Abstract

We have developed a method for fabricating thin layers of Ce3+ doped yttrium aluminium garnet, Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Ce) based on a sol-gel approach with propylene oxide as a gelation initiator. A single spin-coating process followed by a sequence of heat treatments allows the fabrication of polycrystalline YAG:Ce thin layers with a thickness of a few hundreds of nanometers. Surface morphology, crystallite size, and quantum efficiency are examined as a function of heat treatment temperature. The optical quality of the layer is further investigated by measuring the enhanced absorption of light coupled into the layer. We fabricate a three-layered slab waveguide system consisting of a fused silica glass substrate, a YAG:Ce layer and a SiO2 upper layer, and excite the system by illumination through a prism. The incident light couples to the fundamental waveguide mode in the YAG:Ce layer where it is eventually absorbed, resulting in an enhancement of absorption by a factor of 30. In correspondence, we observe a similar increase in emission intensity of photoluminescence caused by the enhanced absorption.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. W. H. Chao, R. J. Wu, and T. B. Wu, “Structural and luminescent properties of YAG:Ce thin film phosphor,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(1), 98–102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Mizoguchi, M. Kagawa, Y. Syono, and T. Hirai, “Film synthesis of Y3Al5O12 and Y3Fe5O12 by the spray–inductively coupled plasma technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 651–653 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. R. Bai, H. L. M. Chang, and C. M. Foster, “Preparation of single-crystal Y3A15O12 thin film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(14), 1777–1779 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ezaki, M. Obara, H. Kumagai, and K. Toyoda, “Characterization of Nd:Y3Al5O12 thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(20), 2977–2979 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. C. Wu, S. Parola, O. Marty, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, and J. Mugnier, “Structural characterizations and waveguiding properties of YAG thin films obtained by different sol-gel processes,” Opt. Mater.27(9), 1471–1479 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Y. Jia, J. Lin, X. M. Han, and M. Yu, “Pechini sol–gel deposition and luminescence properties of Y3Al5-xGaxO12:Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+; 0≤x≤5) thin films,” Thin Solid Films483(1-2), 122–129 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. A. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesised by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. A. E. Gash, J. H. Satcher, and R. L. Simpson, “Strong akaganeite aerogel monoliths using epoxides: Synthesis and characterization,” Chem. Mater.15(17), 3268–3275 (2003).
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  15. C. Park, D. Magana, and A. E. Stiegman, “High-quality Fe and γ-Fe2O3 magnetic thin films from an epoxide-catalyzed sol-gel process,” Chem. Mater.19(4), 677–683 (2007).
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  16. S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Scattering-based hole burning in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ monoliths with hierarchical porous structures prepared via the sol–gel route,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(36), 17676–17681 (2011).
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  17. K. Iwata, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Photobleaching in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ macroporous monoliths prepared via sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.18(5), 052003 (2011).
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  18. Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Synthesis of monolithic Al2O3 with well-defined macropores and mesostructured skeletons via the sol−gel process accompanied by phase separation,” Chem. Mater.19(14), 3393–3398 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Scattering-based hole burning in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ monoliths with hierarchical porous structures prepared via the sol–gel route,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(36), 17676–17681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwata, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Photobleaching in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ macroporous monoliths prepared via sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.18(5), 052003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Optical properties of macroporous Y3Al5O12 crystals doped with rare earth ions synthesized via sol-gel process from ionic precursors,” Opt. Mater.33(2), 123–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Chao, R. J. Wu, and T. B. Wu, “Structural and luminescent properties of YAG:Ce thin film phosphor,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(1), 98–102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. A. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesised by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

