Abstract

Whispering-gallery-modes (WGM) spherical microresonators may reveal new perspective properties being coated with non-linear thin layers. We present the examples of all-optical switching of WGM in silica microspheres covered with a polyfluorene derivative showing ultrafast Kerr nonlinearity, or a relatively slow thermal nonlinearity. Another set of measurements performed with an inert polymer, an acrylate derivative, is discussed as well.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Kozyreff, J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, and J. Martorell, “Nonlinear optics in spheres: from second harmonic scattering to quasi phase-matched generation in whispering gallery modes,” Laser Photon. Rev5(6), 737–749 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. S. Choi, X. Zhang, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid silica-polymer ultra-high-Q microresonators,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 459–461 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Käsebier, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Thermal nonlinear effects in hybrid silica/polymer microdisks,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3351–3353 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, Y. Tamaki, and T. Okamoto, “Optical switching due to whispering gallery modes in dielectric microspheres coated by a Kerr material,” J. Microsc.210(3), 229–233 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Razdolskiy, S. Berneschi, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, T. V. Murzina, G. C. Righini, and S. Soria, “Hybrid microspheres for nonlinear Kerr switching devices,” Opt. Express19(10), 9523–9528 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 438–446 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Pöllinger and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical signal processing at ultra-low powers in bottle microresonators using the Kerr effect,” Opt. Express18(17), 17764–17775 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. S. Choi and A. M. Armani, “Thermal nonlinear effects in hybrid optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 223306 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Soria, F. Baldini, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, A. Giannetti, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and B. Tiribilli, “High-Q polymer-coated microspheres for immunosensing applications,” Opt. Express17(17), 14694–14699 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, S. Pelli, S. Soria, G. C. Righini, M. Dispenza, and A. Secchi, “Planar coupling to high-Q lithium niobate disk resonators,” Opt. Express19(4), 3651–3656 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Lin, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, “Thermostable refractive index sensors based on whispering gallery modes in a microsphere coated with poly(methyl methacrylate),” Appl. Opt.50(7), 992–998 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (7)

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pöllinger and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical signal processing at ultra-low powers in bottle microresonators using the Kerr effect,” Opt. Express18(17), 17764–17775 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Choi and A. M. Armani, “Thermal nonlinear effects in hybrid optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 223306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Choi, X. Zhang, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid silica-polymer ultra-high-Q microresonators,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 459–461 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Käsebier, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Thermal nonlinear effects in hybrid silica/polymer microdisks,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3351–3353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, Y. Tamaki, and T. Okamoto, “Optical switching due to whispering gallery modes in dielectric microspheres coated by a Kerr material,” J. Microsc.210(3), 229–233 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

H. S. Choi, X. Zhang, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid silica-polymer ultra-high-Q microresonators,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 459–461 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Choi and A. M. Armani, “Thermal nonlinear effects in hybrid optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 223306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baldini, F.

Barberi, R.

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berneschi, S.

Chiasera, A.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chinelatto, L. S.

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chipouline, A.

Choi, H. S.

H. S. Choi, X. Zhang, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid silica-polymer ultra-high-Q microresonators,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 459–461 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Choi and A. M. Armani, “Thermal nonlinear effects in hybrid optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 223306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conti, G. N.

Cosi, F.

De Santo, M.

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Del Barrio, J.

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dispenza, M.

Dominguez-Juarez, J. L.

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kozyreff, J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, and J. Martorell, “Nonlinear optics in spheres: from second harmonic scattering to quasi phase-matched generation in whispering gallery modes,” Laser Photon. Rev5(6), 737–749 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dumeige, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Féron, P.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, Y. Tamaki, and T. Okamoto, “Optical switching due to whispering gallery modes in dielectric microspheres coated by a Kerr material,” J. Microsc.210(3), 229–233 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannetti, A.

Haraguchi, M.

