Abstract

A bulk mixed Nd3+:(LaxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 (Nd:LaGGG) laser crystal with dimensions of Ф 26 × 30 mm3 was successfully grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. The structure and the effective segregation coefficients of Nd3+ and La3+ ions in the as-grown Nd:LaGGG crystal were measured. The thermal properties were also investigated as a function of temperature. In addition, the spectral properties were measured and the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. In the 1062 nm CW laser operation, the maximum output power of 8.75 W was achieved. All the properties show that the Nd:LaGGG crystal is a promising laser materials.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G. Boulon, “Fifty years of advances in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 499–512 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Pirri, G. Toci, and M. Vannini, “First laser oscillation and broad tunability of 1 at. % Yb-doped Sc2O3 and Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4284–4286 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, and M. Jiang, “Passive mode-locking performance with a mixed Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 crystal,” Opt. Express17(5), 3264–3269 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Parker, “Bright future for compact tactical laser weapons,” LLNL Sci. Technol. Rev.4, 11–21 (2002).
  7. Y. Zhi, C. Dong, J. Zhang, Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, and X. Tao, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of LD-end-pumped 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser,” Opt. Express18(8), 7584–7589 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Brandle and R. Barns, “Crystal stoichiometry of Czochralski grown rare-earth gallium garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth26(1), 169–170 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and X. Tao, “Bulk crystal growth and characterization of a new polar polymorph of BaTeMo2O9: α-BaTeMo2O9,” CrystEngComm13(23), 6985–6990 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Kuwano, “Effective distribution coefficient of neodynium in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth57(2), 353–361 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Zhang, P. Shi, and L. Li, “Semianalytical thermal analysis of rectangle Nd: GGG in heat capacity laser,” Appl. Phys. B101(1-2), 137–142 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys.37(3), 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev.127(3), 750–761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. T. Carnall, P. Fields, and B. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr, Nd, Er, Tm, and Yb,” J. Chem. Phys.42(11), 3797–3806 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, “New procedure of determining neodymium fluorescence branching ratios as applied to 25 crystal and glass hosts,” Opt. Commun.24(1), 89–94 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd: YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 925–930 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. D. Rotter and B. Dane, “Measuring the stimulated-emission cross-section: a case study in Nd: GGG,” Opt. Commun.198(1–3), 155–161 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2012

Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Boulon, “Fifty years of advances in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 499–512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Pirri, G. Toci, and M. Vannini, “First laser oscillation and broad tunability of 1 at. % Yb-doped Sc2O3 and Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4284–4286 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and X. Tao, “Bulk crystal growth and characterization of a new polar polymorph of BaTeMo2O9: α-BaTeMo2O9,” CrystEngComm13(23), 6985–6990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. Shi, and L. Li, “Semianalytical thermal analysis of rectangle Nd: GGG in heat capacity laser,” Appl. Phys. B101(1-2), 137–142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhi, C. Dong, J. Zhang, Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, and X. Tao, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of LD-end-pumped 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser,” Opt. Express18(8), 7584–7589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, and M. Jiang, “Passive mode-locking performance with a mixed Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 crystal,” Opt. Express17(5), 3264–3269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Parker, “Bright future for compact tactical laser weapons,” LLNL Sci. Technol. Rev.4, 11–21 (2002).

2001

M. D. Rotter and B. Dane, “Measuring the stimulated-emission cross-section: a case study in Nd: GGG,” Opt. Commun.198(1–3), 155–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd: YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuwano, “Effective distribution coefficient of neodynium in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals grown by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth57(2), 353–361 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, “New procedure of determining neodymium fluorescence branching ratios as applied to 25 crystal and glass hosts,” Opt. Commun.24(1), 89–94 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974

C. Brandle and R. Barns, “Crystal stoichiometry of Czochralski grown rare-earth gallium garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth26(1), 169–170 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965

W. T. Carnall, P. Fields, and B. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr, Nd, Er, Tm, and Yb,” J. Chem. Phys.42(11), 3797–3806 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962

G. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys.37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev.127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arcangeli, A.

Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd: YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barns, R.