M. Kučera, P. Hasa, and J. Hakenová, “Optical and magneto-optical properties of Ce:YAG,” J. Alloy. Comp.451(1-2), 146–148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini, Y. Zhang, M. Forcales, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Long-range surface polaritons in ultra-thin films of silicon,” Opt. Express16(24), 19674–19685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Park, D. Magana, and A. E. Stiegman, “High-quality Fe and γ-Fe2O3 magnetic thin films from an epoxide-catalyzed sol-gel process,” Chem. Mater.19(4), 677–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Synthesis of monolithic Al2O3 with well-defined macropores and mesostructured skeletons via the sol−gel process accompanied by phase separation,” Chem. Mater.19(14), 3393–3398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. W. Kim and Y. J. Kim, “The effects of substrates and deposition parameters on the growing and luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce thin films,” Opt. Mater.28(6-7), 698–702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. C. Wu, S. Parola, O. Marty, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, and J. Mugnier, “Structural characterizations and waveguiding properties of YAG thin films obtained by different sol-gel processes,” Opt. Mater.27(9), 1471–1479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Jia, J. Lin, X. M. Han, and M. Yu, “Pechini sol–gel deposition and luminescence properties of Y3Al5-xGaxO12:Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+; 0≤x≤5) thin films,” Thin Solid Films483(1-2), 122–129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. E. Gash, J. H. Satcher, and R. L. Simpson, “Strong akaganeite aerogel monoliths using epoxides: Synthesis and characterization,” Chem. Mater.15(17), 3268–3275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, and R. L. Simpson, “Use of epoxides in the sol-gel synthesis of porous iron(III) oxide monoliths from Fe(III) salts,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mizoguchi, M. Kagawa, Y. Syono, and T. Hirai, “Film synthesis of Y3Al5O12 and Y3Fe5O12 by the spray–inductively coupled plasma technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 651–653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Kozuka and H. Kajimura, “Achievement of crack-free BaTiO3 films over 1 μm in thickness via non-repetitive dip-coating,” Chem. Lett.28(10), 1029–1030 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. P. Urbach and G. L. J. A. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Ezaki, M. Obara, H. Kumagai, and K. Toyoda, “Characterization of Nd:Y3Al5O12 thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(20), 2977–2979 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. R. Bai, H. L. M. Chang, and C. M. Foster, “Preparation of single-crystal Y3A15O12 thin film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(14), 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Herminghaus, M. Klopfleisch, and H. J. Schmidt, “Attenuated total reflectance as a quantum interference phenomenon,” Opt. Lett.19(4), 293–295 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

G. De With and H. J. A. van Dijk, “Translucent Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.19(12), 1669–1674 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

Bai, G. R.

G. R. Bai, H. L. M. Chang, and C. M. Foster, “Preparation of single-crystal Y3A15O12 thin film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(14), 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beitlerová, A.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blažek, K.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, M. E.

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. L. M.

G. R. Bai, H. L. M. Chang, and C. M. Foster, “Preparation of single-crystal Y3A15O12 thin film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(14), 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W. H.

W. H. Chao, R. J. Wu, and T. B. Wu, “Structural and luminescent properties of YAG:Ce thin film phosphor,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(1), 98–102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colodrero, S.

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D’Ambrosio, C.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De With, G.

G. De With and H. J. A. van Dijk, “Translucent Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.19(12), 1669–1674 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Einarsrud, M. A.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. A. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesised by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ezaki, M.

M. Ezaki, M. Obara, H. Kumagai, and K. Toyoda, “Characterization of Nd:Y3Al5O12 thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(20), 2977–2979 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

Forcales, M.

Foster, C. M.

G. R. Bai, H. L. M. Chang, and C. M. Foster, “Preparation of single-crystal Y3A15O12 thin film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(14), 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

K. Iwata, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Photobleaching in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ macroporous monoliths prepared via sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.18(5), 052003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Scattering-based hole burning in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ monoliths with hierarchical porous structures prepared via the sol–gel route,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(36), 17676–17681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Optical properties of macroporous Y3Al5O12 crystals doped with rare earth ions synthesized via sol-gel process from ionic precursors,” Opt. Mater.33(2), 123–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Synthesis of monolithic Al2O3 with well-defined macropores and mesostructured skeletons via the sol−gel process accompanied by phase separation,” Chem. Mater.19(14), 3393–3398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garskaite, E.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. A. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesised by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gash, A. E.