K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, Y. Tamaki, and T. Okamoto, “Optical switching due to whispering gallery modes in dielectric microspheres coated by a Kerr material,” J. Microsc.210(3), 229–233 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jestin, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

Käsebier, T.

Kley, E.-B.

Kozyreff, G.

G. Kozyreff, J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, and J. Martorell, “Nonlinear optics in spheres: from second harmonic scattering to quasi phase-matched generation in whispering gallery modes,” Laser Photon. Rev5(6), 737–749 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanzani, G.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, N.

Lu, Y.

Martorell, J.

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kozyreff, J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, and J. Martorell, “Nonlinear optics in spheres: from second harmonic scattering to quasi phase-matched generation in whispering gallery modes,” Laser Photon. Rev5(6), 737–749 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matranga, M. A.

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murzina, T. V.

Niimi, T.

K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi Conti, G.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, Y. Tamaki, and T. Okamoto, “Optical switching due to whispering gallery modes in dielectric microspheres coated by a Kerr material,” J. Microsc.210(3), 229–233 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oriol, L.

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

Pertsch, T.

Pinol, M.

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pöllinger, M.

Rauschenbeutel, A.

Razdolskiy, I.

Righini, G. C.

Schmidt, C.

Secchi, A.

Soria, S.

Tamaki, Y.

M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, Y. Tamaki, and T. Okamoto, “Optical switching due to whispering gallery modes in dielectric microspheres coated by a Kerr material,” J. Microsc.210(3), 229–233 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiribilli, B.

Tsai, H.

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, S.

Xiao, H.

Yamaguchi, K.

K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. S. Choi and A. M. Armani, “Thermal nonlinear effects in hybrid optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 223306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, Y. Tamaki, and T. Okamoto, “Optical switching due to whispering gallery modes in dielectric microspheres coated by a Kerr material,” J. Microsc.210(3), 229–233 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A. (1)

L. S. Chinelatto, J. Del Barrio, M. Pinol, L. Oriol, M. A. Matranga, M. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Oligofluorene blue emitters for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A.210(2-3), 130–139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev (2)

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kozyreff, J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, and J. Martorell, “Nonlinear optics in spheres: from second harmonic scattering to quasi phase-matched generation in whispering gallery modes,” Laser Photon. Rev5(6), 737–749 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

J. L. Dominguez-Juarez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules,” Nat Commun2, 254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Yamaguchi, M. Fujii, T. Niimi, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Self-Modulation Scattering intensity from a silica microsphere coated with a sol-gel film doped with J-aggregates,” Opt. Rev.13(4), 292–296 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental pump-and-probe set-up. Left hand side inset: optical image of the WGMR. The typical size of the WGMR is of about 260 μm of diameter

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency center of the WGMR resonance versus pump power. The red line is a guide to the eye. Inset: Zoom of a typical resonance for a bare microsphere, the red line is a Lorentzian fit (R2 = 0.97) with a FWHM of about 2.4 MHz

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Typical WGM spectra measured for a polymer-coated microsphere for two different pump powers: (black) pump laser off and (blue) 32 mW. λpump = 775 nm, λprobe = 1600 nm. B) Pump power dependence of the detuning of WGM in PF(o)n coated microspheres for mode-locked regime of the Ti-sapphire pump laser: 825 nm (filled squares) and 775 nm (empty circles); and CW at 775 nm (empty downside triangles).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pump power dependence of the detuning of WGM in PF(o)n coated microspheres for mode-locked regime of the Ti-sapphire pump laser for two different regimes: CW (filled circles), mode locked at 775 nm (empty circles) and mode locked at 825 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eudragit coated microspheres for mode-locked regime of the Ti-sapphire pump laser for two different regimes: CW (empty circles) and pulsed (filled squares) The probe wavelength is set at 1558 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a): shift of the resonance wavelength at 1558 nm due to the variation of the refractive index of the coating layer. b): variation of the radial field inside the coating layer as a function of the layer thickness at two different resonance wavelengths (1558 nm, black line, and 1600 nm, red line).

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