Abstract

We compared spectroscopic properties and resonantly (in-band) pumped laser performances of Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+:GdVO4 single crystals, at room and cryogenic temperatures. It was shown that these gain materials are very similar in absorption and emission spectra, associated with transitions between 4I15/2 and 4I13/2 manifolds of Er3+ ions. Both lasers demonstrated comparable performances in quasi continuous wave (QCW) operation at both temperatures. However, Er3+:GdVO4 material performed better in a continuous wave (CW) mode, under the higher thermal load.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

J. Didierjean, E. Herault, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals,” Opt. Express16(12), 8995–9010 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron.38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

2004

W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, G. Dominick-Dzik, R. Lisiecki, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Relaxation of excited states and up-conversion phenomena in Rare Earth-doped YVO4 crystal growth by the Czochralski method,” Laser Phys.14, 250–257 (2004).

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Saturation factors of pump absorption in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(3), 270–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin.106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. D. Jiang, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. R. Xia, X. B. Hu, B. Teng, and C. Q. Zhang, “Optical and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Commun.198(4-6), 447–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Wynne, J. L. Daneu, and T. Y. Fan, “Thermal coefficients of the expansion and refractive index in YAG,” Appl. Opt.38(15), 3282–3284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorgé, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys.214(2-3), 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985

C. V. V. Reddy, P. Kistaiah, and K. S. Murthy, “X-ray studies on the thermal expansion of gadolinium vanadate,” J. Phys. D18(6), L27–L30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972

G. Bayer, “Thermal expansion of ABO4 compounds with zircon and scheelite structures,” J. Less Common Met.26(2), 255–262 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

1962

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

Bayer, G.

G. Bayer, “Thermal expansion of ABO4 compounds with zircon and scheelite structures,” J. Less Common Met.26(2), 255–262 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bertini, C.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin.106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorgé, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys.214(2-3), 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, C.

Capobianco, J. A.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorgé, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys.214(2-3), 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin.106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorgé, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys.214(2-3), 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chow, Y. T.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Currin, K. M.

Daneu, J. L.

Dexter, D. L.

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Didierjean, J.

Dominick-Dzik, G.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, G. Dominick-Dzik, R. Lisiecki, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Relaxation of excited states and up-conversion phenomena in Rare Earth-doped YVO4 crystal growth by the Czochralski method,” Laser Phys.14, 250–257 (2004).

Dubinskii, M.

Ermeneux, F. S.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorgé, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys.214(2-3), 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Foster, J. D.

Fowler, W. B.

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Fromzel, V.

Georges, P.

Herault, E.

Hu, X. B.

H. D. Jiang, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. R. Xia, X. B. Hu, B. Teng, and C. Q. Zhang, “Optical and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Commun.198(4-6), 447–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Jiang, H. D.

H. D. Jiang, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. R. Xia, X. B. Hu, B. Teng, and C. Q. Zhang, “Optical and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Commun.198(4-6), 447–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kabro, P.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorgé, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys.214(2-3), 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kisil, V. E.

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

Kistaiah, P.

C. V. V. Reddy, P. Kistaiah, and K. S. Murthy, “X-ray studies on the thermal expansion of gadolinium vanadate,” J. Phys. D18(6), L27–L30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

Kupchenko, M. I.

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

Kutovoi, S. A.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron.38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

Lisiecki, R.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, G. Dominick-Dzik, R. Lisiecki, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Relaxation of excited states and up-conversion phenomena in Rare Earth-doped YVO4 crystal growth by the Czochralski method,” Laser Phys.14, 250–257 (2004).

Lu, M. K.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lukasiewicz, T.

Magnani, N.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin.106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matrosov, V.

Matrosov, V. N.

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

Matrosova, T. A.

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

Meng, X. L.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

Michael, A.

Moncorgé, R.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorgé, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys.214(2-3), 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, K. S.

C. V. V. Reddy, P. Kistaiah, and K. S. Murthy, “X-ray studies on the thermal expansion of gadolinium vanadate,” J. Phys. D18(6), L27–L30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Newburgh, G. A.

Northridge, J. M.

Osterink, L. M.

Perlov, D.

Pestryakov, E. V.

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

Petermann, K.

Popov, P. A.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron.38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, C. V. V.