A. E. Gash, J. H. Satcher, and R. L. Simpson, “Strong akaganeite aerogel monoliths using epoxides: Synthesis and characterization,” Chem. Mater.15(17), 3268–3275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, and R. L. Simpson, “Use of epoxides in the sol-gel synthesis of porous iron(III) oxide monoliths from Fe(III) salts,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giannini, V.

Gómez Rivas, J.

Grande, T.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. A. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesised by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hakenová, J.

M. Kučera, P. Hasa, and J. Hakenová, “Optical and magneto-optical properties of Ce:YAG,” J. Alloy. Comp.451(1-2), 146–148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, X. M.

P. Y. Jia, J. Lin, X. M. Han, and M. Yu, “Pechini sol–gel deposition and luminescence properties of Y3Al5-xGaxO12:Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+; 0≤x≤5) thin films,” Thin Solid Films483(1-2), 122–129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasa, P.

M. Kučera, P. Hasa, and J. Hakenová, “Optical and magneto-optical properties of Ce:YAG,” J. Alloy. Comp.451(1-2), 146–148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herminghaus, S.

Hidalgo, N.

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, T.

Y. Mizoguchi, M. Kagawa, Y. Syono, and T. Hirai, “Film synthesis of Y3Al5O12 and Y3Fe5O12 by the spray–inductively coupled plasma technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 651–653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Synthesis of monolithic Al2O3 with well-defined macropores and mesostructured skeletons via the sol−gel process accompanied by phase separation,” Chem. Mater.19(14), 3393–3398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hrubesh, L. W.

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, and R. L. Simpson, “Use of epoxides in the sol-gel synthesis of porous iron(III) oxide monoliths from Fe(III) salts,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, K.

K. Iwata, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Photobleaching in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ macroporous monoliths prepared via sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.18(5), 052003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Scattering-based hole burning in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ monoliths with hierarchical porous structures prepared via the sol–gel route,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(36), 17676–17681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Optical properties of macroporous Y3Al5O12 crystals doped with rare earth ions synthesized via sol-gel process from ionic precursors,” Opt. Mater.33(2), 123–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jia, P. Y.

P. Y. Jia, J. Lin, X. M. Han, and M. Yu, “Pechini sol–gel deposition and luminescence properties of Y3Al5-xGaxO12:Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+; 0≤x≤5) thin films,” Thin Solid Films483(1-2), 122–129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, M.

Y. Mizoguchi, M. Kagawa, Y. Syono, and T. Hirai, “Film synthesis of Y3Al5O12 and Y3Fe5O12 by the spray–inductively coupled plasma technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 651–653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kajimura, H.

H. Kozuka and H. Kajimura, “Achievement of crack-free BaTiO3 films over 1 μm in thickness via non-repetitive dip-coating,” Chem. Lett.28(10), 1029–1030 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, K.

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Kim and Y. J. Kim, “The effects of substrates and deposition parameters on the growing and luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce thin films,” Opt. Mater.28(6-7), 698–702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

J. W. Kim and Y. J. Kim, “The effects of substrates and deposition parameters on the growing and luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce thin films,” Opt. Mater.28(6-7), 698–702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klopfleisch, M.

Kozuka, H.

H. Kozuka and H. Kajimura, “Achievement of crack-free BaTiO3 films over 1 μm in thickness via non-repetitive dip-coating,” Chem. Lett.28(10), 1029–1030 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kucera, M.

M. Kučera, P. Hasa, and J. Hakenová, “Optical and magneto-optical properties of Ce:YAG,” J. Alloy. Comp.451(1-2), 146–148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

M. Ezaki, M. Obara, H. Kumagai, and K. Toyoda, “Characterization of Nd:Y3Al5O12 thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(20), 2977–2979 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

P. Y. Jia, J. Lin, X. M. Han, and M. Yu, “Pechini sol–gel deposition and luminescence properties of Y3Al5-xGaxO12:Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+; 0≤x≤5) thin films,” Thin Solid Films483(1-2), 122–129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindgren, M.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. A. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesised by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

López-López, C.

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lozano, G.

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Magana, D.

