Abstract

We introduce a new method to investigate localized volume variations resulting from laser exposure. Our method is based on the measurement of fused silica cantilevers deflection from which we calculate the effective stress and density variation in laser-affected zones. Specifically, we investigate density variations in fused silica exposed to femtosecond laser exposure in the regime where nanogratings are found. We demonstrate that a volume expansion is taking place in that particular regime.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett.26(5), 277–279 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express16(24), 19520–19534 (2008), doi:.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Bellouard, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Nanoindentation and birefringence measurements on fused silica specimen exposed to low-energy femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express14(18), 8360–8366 (2006), doi:.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett.29(1), 119–121 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Hnatovsky, J. R. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self‐organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Canning, M. Lancry, K. Cook, A. Weickman, F. Brisset, and B. Poumellec, “Anatomy of a femtosecond laser processed silica waveguide,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 998–1008 (2011), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Rajesh and Y. Bellouard, “Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: The effect of deposited energy,” Opt. Express18(20), 21490–21497 (2010), doi:.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character82(553), 172–175 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express12(10), 2120–2129 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2120 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Sugiura and T. Yamadaya, “Raman-scattering in silica glass in the permanent densification region,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids144, 151–158 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Bell and P. Dean, “Atomic vibrations in vitreous silica,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.50, 55–61 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. L. Galeener, “Band limits and the vibrational spectra of tetrahedral glasses,” Phys. Rev. B19(8), 4292–4297 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Okuno, B. Reynard, Y. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopy study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner.26(4), 304–311 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.26(21), 1726–1728 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. J. Reichman, D. M. Krol, L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “A spectroscopic comparison of femtosecond-laser-modified fused silica using kilohertz and megahertz laser systems,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids209(1-2), 166–174 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Lancry, K. Cook, A. Weickman, F. Brisset, and B. Poumellec, “Anatomy of a femtosecond laser processed silica waveguide,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 998–1008 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self‐organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express16(24), 19520–19534 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Bellouard, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Nanoindentation and birefringence measurements on fused silica specimen exposed to low-energy femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express14(18), 8360–8366 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Reichman, D. M. Krol, L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “A spectroscopic comparison of femtosecond-laser-modified fused silica using kilohertz and megahertz laser systems,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Hnatovsky, J. R. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1999

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, Y. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopy study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner.26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids209(1-2), 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1992

H. Sugiura and T. Yamadaya, “Raman-scattering in silica glass in the permanent densification region,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids144, 151–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1979

F. L. Galeener, “Band limits and the vibrational spectra of tetrahedral glasses,” Phys. Rev. B19(8), 4292–4297 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. Bell and P. Dean, “Atomic vibrations in vitreous silica,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.50, 55–61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1909

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character82(553), 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids209(1-2), 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

W. J. Reichman, D. M. Krol, L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “A spectroscopic comparison of femtosecond-laser-modified fused silica using kilohertz and megahertz laser systems,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Barthel, E.

Bell, J.

J. Bell and P. Dean, “Atomic vibrations in vitreous silica,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.50, 55–61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, J. R. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

Brisset, F.

Canning, J.

Chan, J. W.

Colomb, T.

Cook, K.

Corkum, P. B.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, J. R. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dean, P.

J. Bell and P. Dean, “Atomic vibrations in vitreous silica,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.50, 55–61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Dugan, M.

Eaton, S. M.

W. J. Reichman, D. M. Krol, L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “A spectroscopic comparison of femtosecond-laser-modified fused silica using kilohertz and megahertz laser systems,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galeener, F. L.

F. L. Galeener, “Band limits and the vibrational spectra of tetrahedral glasses,” Phys. Rev. B19(8), 4292–4297 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gecevicius, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gertsvolf, M.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gertus, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

W. J. Reichman, D. M. Krol, L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “A spectroscopic comparison of femtosecond-laser-modified fused silica using kilohertz and megahertz laser systems,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self‐organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, J. R. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

Juodkazis, S.

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett.29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klappauf, B. G.

Krol, D. M.

W. J. Reichman, D. M. Krol, L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “A spectroscopic comparison of femtosecond-laser-modified fused silica using kilohertz and megahertz laser systems,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.26(21), 1726–1728 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancry, M.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Miura, K.

Miwa, M.

Nishii, J.

Okuno, M.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, Y. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopy study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner.26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, J. R. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajesh, S.

Rayner, D. M.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, J. R. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reichman, W. J.

W. J. Reichman, D. M. Krol, L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “A spectroscopic comparison of femtosecond-laser-modified fused silica using kilohertz and megahertz laser systems,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reynard, B.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, Y. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopy study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner.26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S.

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

Shah, L.

W. J. Reichman, D. M. Krol, L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “A spectroscopic comparison of femtosecond-laser-modified fused silica using kilohertz and megahertz laser systems,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 123112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, Y.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, Y. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopy study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner.26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self‐organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, J. R. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character82(553), 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugiura, H.

H. Sugiura and T. Yamadaya, “Raman-scattering in silica glass in the permanent densification region,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids144, 151–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Syono, Y.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, Y. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopy study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner.26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

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[CrossRef]

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R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self‐organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: Working principle for measuring volume changes using on cantilever deflection. The laser exposure takes place only near the anchoring point of the cantilever and only in its upper-half thickness and forms a bimorph composite structure that induces a local bending of the cantilever. The deflection, measured at the tip of the cantilever, is effectively amplified by the length of the cantilever. Right: Schematic of the cantilever cross-section and definition of the geometrical parameters used in the paper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top view shown the contour of the cantilevers (dark line) and the areas exposed to the laser beam after etching (light grey). To save space, the cantilevers are folded one on another. (b) Images of the cantilevers taken with an optical microscope in reflection. The modified zones are clearly visible.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a): Deflection measurements for different levels of energy deposition with longitudinal and transverse polarization. (b): Equivalent elongation calculated and compared with the simulation. The FEM model predicts in average a 5% higher stress than for the continuous analytical model. The deflection measurement error is +/− 0.1 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated stress using the continuous and discrete model for transverse (a) and longitudinal (b) polarization defined with respect to the writing direction (s).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graph comparing both polarizations in term of etching rate according to the energy deposition. We measure the etched length with an optical microscope (10x objectives). The error is +/− 1µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raman spectra for two polarizations (longitudinal and perpendicular to the writing direction) compared to a reference spectrum, measured in the pristine material. These curves are obtained after heating up the material at 150°C to remove colored-centers. The laser exposures for the longitudinal and perpendicular cases are: 10 J/mm2 and 16 J/mm2 respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

D2-peak variation as a function of the energy deposition level for both polarizations after heating at 150°C during 10 hours (to annihilate color-centers).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Proposed scenario to explain the various phenomena reported in this paper.

Equations (5)

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σ zz = E s d s 2 6R( 1 ν 2 ) d f
R= s α = w laz α δ=Lsinα }R w laz L δ
ε( y )= y R
ε max d s 2R
ε( δ )( d s 2 w laz ) δ L , σ zz ( δ )[ E s d s 2 6 w laz ( 1 ν 2 ) d f ] δ L

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