C. Brandle and R. Barns, “Crystal stoichiometry of Czochralski grown rare-earth gallium garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth26(1), 169–170 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bausá, L. E.

Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bigotta, S.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonelli, L.

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boughton, R. I.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

G. Boulon, “Fifty years of advances in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 499–512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brandle, C.

C. Brandle and R. Barns, “Crystal stoichiometry of Czochralski grown rare-earth gallium garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth26(1), 169–170 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Camarillo, E.

Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. Fields, and B. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr, Nd, Er, Tm, and Yb,” J. Chem. Phys.42(11), 3797–3806 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P.

S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dane, B.

M. D. Rotter and B. Dane, “Measuring the stimulated-emission cross-section: a case study in Nd: GGG,” Opt. Commun.198(1–3), 155–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L. G.

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, “New procedure of determining neodymium fluorescence branching ratios as applied to 25 crystal and glass hosts,” Opt. Commun.24(1), 89–94 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.

Y. Zhi, C. Dong, J. Zhang, Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, and X. Tao, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of LD-end-pumped 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser,” Opt. Express18(8), 7584–7589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Field, S.

S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P.

W. T. Carnall, P. Fields, and B. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr, Nd, Er, Tm, and Yb,” J. Chem. Phys.42(11), 3797–3806 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W. L.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

García Solé, J.

Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D.

S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhi, C. Dong, J. Zhang, Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, and X. Tao, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of LD-end-pumped 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser,” Opt. Express18(8), 7584–7589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenssen, H.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd: YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Z.

Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhi, C. Dong, J. Zhang, Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, and X. Tao, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of LD-end-pumped 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser,” Opt. Express18(8), 7584–7589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, and M. Jiang, “Passive mode-locking performance with a mixed Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 crystal,” Opt. Express17(5), 3264–3269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
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L. Zhang, P. Shi, and L. Li, “Semianalytical thermal analysis of rectangle Nd: GGG in heat capacity laser,” Appl. Phys. B101(1-2), 137–142 (2010).
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Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
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Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
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A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
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A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
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L. Zhang, P. Shi, and L. Li, “Semianalytical thermal analysis of rectangle Nd: GGG in heat capacity laser,” Appl. Phys. B101(1-2), 137–142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
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D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
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D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
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J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and X. Tao, “Bulk crystal growth and characterization of a new polar polymorph of BaTeMo2O9: α-BaTeMo2O9,” CrystEngComm13(23), 6985–6990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Tao, X.

Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and X. Tao, “Bulk crystal growth and characterization of a new polar polymorph of BaTeMo2O9: α-BaTeMo2O9,” CrystEngComm13(23), 6985–6990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhi, C. Dong, J. Zhang, Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, and X. Tao, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of LD-end-pumped 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser,” Opt. Express18(8), 7584–7589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toci, G.

Tonelli, M.

Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Vergara, I.

Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, and M. Jiang, “Passive mode-locking performance with a mixed Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 crystal,” Opt. Express17(5), 3264–3269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wang, Z.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, and M. Jiang, “Passive mode-locking performance with a mixed Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 crystal,” Opt. Express17(5), 3264–3269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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W. T. Carnall, P. Fields, and B. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr, Nd, Er, Tm, and Yb,” J. Chem. Phys.42(11), 3797–3806 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H.

