), 5918–5921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stoner, E. C.

E. C. Stoner and E. P. Wohlfarth, “A mechanism of magnetic hysteresis in heterogeneous alloys,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond.A240, 599–642 (1948).

Sun, J. Z.

M. Tsoi, J. Z. Sun, M. J. Rooks, R. H. Koch, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Current-driven excitations in magnetic multilayer nanopillars from 4.2 to 300 K,” Phys. Rev. B69(10), 100406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsoi, M.

M. Tsoi, J. Z. Sun, M. J. Rooks, R. H. Koch, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Current-driven excitations in magnetic multilayer nanopillars from 4.2 to 300 K,” Phys. Rev. B69(10), 100406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vander Vorst, A.

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanhoenacker, D.

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Veerakumar, V.

B. K. Kuanr, V. Veerakumar, R. Marson, S. R. Mishra, R. E. Camley, and Z. Celinski, “Nonreciprocal microwave devices based on magnetic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 202505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wade, T.

J.-E. Wegrowe, T. Wade, X. Hoffer, L. Gravier, J.-M. Bonard, and J.-P. Ansermet, “Magnetoresistance of nanocontacts with constrained magnetic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. B67(10), 104418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. K.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, H. J. Fan, D. J. Lockwood, K. Nielsch, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Magnetic and acoustic excitations in confined nickel nanowires,” Mater. Phys. Mech.4(1), 22–24 (2001).

Wegrowe, J.-E.

J.-E. Wegrowe, T. Wade, X. Hoffer, L. Gravier, J.-M. Bonard, and J.-P. Ansermet, “Magnetoresistance of nanocontacts with constrained magnetic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. B67(10), 104418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, D. J. Lockwood, M. G. Cottam, K. Nielsch, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Spin-wave quantization in ferromagnetic nickel nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(2), 027201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Wang, M. H. Kuok, S. C. Ng, H. J. Fan, D. J. Lockwood, K. Nielsch, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Magnetic and acoustic excitations in confined nickel nanowires,” Mater. Phys. Mech.4(1), 22–24 (2001).

Wigen, P. E.

U. Ebels, J.-L. Duvail, P. E. Wigen, L. Piraux, L. D. Buda, and K. Ounadjela, “Ferromagnetic resonance studies of Ni nanowire arrays,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wohlfarth, E. P.

E. C. Stoner and E. P. Wohlfarth, “A mechanism of magnetic hysteresis in heterogeneous alloys,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond.A240, 599–642 (1948).

Wurtz, G. A.

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, “Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology17(23), 5746–5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yelon, A.

V. Boucher, L.-P. Carignan, T. Kodera, C. Caloz, A. Yelon, and D. Ménard, “Effective permeability tensor and double resonance of interacting bistable ferromagnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B80(22), 224402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. A. Stashkevich, Y. Roussigné, P. Djemia, S. M. Chérif, P. R. Evans, A. P. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, R. J. Pollard, A. V. Zayats, G. Chaboussant, and F. Ott, “Spin-wave modes in Ni nanorod arrays studied by Brillouin light scattering,” Phys. Rev. B80(14), 144406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, “Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology17(23), 5746–5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. K. Kuanr, V. Veerakumar, R. Marson, S. R. Mishra, R. E. Camley, and Z. Celinski, “Nonreciprocal microwave devices based on magnetic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 202505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Dubois, C. Marchal, J. M. Beuken, L. Piraux, J. L. Duvail, A. Fert, J. M. George, and J. L. Maurice, “Perpendicular giant magnetoresistance of NiFe/Cu multilayered nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Goglio, S. Pignard, A. Radulescu, L. Piraux, I. Huynen, D. Vanhoenacker, and A. Vander Vorst, “Microwave properties of metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(12), 1769–1771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. D. McMichael and M. D. Stiles, “Magnetic normal modes of nanoelements,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 10J901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Blon, M. Mátéfi-Tempfli, S. Mátéfi-Tempfli, L. Piraux, S. Fusil, R. Guillemet, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, and V. Cros, “Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.102(10), 103906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Piraux, J. M. George, J. F. Despres, C. Leroy, E. Ferain, R. Legras, K. Ounadjela, and A. Fert, “Giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayered nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.65, 2484–2486 (1994).

J. Magn. Magn. Mater.

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Nanotechnology

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TEM cross-section image of the Co nanorods. Please note that different nanorods are situated not in the same image plane and appear differently in the image. (b) The MOKE hysteresis loop taken in the polar magneto-optical configuration with the Co nanorod arrays.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BLS spectra measured from the fully saturated samples at the angle of incidence θ = 45° (raw data): (a) H = + 11000 Oe, (b) H = − 11000 Oe. Red lines represent Lorentzian fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profiles of dynamic magnetization localized on a nanorod: (a) fundamental (Kittel mode n = 0) and (b) first excited symmetric mode (n = 2) with the saturating magnetic field H = 10 kOe applied normally to the nanorod axis. Insert in (a) shows the geometry of numerical simulations of magnetic properties. (c) Dependence of the theoretical and experimental values of resonant frequencies on the magnetic field applied normally to the axis of a nanorod: (red triangles, green squares) experimental BLS data for positive and negative magnetic field, respectively; (blue crosses) numerical modeling (the accuracy is within the data marker dimensions).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical simulations of the distribution of the electric field components within a nanorod in the metamaterial. (Left) Plot of the norm of the total electric field in the metamaterial simulated at the angle of incidence of 45° and p-polarised incident light at 514 nm wavelength. White arrows indicate the instantaneous direction of the electric field in points 1—7 of the nanorod. The wavevector of the incident light and the direction of the incident electric field are also shown. z-axis is along the nanorod axis, y-axis is normal to the plane of incidence. The metamaterial parameters correspond to the experimental ones. (Right) Temporal evolution (during a full period) of all the components of the electric field vector E(i) of the incident p-polarized optical wave inside a nanorod in point 3.

Equations (2)

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K = ( 4π/λ ) sinθ.
H a dip =  H a  6πP M s .

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