Abstract

Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) p-i-n structures were prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Effects of growth pressure on the optical performance of GaN:Er p-i-n structures have been investigated. Electroluminescence measurements revealed that the optimal growth pressure window for obtaining strong infrared emission intensity at 1.54 µm is around 20 torr, while the greater amount of Ga vacancies or non-raditive transitions were observed from the ones grown at lower or higher pressure. Our results point to possible applications in optical communications using current injected optical amplifiers based on GaN:Er p-i-n structures.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Birkhahn and A. J. Steckl, “Green emission from Er-doped GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(15), 2143–2145 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(17), 2450–2452 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Er-doped GaN and InxGa1-xN for optical communication,” in Rare-Earth Doped III-Nitrides for Optoelectronic and Spintronic Applications, K. P. O'Donnell and V. Dierolf, eds. (Springer, the Netherlands, 2010).
  4. A. A. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, and J. Aspell, “Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.2(10), 714–717 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Wang, A. Eckau, E. Neufeld, R. Carius, and C. Buchal, “Hot electron impact excitation cross-section of Er and electroluminescence from erbium-implanted silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(19), 2824–2826 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.81(9), 6343–6350 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. C. Banwell and A. Jayakumar, “Exact analytical solution for current flow through diode with series resistance,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 291–292 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Barnes and T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(10), 633–639 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151902 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Wang and A. J. Steckl, “Effect of Si and Er co-doping on green electroluminescence from GaN:Er ELDs,” in MRS Proceedings (2008), Vol. 1068, p. 1068–C05–03.

2010 (2)

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. C. Banwell and A. Jayakumar, “Exact analytical solution for current flow through diode with series resistance,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 291–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Birkhahn and A. J. Steckl, “Green emission from Er-doped GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(15), 2143–2145 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(17), 2450–2452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Wang, A. Eckau, E. Neufeld, R. Carius, and C. Buchal, “Hot electron impact excitation cross-section of Er and electroluminescence from erbium-implanted silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(19), 2824–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.81(9), 6343–6350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. A. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, and J. Aspell, “Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.2(10), 714–717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

P. Barnes and T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(10), 633–639 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aspell, J.

A. A. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, and J. Aspell, “Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.2(10), 714–717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Banwell, T. C.

T. C. Banwell and A. Jayakumar, “Exact analytical solution for current flow through diode with series resistance,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 291–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, P.

P. Barnes and T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(10), 633–639 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Birkhahn, R.

R. Birkhahn and A. J. Steckl, “Green emission from Er-doped GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(15), 2143–2145 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(17), 2450–2452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Broser, I.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchal, C.

S. Wang, A. Eckau, E. Neufeld, R. Carius, and C. Buchal, “Hot electron impact excitation cross-section of Er and electroluminescence from erbium-implanted silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(19), 2824–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

S. Wang, A. Eckau, E. Neufeld, R. Carius, and C. Buchal, “Hot electron impact excitation cross-section of Er and electroluminescence from erbium-implanted silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(19), 2824–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dahal, R.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eckau, A.

S. Wang, A. Eckau, E. Neufeld, R. Carius, and C. Buchal, “Hot electron impact excitation cross-section of Er and electroluminescence from erbium-implanted silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(19), 2824–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eckey, L.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evankow, J. D.

A. A. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, and J. Aspell, “Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.2(10), 714–717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, R. J.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.81(9), 6343–6350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, Y.

A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garter, M.

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(17), 2450–2452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heitz, R.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heying, B.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, A.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hui, R.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jayakumar, A.

T. C. Banwell and A. Jayakumar, “Exact analytical solution for current flow through diode with series resistance,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 291–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R. M.

A. A. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, and J. Aspell, “Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.2(10), 714–717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kapolnek, D.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, U.

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keller, B. P.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, A.

A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunzer, M.

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loa, I.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, K.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B. K.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mokhov, E. N.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namavar, F.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.81(9), 6343–6350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nepal, N.

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, E.

S. Wang, A. Eckau, E. Neufeld, R. Carius, and C. Buchal, “Hot electron impact excitation cross-section of Er and electroluminescence from erbium-implanted silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(19), 2824–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pankove, J. I.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.81(9), 6343–6350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paoli, T.

P. Barnes and T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(10), 633–639 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pressel, K.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, C. H.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.81(9), 6343–6350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A. A.

A. A. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, and J. Aspell, “Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.2(10), 714–717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J.

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(17), 2450–2452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sedhain, A.

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

R. Birkhahn and A. J. Steckl, “Green emission from Er-doped GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(15), 2143–2145 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(17), 2450–2452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, Y.

A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thurian, P.

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torvik, J. T.

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.81(9), 6343–6350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ugolini, C.

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Urakami, A.

A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, A. Eckau, E. Neufeld, R. Carius, and C. Buchal, “Hot electron impact excitation cross-section of Er and electroluminescence from erbium-implanted silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(19), 2824–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikane, T.

A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

R. Birkhahn and A. J. Steckl, “Green emission from Er-doped GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(15), 2143–2145 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield, “Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(17), 2450–2452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Koizumi, Y. Fujiwara, A. Urakami, K. Inoue, T. Yoshikane, and Y. Takeda, “Room-temperature electroluminescence properties of Er, O-codoped GaAs injection-type light-emitting diodes grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4521–4523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, A. Eckau, E. Neufeld, R. Carius, and C. Buchal, “Hot electron impact excitation cross-section of Er and electroluminescence from erbium-implanted silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(19), 2824–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Photoluminescence of residual transition metal impurities in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(8), 1140–1142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. C. Banwell and A. Jayakumar, “Exact analytical solution for current flow through diode with series resistance,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 291–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Barnes and T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(10), 633–639 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. A. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, and J. Aspell, “Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.2(10), 714–717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, and F. Namavar, “Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.81(9), 6343–6350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

R. Heitz, P. Thurian, I. Loa, L. Eckey, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, K. Pressel, B. K. Meyer, and E. N. Mokhov, “Identification of the 1.19-eV luminescence in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(23), 16508–16515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. Wang and A. J. Steckl, “Effect of Si and Er co-doping on green electroluminescence from GaN:Er ELDs,” in MRS Proceedings (2008), Vol. 1068, p. 1068–C05–03.

R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Er-doped GaN and InxGa1-xN for optical communication,” in Rare-Earth Doped III-Nitrides for Optoelectronic and Spintronic Applications, K. P. O'Donnell and V. Dierolf, eds. (Springer, the Netherlands, 2010).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the MOCVD grown GaN:Er p-i-n emitter structure used in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I-V characteristics of GaN:Er p-i-n structures grown at different growth pressures from 10 to 40 torr.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

GaN:Er (002) XRD rocking curves of the GaN:Er p-i-n structures with varying GaN:Er growth pressures from 10 to 40 torr.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Infrared spectra detected at 20 mA from GaN:Er p-i-n structures grown at different GaN:Er growth pressures from 10 to 40 torr. For GaN:Er growth pressure above 20 torr, the infrared emission intensity decreases significantly.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Infrared spectra detected at 20 mA from GaN p-i-n structures without Er-doping grown at two GaN growth pressures of 10 and 20 torr.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of parameters of GaN:Er p-i-n structures grown under different GaN:Er growth pressures (P); FWHM of GaN:Er (002) XRD rocking curves; and the estimated series resistance (R).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= I sat exp( q(VIR) ηkT 1).
I dV dI =RI+ ηkT q .

Metrics