Abstract

The saturated optical absorption of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-doped hybrid-glass composites was studied at 1064 nm with nanosecond long pulses using the Z-scan technique. Increased transmission was demonstrated for high intensity pulses. The results were modeled for the limiting cases of a slow or a fast saturable absorber, both referring to a three-level system. The ground-state absorption cross section was estimated as 2.3x10−18 cm2, in good agreement with that of a single carbon atom. The excited state absorption cross section for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was estimated for the first time as 6.9x10−19 cm3. The absorber's density of 2.8x1018 cm−3 is smaller by approximately a factor of 5 compared to the nominal density of carbon atoms incorporated into the glass. This could be a result of the broad band-like states formation in the MWNTs. The above figures were obtained by assuming that the excited state decay time was longer than the pulse duration of ~1 ns.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

C.-C. Liu, Y.-G. Wang, J. Liu, L.-H. Zheng, L.-B. Su, and J. Xu, “Ultrafast laser performance of Yb3+: Sc2SiO5 crystal with a single-walled carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Commun.285(6), 1352–1355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

C. Zheng, W. Chen, X. Ye, S. Cai, X. Xiao, and M. Wang, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotubes coated with Au nanoparticle composites embedded in silica gel-glass,” Mater. Lett.65(2), 150–152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pokrass, I. Gouzman, G. Bar, and R. Gvishi, “Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of hybrid organic/inorganic fast sol–gel glasses,” Opt. Mater.34(2), 341–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, P. Deria, and M. J. Therien, “Dynamics and transient absorption spectral signatures of the single-wall carbon nanotube electronically excited triplet state,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(43), 17156–17159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Lim, Z. L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W. H. Ng, H. W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L. L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 554–560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Chen, Y. G. Wang, C. Y. Tsai, K. H. Lin, T. Y. Chang, J. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “High-power, passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1284–1286 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Widely tunable passively mode-locked fiber laser with carbon nanotube films,” Opt. Rev.17(3), 97–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pokrass, Z. Burshtein, and R. Gvishi, “Thermo-optic coefficient in some hybrid organic/inorganic fast sol–gel glasses,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 975–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P.-C. Ma, N. A. Siddiqui, G. Marom, and J.-K. Kim, “Dispersion and functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer-based nanocomposites: A review,” Composites, Part A41(10), 1345–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Ma, N. A. Siddiqui, G. Marom, and J. K. Kim, “Dispersion and functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer-based nanocomposites: A review,” Composites, Part A41(10), 1345–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Zheng, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “The synthesis of carbon nanotube based composites with conducting, semiconducting, and insulating coatings and their optical limiting properties,” Carbon48(13), 3750–3759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, J. Thomas, S. D. Allen, and Y.-X. Wang, “Optical power limiting and nonlinear absorption effects of polymer functionalized carbon nanotube thin films,” Opt. Eng.49(6), 063801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

H. Xu, Y. Pan, Y. Zhu, H. Kou, and J. Guo, “Transparent multi-walled carbon nanotube-silica composite prepared by hot-pressed sintering and its nonlinear optical properties,” J. Alloy. Comp.481(1-2), L4–L7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Gvishi, “Fast sol–gel technology: from fabrication to applications,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.50(2), 241–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyauchi, H. Hirori, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Radiative lifetimes and coherence lengths of one-dimensional excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B80(8), 081410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Khudyakov, A. S. Lobach, and V. A. Nadtochenko, “Nonlinear optical absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes in carboxymethylcellulose thin polymerfilm and its application as a saturable absorber for mode-locking in pulsed Nd:glass laser,” Appl. Opt.48(8), 1624–1627 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ni and P. R. Bandaru, “Enhanced optical absorption cross-section characteristics of multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Carbon47(12), 2898–2903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Luminescence decay and the absorption cross section of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(7), 077402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Solvent effect on optical limiting properties of single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2298–2303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. A. Fagan, J. R. Simpson, B. J. Bauer, S. H. De Paoli Lacerda, M. L. Becker, J. Chun, K. B. Migler, A. R. Hight Walker, and E. K. Hobbie, “Length-dependent optical effects in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(34), 10607–10612 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Moniruzzaman and K. I. Winey, “Polymer nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes,” Macromolecules39(16), 5194–5205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Ultrafast dynamics of single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. A109(2), 289–292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Feng, W. Yi, H. Wu, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities by conjugated polymer-bonded carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, H. Kataura, S. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Anisotropic saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes aligned in polyvinyl alcohol,” Chem. Phys. Lett.405(4-6), 288–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, H. N. Pedrosa, and T. D. Krauss, “Ultrafast ground-state recovery of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(1), 017403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.29(14), 1581–1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. E. Brennan, M. Cadek, A. Drury, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of multiwalled carbon-nanotube dispersions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(1), 49–58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z.-B. Liu, J.-G. Tian, W.-P. Zang, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, J.-Y. Zheng, Y.-C. Zhou, and H. Xu, “Large optical nonlinearities of new organophosphorus fullerene derivatives,” Appl. Opt.42(35), 7072–7076 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sennett, E. Welsh, J. B. Wright, W. Z. Li, J. G. Wen, and Z. F. Ren, “Dispersion and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polycarbonate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(1), 111–113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hongbing, C. Wenzhe, W. Minquan, Zhengchan, and Z. Chunlin, “Optical limiting effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes suspension and silica xerogel composite,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3-4), 313–317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of singlewall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun.174(1-4), 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5-6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met.103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several Garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. L. Lu, R. M. Lago, Y. K. Chen, M. L. H. Green, P. J. F. Harris, and S. C. Tsang, “Mechanical damage of carbon nanotubes by ultrasound,” Carbon34(6), 814–816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1963 (1)

