Abstract

The 12 K cathodoluminescence spectra of Er3+ doped into single crystals of aluminum nitride (2H-AlN) in the hexagonal phase are reported between 320 nm and 775 nm. The emission spectra represent transitions from the lower Stark level of 2P3/2 to the Stark levels of the 4I15/2, 4I13/2, 4I11/2, 4I9/2, 4F9/2, and 4S3/2 multiplet manifolds of Er3+(4f11). Emission spectra from 4S3/2 to 4I15/2 are also reported. All observed strong line emission are accounted for in terms of two principle sites, denoted site “a” and site “b”, with a few line spectra attributed to additional sites. A parameterized Hamiltonian that includes the atomic and crystal-field terms for Er3+(4f11)2S+1LJ was used to determine the symmetry and the crystal field splitting of the “a” and “b” sites. A descent in symmetry calculation was carried out to determine if distortion due to the size difference between Er, Al and the vacancies can be discerned. Modeling results assuming C3v and C1h are discussed. It appears that the sensitivity to a C1h model is not sufficient to invalidate the choice of C3v as an approximate symmetry for both sites. The g-factors reported from an EPR study of Er3+ in single-crystal AlN are in reasonable agreement with calculated g-factors for Er3+ in the “a” site assuming C3v symmetry.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Maâlej, S. Kammoun, M. Dammak, and M. Kammoun, “Theoretical investigations of EPR parameters and local structure of single erbium center in hexagonal GaN layers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B146(1-3), 183–185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Taniguchi and K. Watanabe, “Synthesis of high-purity boron nitride single crystals under high pressure by using Ba–BN solvent,” J. Cryst. Growth303(2), 525–529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical doping of AlN by rare earth implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B242(1–2), 307–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Petit, R. Jones, M. J. Shaw, P. R. Briddon, B. Hourahine, and T. Frauenheim, “Electronic behavior of rare-earth dopants in AlN: A density-functional study,” Phys. Rev. B72(7), 073205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, and T. Taniguchi, “Visible cathodoluminescence from Eu-implanted single- and polycrystal c-BN annealed under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4286–4288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ (4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 2929–2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Crystal-field splitting of Pr3+ (4f2) energy levels in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7973–7976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic Properties and Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).

1989

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984

N. Kuramoto and H. Taniguchi, “Transparent AlN ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.3(6), 471–474 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral Intensities of the Trivalent Lanthanides and Actinides in Solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alves, E.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical doping of AlN by rare earth implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B242(1–2), 307–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Axmann, A.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bondokov, R. T.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Briddon, P. R.

S. Petit, R. Jones, M. J. Shaw, P. R. Briddon, B. Hourahine, and T. Frauenheim, “Electronic behavior of rare-earth dopants in AlN: A density-functional study,” Phys. Rev. B72(7), 073205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, I.

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Crystal-field splitting of Pr3+ (4f2) energy levels in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7973–7976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burdick, G. W.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral Intensities of the Trivalent Lanthanides and Actinides in Solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, C.

Dammak, M.

R. Maâlej, S. Kammoun, M. Dammak, and M. Kammoun, “Theoretical investigations of EPR parameters and local structure of single erbium center in hexagonal GaN layers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B146(1-3), 183–185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Vries, B.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, M.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

Ennen, H.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Evans, S. M.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral Intensities of the Trivalent Lanthanides and Actinides in Solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Frauenheim, T.

S. Petit, R. Jones, M. J. Shaw, P. R. Briddon, B. Hourahine, and T. Frauenheim, “Electronic behavior of rare-earth dopants in AlN: A density-functional study,” Phys. Rev. B72(7), 073205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gilde, G.

Goodman, G. L.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ (4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 2929–2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Crystal-field splitting of Pr3+ (4f2) energy levels in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7973–7976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Halliburton, L. E.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofsäss, H.

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, and T. Taniguchi, “Visible cathodoluminescence from Eu-implanted single- and polycrystal c-BN annealed under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4286–4288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hourahine, B.

S. Petit, R. Jones, M. J. Shaw, P. R. Briddon, B. Hourahine, and T. Frauenheim, “Electronic behavior of rare-earth dopants in AlN: A density-functional study,” Phys. Rev. B72(7), 073205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hussey, L. K.

Jadwisienczak, W. M.

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ (4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 2929–2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Crystal-field splitting of Pr3+ (4f2) energy levels in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7973–7976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

S. Petit, R. Jones, M. J. Shaw, P. R. Briddon, B. Hourahine, and T. Frauenheim, “Electronic behavior of rare-earth dopants in AlN: A density-functional study,” Phys. Rev. B72(7), 073205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Juraeva, N. I.