C. V. V. Reddy, P. Kistaiah, and K. S. Murthy, “X-ray studies on the thermal expansion of gadolinium vanadate,” J. Phys. D18(6), L27–L30 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “The studies of thermal conductivity in GdVO4, YVO4 and Y3Al5O12 measured by quasi-one-dimension flash method,” Opt. Express14(22), 10528–10536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Saturation factors of pump absorption in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(3), 270–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherbitsky, V. G.

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

Shcherbakov, I. A.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron.38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solarz, P.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, P. Solarz, G. Dominick-Dzik, R. Lisiecki, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Relaxation of excited states and up-conversion phenomena in Rare Earth-doped YVO4 crystal growth by the Czochralski method,” Laser Phys.14, 250–257 (2004).

Taira, T.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “The studies of thermal conductivity in GdVO4, YVO4 and Y3Al5O12 measured by quasi-one-dimension flash method,” Opt. Express14(22), 10528–10536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Saturation factors of pump absorption in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(3), 270–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teng, B.

H. D. Jiang, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. R. Xia, X. B. Hu, B. Teng, and C. Q. Zhang, “Optical and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Commun.198(4-6), 447–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ter-Gabrielyan, N.

Toncelli, A.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin.106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin.106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Q.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

H. D. Jiang, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. R. Xia, X. B. Hu, B. Teng, and C. Q. Zhang, “Optical and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Commun.198(4-6), 447–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, R.

Xia, H. R.

H. D. Jiang, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. R. Xia, X. B. Hu, B. Teng, and C. Q. Zhang, “Optical and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Commun.198(4-6), 447–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yalg, A. G.

V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, A. G. Yalg, E. V. Pestryakov, V. E. Kisil, V. G. Scherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Doped YVO4 crystals: growing, properties and applications,” Funct. Mater.12(4), 755–756 (2005).

Yang, Z. H.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. T.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zagumenny, A. I.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron.38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zavartsev, Yu. D.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron.38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

Zerouk, F.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron.38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. Q.

H. D. Jiang, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. R. Xia, X. B. Hu, B. Teng, and C. Q. Zhang, “Optical and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Commun.198(4-6), 447–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

H. D. Jiang, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. R. Xia, X. B. Hu, B. Teng, and C. Q. Zhang, “Optical and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Commun.198(4-6), 447–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol.34(8), 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorgé, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys.214(2-3), 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

4I15/24I13/2 absorption spectrum of Er3+ in GdVO4 and YVO4 single crystals measured at 77 K (a, b) and 300 K (c, d) for and σ- and π-polarizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

4I13/24I15/2 emission spectrum of Er3+ in GdVO4 and YVO4 single crystals measured at 77 K (a, b) and 300 K (c, d) for σ- and π-polarizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy level diagram of Er3+ in GdVO4 and YVO4 single crystals at 77 K. Orange arrows represent major absorption transitions. Blue and pink arrows represent the observed laser transitions. For each multiplet, energies of Stark sub-levels are presented on the left and Boltzmann population factors (for 77 and 300 K) are presented on the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified optical layout of the cryogenically-cooled (a) and room temperature (b) Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+:GdVO4 lasers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CW and QCW input-output characteristics of cryogenic Er3+(0.7%):GdVO4 and Er3+(0.5%):YVO4 lasers resonantly pumped at 1538.8 nm by an Er-doped fiber laser. The cavity length is 80 mm, plano-concave output coupler with RCC = 100 mm for all cases, output coupler reflectivity ROC = 0.85 (a, b), 0.8 (c, d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the output power vs the absorbed pump power dependences for the Er3+:YVO4 (a) and the Er3+:GdVO4 (b) cryogenic lasers in CW and QCW regimes, when both laser are pumped by an Er-doped fiber laser at 1538.8 nm. QCW regime is 10 Hz, 25 ms pulse duration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

QCW laser output power vs. absorbed pump power dependences for Er3+(0.7%):GdVO4 and Er3+(0.5%):YVO4 cryogenic lasers, resonantly pumped by a laser diode bar stack.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CW and QCW laser output power vs. the absorbed pump power dependences for Er3+(0.7%):GdVO4 and Er3+(0.5%):YVO4 lasers operating at RT. Output coupler reflectivity ROC = 0.9 (a), ROC = 0.95 (b). The black and red lines are linear regressions of the experimental data points.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical, Optical and Thermal Properties of Er3+:YVO4, Er3+:GdVO4 and Er3+:YAG Crystals

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