Abstract

A polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) with a negative Kerr constant is reported. In a voltage-on state, the double-twist BPLC molecules within the lattice cylinders are reoriented perpendicular to the applied electric field because of their negative dielectric anisotropy. As a result, the induced birefringence has a negative value, which leads to a negative Kerr constant. The negative sign of Kerr constant is experimentally validated by using a quarter-wave plate and a vertical field switching cell. Such a BPLC shows a negligible (~1%) hysteresis and fast response time (~1ms) at the room temperature, although its Kerr constant is relatively small because the employed host has a small Δε.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.2, 59–65 (1985).
  5. G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electrooptical behaviour of cholesteric blue phases with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.1, 117–122 (1985).
  6. Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Yabu, H. Yoshida, G. Lim, K. Kaneko, Y. Okumura, N. Uehara, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Dual frequency operation of a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1577–1584 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. H. Wen and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(23), 231104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst.36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
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  10. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical Field for a Hysteresis-Free BPLC Device,” J. Display Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater.17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Li, M. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Transmissive and transflective blue-phase LCDs with enhanced protrusion electrodes,” J. Display Technol.7(7), 359–361 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent blue-phase liquid crystal cylindrical lens with a resistive film,” Appl. Opt.51(14), 2568–2572 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).
  25. L. Rao, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Viewing angle controllable displays with a blue-phase liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express18(3), 3143–3148 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag.50, 337–348 (1875).
  27. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Display Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent blue-phase liquid crystal cylindrical lens with a resistive film,” Appl. Opt.51(14), 2568–2572 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Transmissive and transflective blue-phase LCDs with enhanced protrusion electrodes,” J. Display Technol.7(7), 359–361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical Field for a Hysteresis-Free BPLC Device,” J. Display Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Yabu, H. Yoshida, G. Lim, K. Kaneko, Y. Okumura, N. Uehara, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Dual frequency operation of a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1577–1584 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Viewing angle controllable displays with a blue-phase liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express18(3), 3143–3148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, M. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Display Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst.36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater.17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wen and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(23), 231104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.2, 59–65 (1985).

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electrooptical behaviour of cholesteric blue phases with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.1, 117–122 (1985).

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1875 (1)

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag.50, 337–348 (1875).

Bremer, M.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Canisius, J.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Chen, H. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

Chen, K. M.

Chen, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. L.

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical Field for a Hysteresis-Free BPLC Device,” J. Display Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y. H.

Gauza, S.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Display Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Gerber, P. R.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haseba, Y.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater.17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heppke, G.

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electrooptical behaviour of cholesteric blue phases with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.1, 117–122 (1985).

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.2, 59–65 (1985).

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, P. J.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical Field for a Hysteresis-Free BPLC Device,” J. Display Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. Y.

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. K.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishinabe, T.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, M. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater.17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, K.

Kerr, J.

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag.50, 337–348 (1875).

Kikuchi, H.

S. Yabu, H. Yoshida, G. Lim, K. Kaneko, Y. Okumura, N. Uehara, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Dual frequency operation of a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1577–1584 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater.17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzerow, H. S.

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.2, 59–65 (1985).

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electrooptical behaviour of cholesteric blue phases with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.1, 117–122 (1985).

Klasen-Memmer, M.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Krumrey, M.

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electrooptical behaviour of cholesteric blue phases with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.1, 117–122 (1985).

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.2, 59–65 (1985).

Lai, Y. C.

Li, Q.

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent blue-phase liquid crystal cylindrical lens with a resistive film,” Appl. Opt.51(14), 2568–2572 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Transmissive and transflective blue-phase LCDs with enhanced protrusion electrodes,” J. Display Technol.7(7), 359–361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, M. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, C. C.

Lim, G.

Lin, C. L.

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst.36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. H.

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. H.

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. H.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical Field for a Hysteresis-Free BPLC Device,” J. Display Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Nagamura, T.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater.17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, Y.

Ozaki, M.

Pauluth, D.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Rao, L.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical Field for a Hysteresis-Free BPLC Device,” J. Display Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Viewing angle controllable displays with a blue-phase liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express18(3), 3143–3148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shiu, J. W.

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Skjonnemand, K.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Sun, J.

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, N.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, N.

Wang, C. T.

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C. H.

C. H. Wen and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(23), 231104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilkes, D.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Wittig, M.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Wu, C. M.

Wu, S. T.

Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent blue-phase liquid crystal cylindrical lens with a resistive film,” Appl. Opt.51(14), 2568–2572 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical Field for a Hysteresis-Free BPLC Device,” J. Display Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Transmissive and transflective blue-phase LCDs with enhanced protrusion electrodes,” J. Display Technol.7(7), 359–361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, M. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Viewing angle controllable displays with a blue-phase liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express18(3), 3143–3148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Display Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst.36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wen and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(23), 231104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Display Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst.36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yabu, S.

Yamamoto, S.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical Field for a Hysteresis-Free BPLC Device,” J. Display Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, A.

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide temperature range,” Adv. Mater.17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wen and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(23), 231104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (4)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst.36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. (2)

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.2, 59–65 (1985).

G. Heppke, H. S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electrooptical behaviour of cholesteric blue phases with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett.1, 117–122 (1985).

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Philos. Mag. (1)

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag.50, 337–348 (1875).

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

M. Wittig, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers43, 25–28 (2012).

Other (1)

P. P. Crooker, “Blue phases,” in Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2001), Chap. 7, pp. 186–222.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Microscopic image of Cell 1 under crossed polarizers at V = 0, (b) at V = 44Vrms, and (c) at V = 60Vrms; (d) Experimental setup for measuring the electro-optic properties of the VFS cells.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured VT curves of Cell 2 and Cell 3 using the experimental setup in Fig. 1(d) with a QW plate sitting in front of the VFS cells.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured VT curve of Cell 2 using the experimental setup in Fig. 1(d) without a QW plate in front of the VFS cell.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n ind = n e (E) n o (E)=λK E 2 ,
KΔnΔε p 2 λk (2π) 2 ,

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