J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kammoun, M.

R. Maâlej, S. Kammoun, M. Dammak, and M. Kammoun, “Theoretical investigations of EPR parameters and local structure of single erbium center in hexagonal GaN layers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B146(1-3), 183–185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kammoun, S.

R. Maâlej, S. Kammoun, M. Dammak, and M. Kammoun, “Theoretical investigations of EPR parameters and local structure of single erbium center in hexagonal GaN layers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B146(1-3), 183–185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Komeya, K.

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuramoto, N.

N. Kuramoto and H. Taniguchi, “Transparent AlN ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.3(6), 471–474 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, K.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical doping of AlN by rare earth implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B242(1–2), 307–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lozykowski, H. J.

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ (4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 2929–2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Crystal-field splitting of Pr3+ (4f2) energy levels in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7973–7976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maâlej, R.

R. Maâlej, S. Kammoun, M. Dammak, and M. Kammoun, “Theoretical investigations of EPR parameters and local structure of single erbium center in hexagonal GaN layers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B146(1-3), 183–185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meguro, T.

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

Metcalfe, G. D.

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, T.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical doping of AlN by rare earth implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B242(1–2), 307–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, K. E.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, S. G.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nash, K. L.

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nijjar, A.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Öhl, G.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peres, M.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical doping of AlN by rare earth implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B242(1–2), 307–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

S. Petit, R. Jones, M. J. Shaw, P. R. Briddon, B. Hourahine, and T. Frauenheim, “Electronic behavior of rare-earth dopants in AlN: A density-functional study,” Phys. Rev. B72(7), 073205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pomrenke, G.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral Intensities of the Trivalent Lanthanides and Actinides in Solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K. L.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rana, R. S.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Readinger, E. D.

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reid, M. F.

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanamyan, T.

Sardar, D. K.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schujman, S. B.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. J.

S. Petit, R. Jones, M. J. Shaw, P. R. Briddon, B. Hourahine, and T. Frauenheim, “Electronic behavior of rare-earth dopants in AlN: A density-functional study,” Phys. Rev. B72(7), 073205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slack, G. A.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smulders, P. J. M.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical doping of AlN by rare earth implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B242(1–2), 307–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soares, M. J.

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical doping of AlN by rare earth implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B242(1–2), 307–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic Properties and Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).

Sutorik, A. C.

Taniguchi, H.

N. Kuramoto and H. Taniguchi, “Transparent AlN ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.3(6), 471–474 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, T.

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Taniguchi and K. Watanabe, “Synthesis of high-purity boron nitride single crystals under high pressure by using Ba–BN solvent,” J. Cryst. Growth303(2), 525–529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, and T. Taniguchi, “Visible cathodoluminescence from Eu-implanted single- and polycrystal c-BN annealed under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4286–4288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatami, J.

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Terao, R.

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uzokov, A. A.

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valiev, U. V.

J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, U.

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, and T. Taniguchi, “Visible cathodoluminescence from Eu-implanted single- and polycrystal c-BN annealed under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4286–4288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wahl, U.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

T. Taniguchi and K. Watanabe, “Synthesis of high-purity boron nitride single crystals under high pressure by using Ba–BN solvent,” J. Cryst. Growth303(2), 525–529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, N. T.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wraback, M.

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yow, R. M.

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zandi, B.

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ (4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 2929–2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Crystal-field splitting of Pr3+ (4f2) energy levels in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7973–7976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic Properties and Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, and T. Taniguchi, “Visible cathodoluminescence from Eu-implanted single- and polycrystal c-BN annealed under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4286–4288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Yang, S. M. Evans, L. E. Halliburton, G. A. Slack, S. B. Schujman, K. E. Morgan, R. T. Bondokov, and S. G. Mueller, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in aluminum nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, W. M. Jadwisienczak, and I. Brown, “Crystal-field splitting of Pr3+ (4f2) energy levels in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7973–7976 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, H. J. Lozykowski, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ (4f5) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 2929–2935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, T. Taniguchi, G. W. Burdick, H. Hofsäss, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in single-crystal hexagonal phase AlN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 023104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, S. Chandra, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, N. I. Juraeva, and G. W. Burdick, “Modeling optical spectra and Van Vleck paramagnetism in Er3+:YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral Intensities of the Trivalent Lanthanides and Actinides in Solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

T. Taniguchi and K. Watanabe, “Synthesis of high-purity boron nitride single crystals under high pressure by using Ba–BN solvent,” J. Cryst. Growth303(2), 525–529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.