C. Park, D. Magana, and A. E. Stiegman, “High-quality Fe and γ-Fe2O3 magnetic thin films from an epoxide-catalyzed sol-gel process,” Chem. Mater.19(4), 677–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mareš, J. A.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marty, O.

Y. C. Wu, S. Parola, O. Marty, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, and J. Mugnier, “Structural characterizations and waveguiding properties of YAG thin films obtained by different sol-gel processes,” Opt. Mater.27(9), 1471–1479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Míguez, H.

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mihóková, E.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Synthesis of monolithic Al2O3 with well-defined macropores and mesostructured skeletons via the sol−gel process accompanied by phase separation,” Chem. Mater.19(14), 3393–3398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mizoguchi, Y.

Y. Mizoguchi, M. Kagawa, Y. Syono, and T. Hirai, “Film synthesis of Y3Al5O12 and Y3Fe5O12 by the spray–inductively coupled plasma technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 651–653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, J.

Y. C. Wu, S. Parola, O. Marty, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, and J. Mugnier, “Structural characterizations and waveguiding properties of YAG thin films obtained by different sol-gel processes,” Opt. Mater.27(9), 1471–1479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

Murai, S.

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Scattering-based hole burning in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ monoliths with hierarchical porous structures prepared via the sol–gel route,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(36), 17676–17681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwata, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Photobleaching in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ macroporous monoliths prepared via sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.18(5), 052003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Optical properties of macroporous Y3Al5O12 crystals doped with rare earth ions synthesized via sol-gel process from ionic precursors,” Opt. Mater.33(2), 123–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, K.

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Synthesis of monolithic Al2O3 with well-defined macropores and mesostructured skeletons via the sol−gel process accompanied by phase separation,” Chem. Mater.19(14), 3393–3398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nejezchleb, K.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nikl, M.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

M. Ezaki, M. Obara, H. Kumagai, and K. Toyoda, “Characterization of Nd:Y3Al5O12 thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(20), 2977–2979 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

Park, C.

C. Park, D. Magana, and A. E. Stiegman, “High-quality Fe and γ-Fe2O3 magnetic thin films from an epoxide-catalyzed sol-gel process,” Chem. Mater.19(4), 677–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parola, S.

Y. C. Wu, S. Parola, O. Marty, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, and J. Mugnier, “Structural characterizations and waveguiding properties of YAG thin films obtained by different sol-gel processes,” Opt. Mater.27(9), 1471–1479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poco, J. F.

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, and R. L. Simpson, “Use of epoxides in the sol-gel synthesis of porous iron(III) oxide monoliths from Fe(III) salts,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

H. P. Urbach and G. L. J. A. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saeta, P. N.

Sánchez-Sobrado, O.

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Satcher, J. H.

A. E. Gash, J. H. Satcher, and R. L. Simpson, “Strong akaganeite aerogel monoliths using epoxides: Synthesis and characterization,” Chem. Mater.15(17), 3268–3275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, and R. L. Simpson, “Use of epoxides in the sol-gel synthesis of porous iron(III) oxide monoliths from Fe(III) salts,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H. J.

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R. L.

A. E. Gash, J. H. Satcher, and R. L. Simpson, “Strong akaganeite aerogel monoliths using epoxides: Synthesis and characterization,” Chem. Mater.15(17), 3268–3275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, and R. L. Simpson, “Use of epoxides in the sol-gel synthesis of porous iron(III) oxide monoliths from Fe(III) salts,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stiegman, A. E.

C. Park, D. Magana, and A. E. Stiegman, “High-quality Fe and γ-Fe2O3 magnetic thin films from an epoxide-catalyzed sol-gel process,” Chem. Mater.19(4), 677–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Syono, Y.

Y. Mizoguchi, M. Kagawa, Y. Syono, and T. Hirai, “Film synthesis of Y3Al5O12 and Y3Fe5O12 by the spray–inductively coupled plasma technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 651–653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Iwata, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Photobleaching in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ macroporous monoliths prepared via sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.18(5), 052003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Scattering-based hole burning in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ monoliths with hierarchical porous structures prepared via the sol–gel route,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(36), 17676–17681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Optical properties of macroporous Y3Al5O12 crystals doped with rare earth ions synthesized via sol-gel process from ionic precursors,” Opt. Mater.33(2), 123–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tillotson, T. M.

