Abstract

Bi-doped CsI crystals exhibited near-infrared ultra-broadband photoluminescence around 1216 nm and 1560 nm, depending on the bismuth doping levels, which were ascribed to Bi+ and Bi2+ centers, respectively. The crystal chemistry of the Bi3+ to Bi+ reduction and Bi2+ dimer formation in CsI lattice were investigated. Thermal treatments including annealing and quenching were carried out to study the thermal behaviors of the two emission bands. The evolution of absorption and emission spectra of Bi:CsI crystals indicating the Bi-aggregation and valence conversions under thermal activation. The process of Bi aggregation was observed to be a second-order reaction with activation energy of 0.33 eV. Bi2+ was identified as the origin of the 1560 nm emission band with ESR spectra. A simple lattice structure diagram was developed to illustrate the physical processes in Bi:CsI crystals induced by thermal activation.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem.21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Romanov, Z. Fattakhova, D. Zhigunov, V. Korchak, and V. Sulimov, “On the origin of near-IR luminescence in Bi-doped materials (I). Generation of low-valence bismuth species by Bi3+ and Bi0 synproportionation,” Opt. Mater.33(4), 631–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, H. Zhao, H. Li, L. Zheng, G. Ren, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and P. Solarz, “Near-infrared ultrabroadband luminescence spectra properties of subvalent bismuth in CsI halide crystals,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4551–4553 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, Y. Miwa, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, and H. Gao, “Spectroscopic characterization of bismuth embedded Y zeolites,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Power, “Main-group elements as transition metals,” Nature463(7278), 171–177 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ruan, L. Su, J. Qiu, D. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express17(7), 5163–5169 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, P. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Li, L. Zheng, F. Wu, Y. Yang, Q. Yang, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and near-infrared broadband luminescence of Bi-doped SrB4O7 glasses and crystalline materials,” Opt. Express17(16), 13554–13560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. Li, L. Zheng, Y. Yang, F. Wu, H. Xia, and J. Xu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence in γ-irradiated Bi-doped α-BaB2O4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2504–2506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

2007 (2)

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(07), 1954–1958 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H.-P. Xia and X.-J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3–GeO2–X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 051917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

J. Beck and T. Hilbert, “Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Bi(Bi9)[NbCl6]3, a new member of the structure family Bi(Bi9)[MX6]3, and the crystal structure of Bi8[Ta2O2Br7]2,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.2004(10), 2019–2026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3B), L279–L281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Srivastava, “Luminescence of divalent bismuth in M2+BPO5 (M2+=Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+),” J. Lumin.78(4), 239–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Grinberg, A. Mandelis, K. Fjeldsted, and A. Othonos, “Spectroscopy and analysis of radiative and nonradiative processes in Ti3+:Al2O3 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(9), 5922–5934 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. Nistor, G. Stoicescu, and C. Mateescu, “Incorporation and Aggregation Properties of Bismuth Ions in KCl Crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B160(2), 423–431 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. Fockele, F. Lohse, J.-M. Spaeth, and R. H. Bartram, “Identification and optical properties of axial lead centres in alkaline-earth fluorides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter1(1), 13–26 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Stoicescu, S. Nistor, and C. Mateescu, “Aggregation of Bismuth in NaCl Crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B156(2), 411–418 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

L. Mollenauer, N. Vieira, and L. Szeto, “Optical properties of the Tl0(1) center in KCl,” Phys. Rev. B27(9), 5332–5346 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. Sierro, “Paramagnetic resonance of the VF center in CaF2,” Phys. Rev.138(2A), A648–A650 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Arai, Y.

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asahara, T.

H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Z.

H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem.21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartram, R. H.

M. Fockele, F. Lohse, J.-M. Spaeth, and R. H. Bartram, “Identification and optical properties of axial lead centres in alkaline-earth fluorides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter1(1), 13–26 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beck, J.

J. Beck and T. Hilbert, “Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Bi(Bi9)[NbCl6]3, a new member of the structure family Bi(Bi9)[MX6]3, and the crystal structure of Bi8[Ta2O2Br7]2,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.2004(10), 2019–2026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, L.

V. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boldyrev, K. N.

Bufetov, I.

I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Butvina, L. N.

Bykov, A. B.

Chen, D.

Chen, D. P.

Deki, S.

H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E.

I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Guryanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Douay, M.

V. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V.

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Guryanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fattakhova, Z.

A. Romanov, Z. Fattakhova, D. Zhigunov, V. Korchak, and V. Sulimov, “On the origin of near-IR luminescence in Bi-doped materials (I). Generation of low-valence bismuth species by Bi3+ and Bi0 synproportionation,” Opt. Mater.33(4), 631–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fjeldsted, K.

M. Grinberg, A. Mandelis, K. Fjeldsted, and A. Othonos, “Spectroscopy and analysis of radiative and nonradiative processes in Ti3+:Al2O3 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(9), 5922–5934 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fockele, M.

M. Fockele, F. Lohse, J.-M. Spaeth, and R. H. Bartram, “Identification and optical properties of axial lead centres in alkaline-earth fluorides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter1(1), 13–26 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem.21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, Y. Miwa, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, and H. Gao, “Spectroscopic characterization of bismuth embedded Y zeolites,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, Y.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3B), L279–L281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem.21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, Y. Miwa, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, and H. Gao, “Spectroscopic characterization of bismuth embedded Y zeolites,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grinberg, M.

M. Grinberg, A. Mandelis, K. Fjeldsted, and A. Othonos, “Spectroscopy and analysis of radiative and nonradiative processes in Ti3+:Al2O3 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(9), 5922–5934 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guryanov, A.

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Guryanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional Bismuth-Doped Nanoporous Silica Glass: From Blue-Green, Orange, Red, and White Light Sources to Ultra-Broadband Infrared Amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilbert, T.

J. Beck and T. Hilbert, “Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Bi(Bi9)[NbCl6]3, a new member of the structure family Bi(Bi9)[MX6]3, and the crystal structure of Bi8[Ta2O2Br7]2,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.2004(10), 2019–2026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hosokawa, A.

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H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
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J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(07), 1954–1958 (2007).
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Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261110 (2007).
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A. Romanov, Z. Fattakhova, D. Zhigunov, V. Korchak, and V. Sulimov, “On the origin of near-IR luminescence in Bi-doped materials (I). Generation of low-valence bismuth species by Bi3+ and Bi0 synproportionation,” Opt. Mater.33(4), 631–634 (2011).
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S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional Bismuth-Doped Nanoporous Silica Glass: From Blue-Green, Orange, Red, and White Light Sources to Ultra-Broadband Infrared Amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
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V. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
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H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
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M. Grinberg, A. Mandelis, K. Fjeldsted, and A. Othonos, “Spectroscopy and analysis of radiative and nonradiative processes in Ti3+:Al2O3 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(9), 5922–5934 (1993).
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E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Guryanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
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H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem.21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
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H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
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H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
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Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261110 (2007).
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M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
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M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
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V. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
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Ren, J.

J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(07), 1954–1958 (2007).
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A. Romanov, Z. Fattakhova, D. Zhigunov, V. Korchak, and V. Sulimov, “On the origin of near-IR luminescence in Bi-doped materials (I). Generation of low-valence bismuth species by Bi3+ and Bi0 synproportionation,” Opt. Mater.33(4), 631–634 (2011).
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H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
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H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
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H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem.21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
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H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 100–102 (2011).
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H. Sun, Y. Sakka, Y. Miwa, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, and H. Gao, “Spectroscopic characterization of bismuth embedded Y zeolites,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131908 (2010).
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S. Nistor, G. Stoicescu, and C. Mateescu, “Incorporation and Aggregation Properties of Bismuth Ions in KCl Crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B160(2), 423–431 (1990).
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G. Stoicescu, S. Nistor, and C. Mateescu, “Aggregation of Bismuth in NaCl Crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B156(2), 411–418 (1989).
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A. Romanov, Z. Fattakhova, D. Zhigunov, V. Korchak, and V. Sulimov, “On the origin of near-IR luminescence in Bi-doped materials (I). Generation of low-valence bismuth species by Bi3+ and Bi0 synproportionation,” Opt. Mater.33(4), 631–634 (2011).
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H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem.21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, Y. Miwa, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, and H. Gao, “Spectroscopic characterization of bismuth embedded Y zeolites,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131908 (2010).
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H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
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Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261110 (2007).
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L. Mollenauer, N. Vieira, and L. Szeto, “Optical properties of the Tl0(1) center in KCl,” Phys. Rev. B27(9), 5332–5346 (1983).
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V. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
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E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Guryanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
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J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(07), 1954–1958 (2007).
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H.-P. Xia and X.-J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3–GeO2–X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 051917 (2006).
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M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
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Xia, H.

