Abstract

The crystal-field and Zeeman splittings of the energy levels of Nd3+(4f3) 2S+1LJ in hexagonal phase AlN have been investigated. The multiplet manifolds of Nd3+(4f3) analyzed include the ground state, 4I9/2, and excited states 4I11/2, 4I13/2, 4F3/2, 4F5/2, 2H(2)9/2, 4F7/2, 4S3/2, 4G5/2, and 2G7/2. Experimental energy levels were obtained from analyses of the 12 K cathodoluminescence spectra from Nd3+-implanted films of AlN, and from the 15 K photoluminescence excitation spectra and the site-selective combined excitation-emission spectra (CEES) recently reported for in situ Nd-doped hexagonal AlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). CEES results identify a main site and two minority sites for Nd3+ in both samples. Transition line strengths attributed to the ion in minority sites are relatively stronger in Nd:AlN than in Nd:GaN. The 15 K experimental Zeeman splitting of Nd3+ are analyzed in the PA-MBE grown AlN samples and compared with the Zeeman splitting observed in Nd:GaN. The crystal-field and Zeeman splittings were modeled using a parametrized Hamiltonian consisting of atomic and crystal-field terms. We considered possible site distortion due to the size of the implanted Nd ion that would reduce the site symmetry from C3v to C3 or C1h. However, no significant improvement was obtained using these lower symmetry models, leading us to conclude that C3v symmetry is a reasonable approximation for the main site Nd3+ ions in AlN.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic properties and applications of rare-earth-doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).
  2. W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. M. Levinshtein and M. Shur, Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials (Wiley, 2001).
  4. N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1963).
  6. B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare-Earths (Wiley, 1965).
  7. G. Blasse and B. Granmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer-Verlag, 1994).
  8. S. M. Sze, Semiconducting Devices, Physics and Technology (Wiley, 1985)
  9. W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2.
  10. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, R. Enck, H. Shen, M. Wraback, N. T. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, and V. Dierolf, “Near-infrared photoluminescence properties of neodymium in in situ doped AlN grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Opt. Mater. Express1(1), 78–84 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal conductivity of AIN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids48(7), 641–647 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12),” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Newman and B. Ng, Crystal-Field Handbook (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

2011

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, R. Enck, H. Shen, M. Wraback, N. T. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, and V. Dierolf, “Near-infrared photoluminescence properties of neodymium in in situ doped AlN grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Opt. Mater. Express1(1), 78–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12),” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic properties and applications of rare-earth-doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).

1989

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal conductivity of AIN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bensaoula, A.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berishev, I.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, I. G.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burdick, G. W.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DeVries, B.

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, R. Enck, H. Shen, M. Wraback, N. T. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, and V. Dierolf, “Near-infrared photoluminescence properties of neodymium in in situ doped AlN grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Opt. Mater. Express1(1), 78–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dierre, B.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, M.

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enck, R.

Goodman, G. L.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12),” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirosaki, N.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofsäss, H.

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12),” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jadwisienczak, W. M.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lozykowski, H. J.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Metcalfe, G. D.

Nijjar, A. S.

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohl, G.

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, R. O.

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal conductivity of AIN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J.

Rajnak, K. L.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rana, R. S.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Readinger, D.

D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Readinger, E. D.

Reid, M.

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12),” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reid, M. F.

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sardar, D. K.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, T.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

Slack, G. A.

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal conductivity of AIN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, J.

J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic properties and applications of rare-earth-doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).

Tamura, K.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanzilli, R. A.

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal conductivity of AIN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vandersande, J. W.

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal conductivity of AIN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, U.

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12),” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wahl, U.

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, N. T.

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, R. Enck, H. Shen, M. Wraback, N. T. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, and V. Dierolf, “Near-infrared photoluminescence properties of neodymium in in situ doped AlN grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Opt. Mater. Express1(1), 78–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wraback, M.

Xie, R.-J.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zandi, B.

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12),” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic properties and applications of rare-earth-doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Inoue, T. Sekiguchi, B. Dierre, and K. Tamura, “Blue-emitting AlN:Eu2+ nitride phosphor for field emission displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys.89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, G. W. Burdick, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, S. Chandra, and D. K. Sardar, “Crystal-field analysis and Zeeman splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ (4f3) in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. L. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys.90(7), 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal conductivity of AIN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull.

J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic properties and applications of rare-earth-doped GaN,” MRS Bull.24, 33–38 (1999).

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. B

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. F. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Gd3+ (4f7) in AlN,” Phys. Rev. B69(19), 195202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Vetter, J. B. Gruber, A. S. Nijjar, B. Zandi, G. Ohl, U. Wahl, B. DeVries, H. Hofsäss, M. Dietrich, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, “Crystal field analysis of Pm3+ (4f4) and Sm3+ (4f5) and lattice location studies of 147Nd and 147Pm in w-AlN,” Phys. Rev. B74(20), 205201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, U. Vetter, H. Hofsäss, B. Zandi, and M. Reid, “Spectra and energy levels of Tm3+ (4f12),” Phys. Rev. B70(24), 245108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1963).

B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare-Earths (Wiley, 1965).

G. Blasse and B. Granmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer-Verlag, 1994).

S. M. Sze, Semiconducting Devices, Physics and Technology (Wiley, 1985)

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2.

J. Newman and B. Ng, Crystal-Field Handbook (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

S. R. M. Levinshtein and M. Shur, Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials (Wiley, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The 12 K CL spectrum of transitions from 4F3/2 to 4I9/2. The strongest peaks are associated with Nd3+ ions in the main “a” site.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The CEES data obtained at 15 K. Labels E, A, B, C, and D represent transitions between 4F3/2 to 4I9/2 in sites “a” (indicated with white dotted lines) and “b”(indicated with black dotted lines). The top spectrum is taken in zero magnetic field; the lower two spectra are obtained with the sample oriented with the c-axis parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to a magnetic field of 6 T.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Splitting of the ground state of Nd3+ in the “a” and “b” sites of AlN compared with Nd:GaN; Zeeman spectra of all three sites were obtained at 6 T and 15 K with the sample parallel to the magnetic field.

Tables (4)

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Table 1(a) Crystal-field splitting for energy levels of Nd3+:AlN (part 1)

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Table 1(b) Crystal-field splitting for energy levels of Nd3+:AlN (part 2)

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Table 2 Calculated atomic and crystal-field parameters (in cm−1) for Nd3+:AlN and Nd3+:GaN [16]a

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Table 3 Splitting of 4f3 (main site) crystal-field energy levels in a 6 T magnetic field (in cm−1), and resultant g-values for energy levels of Nd3+:AlN

Equations (2)

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Η A = E avg + k F k f k +αL(L+1)+βG( G 2 )+γG( R 7 )+ i T i t i + ς so A so + k P k p k + j M j m j
H cf = k,q B q k C q (k)

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