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, and R. L. Simpson, “Use of epoxides in the sol-gel synthesis of porous iron(III) oxide monoliths from Fe(III) salts,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tokudome, Y.

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Synthesis of monolithic Al2O3 with well-defined macropores and mesostructured skeletons via the sol−gel process accompanied by phase separation,” Chem. Mater.19(14), 3393–3398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

M. Ezaki, M. Obara, H. Kumagai, and K. Toyoda, “Characterization of Nd:Y3Al5O12 thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(20), 2977–2979 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H. P.

H. P. Urbach and G. L. J. A. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, H. J. A.

G. De With and H. J. A. van Dijk, “Translucent Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.19(12), 1669–1674 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vedda, A.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villanueva-Ibanez, M.

Y. C. Wu, S. Parola, O. Marty, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, and J. Mugnier, “Structural characterizations and waveguiding properties of YAG thin films obtained by different sol-gel processes,” Opt. Mater.27(9), 1471–1479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. J.

W. H. Chao, R. J. Wu, and T. B. Wu, “Structural and luminescent properties of YAG:Ce thin film phosphor,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(1), 98–102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. B.

W. H. Chao, R. J. Wu, and T. B. Wu, “Structural and luminescent properties of YAG:Ce thin film phosphor,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(1), 98–102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. C.

Y. C. Wu, S. Parola, O. Marty, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, and J. Mugnier, “Structural characterizations and waveguiding properties of YAG thin films obtained by different sol-gel processes,” Opt. Mater.27(9), 1471–1479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

P. Y. Jia, J. Lin, X. M. Han, and M. Yu, “Pechini sol–gel deposition and luminescence properties of Y3Al5-xGaxO12:Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+; 0≤x≤5) thin films,” Thin Solid Films483(1-2), 122–129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. R. Bai, H. L. M. Chang, and C. M. Foster, “Preparation of single-crystal Y3A15O12 thin film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(14), 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ezaki, M. Obara, H. Kumagai, and K. Toyoda, “Characterization of Nd:Y3Al5O12 thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(20), 2977–2979 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Lett.

H. Kozuka and H. Kajimura, “Achievement of crack-free BaTiO3 films over 1 μm in thickness via non-repetitive dip-coating,” Chem. Lett.28(10), 1029–1030 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Synthesis of monolithic Al2O3 with well-defined macropores and mesostructured skeletons via the sol−gel process accompanied by phase separation,” Chem. Mater.19(14), 3393–3398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, and R. L. Simpson, “Use of epoxides in the sol-gel synthesis of porous iron(III) oxide monoliths from Fe(III) salts,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, J. H. Satcher, and R. L. Simpson, “Strong akaganeite aerogel monoliths using epoxides: Synthesis and characterization,” Chem. Mater.15(17), 3268–3275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Park, D. Magana, and A. E. Stiegman, “High-quality Fe and γ-Fe2O3 magnetic thin films from an epoxide-catalyzed sol-gel process,” Chem. Mater.19(4), 677–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci.

M. E. Calvo, S. Colodrero, N. Hidalgo, G. Lozano, C. López-López, O. Sánchez-Sobrado, and H. Míguez, “Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(12), 4800–4812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.

K. Iwata, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Photobleaching in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ macroporous monoliths prepared via sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.18(5), 052003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp.

M. Kučera, P. Hasa, and J. Hakenová, “Optical and magneto-optical properties of Ce:YAG,” J. Alloy. Comp.451(1-2), 146–148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Chao, R. J. Wu, and T. B. Wu, “Structural and luminescent properties of YAG:Ce thin film phosphor,” J. Alloy. Comp.506(1), 98–102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

Y. Mizoguchi, M. Kagawa, Y. Syono, and T. Hirai, “Film synthesis of Y3Al5O12 and Y3Fe5O12 by the spray–inductively coupled plasma technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 651–653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.