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.34(8), 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, H. Kataura, S. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Anisotropic saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes aligned in polyvinyl alcohol,” Chem. Phys. Lett.405(4-6), 288–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met.103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. D.

L. Zhang, J. Thomas, S. D. Allen, and Y.-X. Wang, “Optical power limiting and nonlinear absorption effects of polymer functionalized carbon nanotube thin films,” Opt. Eng.49(6), 063801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andrieux, M.

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Huan, C. H. A.

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L. Huang, H. N. Pedrosa, and T. D. Krauss, “Ultrafast ground-state recovery of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(1), 017403 (2004).
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H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
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Wang, Y.-G.

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L. Zhang, J. Thomas, S. D. Allen, and Y.-X. Wang, “Optical power limiting and nonlinear absorption effects of polymer functionalized carbon nanotube thin films,” Opt. Eng.49(6), 063801 (2010).
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M. Sennett, E. Welsh, J. B. Wright, W. Z. Li, J. G. Wen, and Z. F. Ren, “Dispersion and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polycarbonate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(1), 111–113 (2003).
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Z. Hongbing, C. Wenzhe, W. Minquan, Zhengchan, and Z. Chunlin, “Optical limiting effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes suspension and silica xerogel composite,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3-4), 313–317 (2003).
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M. Moniruzzaman and K. I. Winey, “Polymer nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes,” Macromolecules39(16), 5194–5205 (2006).
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D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Ultrafast dynamics of single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. A109(2), 289–292 (2005).
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M. Sennett, E. Welsh, J. B. Wright, W. Z. Li, J. G. Wen, and Z. F. Ren, “Dispersion and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polycarbonate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(1), 111–113 (2003).
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Yamashita, S.

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C. Zheng, W. Chen, X. Ye, S. Cai, X. Xiao, and M. Wang, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotubes coated with Au nanoparticle composites embedded in silica gel-glass,” Mater. Lett.65(2), 150–152 (2011).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic description of the Z-scan measurement system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a three-level system used for modeling of saturable absorption. Optical transitions are marked with solid arrows; non-radiative intra-band transitions are marked with a wiggled one.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

E-SEM images of (a) a MWNTs powder grain, as purchased; (b) MWNT/ethanol suspension after drying; (c) a MWNT/hybrid-glass composite surface

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vis-NIR absorption spectrum of a 0.3 mg/ml MWNTs suspension in ethanol.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vis-NIR absorption spectrum MWNT/hybrid-glass containing 0.02 wt.% MWNT, compared to a pure hybrid glass. Both spectra corrected for Fresnel reflections.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Z-scan measurement: Optical Transmission of MWNT/hybrid-glass containing 0.02 wt.% MWNT as function of sample position Z along the beam. Beam waist radius w 0 =13.5μm ; sample thickness L=0.115cm . Scan direction from left to right.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical transmission of MWNT/hybrid-glass containing 0.02 wt.% MWNT as function of the peak beam fluence (same results as Fig. 6). Fit curve is by the modified Frantz-Nodvik model (Eqs. (2)-(3)) for a slow saturable absorber (SA).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission of MWNT/hybrid-glass containing 0.02 wt.% MWNT as function of peak beam power (same results as Fig. 6). Fit curve by Eq. (4) for a fast saturable absorber (SA).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α( I )= α 0 1+( I/ I s ) + α ns ,
T( L )= T 0 + T FN ( L ) T 0 1 T 0 ( T max T 0 ); T 0 = e N σ gs L ; T max = e N σ es L ,
T FN = 1 σ gs E( 0 ) ln{ 1+ T 0 [ e σ gs E( 0 ) 1 ] },
I( 0 )= S[ 1 ( T 0 /T ) 1/D ] ( T 0 /T ) 1/D T ;S= 1 τ σ gs ;D= Δσ σ es ,
α( λ )[ c m 1 ]=21.082.6ln( λ[ c m 1 ] ),

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