R. Terao, J. Tatami, T. Meguro, and K. Komeya, “Fracture Behavior of AlN Ceramics with Rare Earth Oxides,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.22(7), 1051–1059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

J. B. Gruber, K. L. Nash, R. M. Yow, D. K. Sardar, U. V. Valiev, A. A. Uzokov, and G. W. Burdick, “Spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility analyses of the 7FJ and 5D4 energy levels of Tb3+ (4f8) in TbAlO3,” J. Lumin.128(8), 1271–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett.

N. Kuramoto and H. Taniguchi, “Transparent AlN ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.3(6), 471–474 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

R. Maâlej, S. Kammoun, M. Dammak, and M. Kammoun, “Theoretical investigations of EPR parameters and local structure of single erbium center in hexagonal GaN layers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B146(1-3), 183–185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull.

A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic Properties and Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

K. Lorenz, E. Alves, T. Monteiro, M. J. Soares, M. Peres, and P. J. M. Smulders, “Optical doping of AlN by rare earth implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B242(1–2), 307–310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. B

U. Vetter, J. Gruber, A. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Öhl, U. Wahl, B. De Vries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Petit, R. Jones, M. J. Shaw, P. R. Briddon, B. Hourahine, and T. Frauenheim, “Electronic behavior of rare-earth dopants in AlN: A density-functional study,” Phys. Rev. B72(7), 073205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, and A. Nakayama, “Synthesis of Eu-doped AlN crystals using Li-based Solvent Under High Pressure” (unpublished).

R. Wyckhoff, Crystal Structures, 2nd ed. (Interscience, New York, 1965), Vol. 3.

N. Henry and K. Lonsdale, International Tables for X-ray Crystallography (Kynoch, 1952), Vol. 1.

S. M. Sze, Semiconducting Devices, Physics and Technology (Wiley, 1985).

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 5th ed. (Springer, 1999).

B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1963).

B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare-Earths (Wiley, 1965).

G. Blasse and B. Granmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, 1994).

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The XRD pattern showing the hexagonal structure of AlN doped with Er3+; conductive silver paste is used in supporting the samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence of ceramic Er:AlN due to excitation of one of the principal site’s absorption lines. The arrows indicate the peaks at about 1544.5 and 1558.25 nm, discussed in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The 12 K CL spectrum of Er3+ in AlN between 320 nm and 327 nm representing transitions from 2P3/2 to 4I15/2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The 12 K CL spectrum of Er3+ in AlN between 551 nm and 566 nm representing transitions from 4S3/2 to 4I15/2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The 12 K CL spectrum of Er3+ in AlN between 768 nm and 773 nm representing transitions from 2P3/2 to 4S3/2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The 12 K CL spectrum of Er3+ in AlN between 476 nm and 482 nm representing transitions from 2P3/2 to 4I11/2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The 12 K CL spectrum of Er3+ in AlN between 530 nm and 538 nm representing transitions from 2P3/2 to 4I9/2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The 12 K CL spectrum of Er3+ in AlN between 620.5 nm and 627.5 nm representing transitions from 2P3/2 to 4F9/2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The 12 K CL spectrum of Er3+ in AlN between 405.5 nm and 411.5 nm representing transitions from 2P3/2 to 4I13/2.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 CL spectrum (12 K) of Er:AlN from the lowest Stark component of 2P3/2 at 31076 cm−1 (site “a”) and 31069 cm−1 (site “b”)a

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Table 2 Crystal-field splitting for energy levels of site “a” of Er3+:AlN using wavefunctions of C3v and C1h symmetry

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Table 3 Crystal-field splitting for energy levels of site “b” of Er3+:AlN using wavefunctions of C3v and C1h symmetry

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Table 4 Calculated atomic and crystal-field parameters in C3v symmetry for Er3+:AlN

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Table 5 Calculated crystal-field parameters, comparing C3v symmetry calculations with C1h symmetry for Er3+:AlN

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Table 6 Splitting of “a” site crystal-field energy levels of Er3+:AlN in a 0.15 T magnetic field (in cm−1), and resultant g-values for the ground multiplet 4I15/2

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Table 7 Splitting of “b” site crystal-field energy levels of Er3+:AlN in a 0.15 T magnetic field (in cm−1), and resultant g-values for the ground multiplet 4I15/2

Equations (2)

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Η A = E a v g + k F k f k + α L ( L + 1 ) + β G ( G 2 ) + γ G ( R 7 ) + i T i t i + ς s o A s o + k P k p k + j M j m j
H cf = k , q B q k C q ( k ) .

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