Xia, H.-P.

H.-P. Xia and X.-J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3–GeO2–X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 051917 (2006).
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H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
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Yang, Y.

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E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Guryanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
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S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional Bismuth-Doped Nanoporous Silica Glass: From Blue-Green, Orange, Red, and White Light Sources to Ultra-Broadband Infrared Amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
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S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional Bismuth-Doped Nanoporous Silica Glass: From Blue-Green, Orange, Red, and White Light Sources to Ultra-Broadband Infrared Amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
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J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(07), 1954–1958 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C. S.

Zhu, Y.

H. T. Sun, J. Yang, M. Fujii, Y. Sakka, Y. Zhu, T. Asahara, N. Shirahata, M. Ii, Z. Bai, J. G. Li, and H. Gao, “Highly fluorescent silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles for near-infrared bioimaging,” Small7(2), 199–203 (2011).
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M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional Bismuth-Doped Nanoporous Silica Glass: From Blue-Green, Orange, Red, and White Light Sources to Ultra-Broadband Infrared Amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Sun, A. Hosokawa, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Strong Ultra-Broadband Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from Bismuth-Embedded Zeolites and Their Derivatives,” Adv. Mater.21(36), 3694–3698 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, Y. Miwa, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, and H. Gao, “Spectroscopic characterization of bismuth embedded Y zeolites,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-P. Xia and X.-J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3–GeO2–X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 051917 (2006).
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J. Mater. Chem. (1)

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem.21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
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J. Mater. Res. (1)

J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(07), 1954–1958 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (2)

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fockele, F. Lohse, J.-M. Spaeth, and R. H. Bartram, “Identification and optical properties of axial lead centres in alkaline-earth fluorides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter1(1), 13–26 (1989).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3B), L279–L281 (2001).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Left) Absorption spectra of Bi-doped CsI crystals: (a) 0.2 at% Bi, (b) 0.02 at% Bi; corresponding excitation spectra for 0.2 at% Bi: (c) ex = 1560 nm, (d) ex = 1216 nm. (Right) Emission spectra: (e) 1.0 at% Bi, (f) 0.2 at% Bi, (g) 0.02 at%. All data were recorded at room temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Decay curves of the emissions at 1216 nm and 1560 nm of the as-grown 0.2 at% Bi:CsI crystal under excitation of 800 nm LD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NIR emission spectra of the as-grown, heat annealed, and quenched 0.2 at% Bi:CsI crystals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ESR spectra of the as-grown, 573 K- and 773 K-annealed 0.2 at% Bi:CsI crystals, measured at 77 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left: Room-temperature absorption spectra of the as-grown and Ar-annealed 0.2 at% Bi:CsI crystals (annealing at 573 K, 673 K, and 773 K). Upper right: Absorption coefficients at 710 nm of Ar-annealed Bi:CsI crystals with annealing temperature from 473 K to 773 K. Bottom right: The logarithm of absorption coefficient at 710 nm as a function of the reciprocal annealing temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Structure models of Bi-valence conversion and aggregation induced by thermal activation.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σem= λ 0 2 4π n 2 c τ em ( ln2 π ) 1/2 1 Δ v em ,
k=A e E a k B T ,
k= α σt =A e E a k B T ,orα=σtA e E a k B T =A' e E a k B T ,
lnα= E a k B T +ln(A').
V Cs 'e V Cs , Bi 3+ +2e Bi + , Bi + -Bi + +e Bi 2 + .

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