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Xu, M.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, and M. Jiang, “Passive mode-locking performance with a mixed Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 crystal,” Opt. Express17(5), 3264–3269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. H.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, and M. Jiang, “Passive mode-locking performance with a mixed Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 crystal,” Opt. Express17(5), 3264–3269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Fu, A. Arcangeli, J. He, X. Tao, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser of Nd: LGGG crystal at 0.93 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 20–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhi, C. Dong, J. Zhang, Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, and X. Tao, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of LD-end-pumped 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser,” Opt. Express18(8), 7584–7589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and X. Tao, “Bulk crystal growth and characterization of a new polar polymorph of BaTeMo2O9: α-BaTeMo2O9,” CrystEngComm13(23), 6985–6990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, and M. Jiang, “Passive mode-locking performance with a mixed Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 crystal,” Opt. Express17(5), 3264–3269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, H. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Sun, H. Xia, and M. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of Nd: CLNGG crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth311(14), 3792–3796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and X. Tao, “Bulk crystal growth and characterization of a new polar polymorph of BaTeMo2O9: α-BaTeMo2O9,” CrystEngComm13(23), 6985–6990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhi, C. Dong, J. Zhang, Z. Jia, B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, and X. Tao, “Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of LD-end-pumped 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser,” Opt. Express18(8), 7584–7589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, H. Yu, C. Dong, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Growth and properties of Nd:(LuxGd1−x)3Ga5O12 laser crystal by Czochralski method,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 346–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. Shi, and L. Li, “Semianalytical thermal analysis of rectangle Nd: GGG in heat capacity laser,” Appl. Phys. B101(1-2), 137–142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Field, D. Hanna, A. Large, D. Shepherd, A. Tropper, P. Chandler, P. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd: GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 161–166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and X. Tao, “Bulk crystal growth and characterization of a new polar polymorph of BaTeMo2O9: α-BaTeMo2O9,” CrystEngComm13(23), 6985–6990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Phys. B

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, A. Arcangeli, M. Tonelli, Z. Jia, and X. Tao, “Multi-wavelength diode-pumped Nd: LGGG picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 135–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. Shi, and L. Li, “Semianalytical thermal analysis of rectangle Nd: GGG in heat capacity laser,” Appl. Phys. B101(1-2), 137–142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, M. Jiang, A. Arcangeli, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, “Spectroscopic analysis of Nd3+ doped (Lux + Gd1−x)3Ga5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 485–491 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd: Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231110 (2007).
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Cryst. Res. Technol.

D. Sun, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Su, C. Gu, A. Wang, and S. Yin, “Concentration distribution of Nd3+ in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 crystals studied by optical absorption method,” Cryst. Res. Technol.40(7), 698–702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

CrystEngComm

J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and X. Tao, “Bulk crystal growth and characterization of a new polar polymorph of BaTeMo2O9: α-BaTeMo2O9,” CrystEngComm13(23), 6985–6990 (2011).
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Z. Jia, A. Arcangeli, X. Tao, J. Zhang, C. Dong, M. Jiang, L. Bonelli, and M. Tonelli, “Efficient Nd3+→ Yb3+ energy transfer in Nd3+, Yb3+: Gd3Ga5O12 multicenter garnet crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guyot, L. E. Bausá, E. Camarillo, J. García Solé, I. Vergara, A. Monteil, and R. Moncorgé, “Infrared fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ sites in gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd and gadolinium gallium garnet:Nd,Cr,” J. Appl. Phys.72(12), 5876–5880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys.37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. Fields, and B. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr, Nd, Er, Tm, and Yb,” J. Chem. Phys.42(11), 3797–3806 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the as-grown Nd:LaGGG crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of laser setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray power diffraction patterns of the Nd:LaGGG and GGG crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thermal properties of the Nd:LaGGG crystal. (a) The thermal expansion versus temperature curve. The up left inset shows the temperature dependent of the Nd:LaGGG crystal; (b) The specific heat versus temperature curve; (c) The thermal diffusivity versus temperature curve; (d) The thermal conductivity versus temperature curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The absorption cross section of Nd:LaGGG at room temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The room-temperature fluorescence spectrum of Nd:LaGGG under diode excitation at 808 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The fluorescence decay curve of Nd:LaGGG versus time at 1062 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The room-temperature stimulated emission cross section for 4F3/24IJ (J = 9/2, 11/2 and 13/2) transitions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The output power versus the absorbed pump power with the output coupler of 5%.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral parameters of the absorption spectrum for the Nd:LaGGG crystal

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fluorescence parameters of the Nd:LaGGG crystal for the radiative 4F3/24IJ transition

Equations (6)

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xN d 2 O 3 +yL a 2 O 3 +(3xy)G d 2 O 3 +5G a 2 O 3 =2N d x L a y G d 3xy G a 5 O 12
ρ= m 0 ρ water m 0 m 1
C s = C l k eff (1g) k eff 1
ρ cal = mZ abc N A
α ¯ ( T 0 T)= ΔL L 0 1 ΔT
κ=λρ C p

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