Y. Tokudome, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, K. Kanamori, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, “Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous YAG from ionic precursors via phase separation route,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.115(1348), 925–928 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. A. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesised by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

E. Mihóková, M. Nikl, J. A. Mareš, A. Beitlerová, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blažek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin.126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Scattering-based hole burning in Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ monoliths with hierarchical porous structures prepared via the sol–gel route,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(36), 17676–17681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull.

G. De With and H. J. A. van Dijk, “Translucent Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.19(12), 1669–1674 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Iwata, and K. Tanaka, “Optical properties of macroporous Y3Al5O12 crystals doped with rare earth ions synthesized via sol-gel process from ionic precursors,” Opt. Mater.33(2), 123–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim and Y. J. Kim, “The effects of substrates and deposition parameters on the growing and luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce thin films,” Opt. Mater.28(6-7), 698–702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Wu, S. Parola, O. Marty, M. Villanueva-Ibanez, and J. Mugnier, “Structural characterizations and waveguiding properties of YAG thin films obtained by different sol-gel processes,” Opt. Mater.27(9), 1471–1479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

H. P. Urbach and G. L. J. A. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A57(5), 3913–3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

P. Y. Jia, J. Lin, X. M. Han, and M. Yu, “Pechini sol–gel deposition and luminescence properties of Y3Al5-xGaxO12:Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+; 0≤x≤5) thin films,” Thin Solid Films483(1-2), 122–129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Jenkins and R. L. Snyder, Introduction to X-ray Powder Diffractometry (John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1996), p 89.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of the thin films of YAG:Ce prepared on fused silica glass (a) or sapphire substrates (b-d) heated at different temperatures: (a) 1000 °C; (b) 1200 °C; (c) 1400 °C; (d) 1500 °C. The top right insets in (a) and (b) show cross section images of the sample, and the bottom left inset in (a) shows an optical photograph of the film on a fused silica substrate (3 cm × 3 cm) heated at 1000 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) X-ray diffraction patterns of the thin YAG:Ce films heated at different temperatures: 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1500 °C from bottom to top. The measurements are shifted vertically in steps of 1 × 104 cps for the sake of clarity. The peaks observed in the patterns have been attributed to YAG(indicated by the dots) and Al2O3(indicated by the cross). (b) Crystallite size (left ordinate, solid squares) derived from Scherrer relation and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (right, open circles) as a function of heat treatment temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectrum (left ordinate, black-solid curve) and emission spectrum (right, red-dashed curve) for a 200 nm thick YAG:Ce layer deposited on a SiO2 glass heat treated at 1000 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic illustration of the experimental setup used to couple incident light into the YAG:Ce thin layer. As a sample, we used the YAG:Ce layer (thickness = 200 nm) on the fused silica glass substrate heat treated at 1000 °C with a SiO2 layer (thickness = 240 nm) sputter-deposited on top. Experimental specular reflectance spectra as a function of incident internal angle for s-polarized (b) and p-polarized (c) light. Calculated specular reflectance spectra as a function of incident internal angle for s- polarized (d) and p- polarized (e) light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectra as a function of incident internal angle of the blue laser (λ = 488 nm). The blue laser is s-polarized (a) and p-polarized (b). The inset in (a) shows a sketch of the experimental setup. The incident angle is varied, while the emission is detected in the direction normal to the sample surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Specular reflectance of a 200 nm thick layer of YAG:Ce at a wavelength of 488 nm for s-polarized (black circles) and p-polarized (grey squares) light. (b) Integrated emission intensity between 500 and 700 nm as a function of incident angle of the blue laser (λ = 488 nm) for s-polarized (black) and p-polarized light (grey).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fraction of the emission (λ = 580 nm) that is funneled into the waveguide modes (TE0 and TM0 modes) as a function of the position of the emitter, averaged over all orientations of the emitter. The dashed lines indicate the position of the YAG:Ce layer. The inset shows a sketch of the three-layer system used in the calculation, which ignores the evanescently coupled prism but contains all layers of the sample.

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