Abstract

Carrier dynamics in single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is studied using spatially and temporally resolved pump-probe spectroscopy by measuring both differential transmission and differential reflection. By studying the expansion of a Gaussian spatial profile of carriers excited by a 1500-nm pump pulse with a 1761-nm probe pulse, we observe a diffusion of hot carriers of 5500 cm2/s. We also observe that the expansion of the carrier density profile decreases to a slow rate within 1 ps, which is unexpected. Furthermore, by using an 810-nm probe pulse we observe that both the differential transmission and reflection change signs, but also that this sign change can be permanently removed by exposure of the graphene to femtosecond laser pulses of relatively high fluence. This indicates that the differential transmission and reflection at later times may not be directly caused by carriers, but may be from some residue material from the sample fabrication or transfer process.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. K. F. Mak, C. H. Lui, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the thermal conductance of the graphene/sio[sub 2] interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 221904 (2010).
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  5. M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malicacute, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B83, 153410 (2011).
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  8. P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, T. Kazimierczuk, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, and M. Potemski, “Slowing hot-carrier relaxation in graphene using a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245415 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L. Q. Chu, Luxmi, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.10, 1308–1313 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 191911 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhao, “Two-probe study of hot carriers in reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 084322 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond uv-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 163103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11, 3184–3189 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. J. Yee, J. H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K. J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon49, 4781–4785 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Z. Shang, T. Yu, J. Y. Lin, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in cvd-grown graphene,” ACS Nano5, 3278–3283 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. A. Obraztsov, M. G. Rybin, A. V. Tyurnina, S. V. Garnov, E. D. Obraztsova, A. N. Obtraztsov, and Y. P. Svirko, “Broadband light-induced absorbance change in multilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11, 1540–1545 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene for the mode locking of fiber lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19, 3077–3083 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. X. S. Li, W. W. Cai, J. H. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. X. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324, 1312–1314 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 063302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. Zhao, “Temperature dependence of ambipolar diffusion in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 112104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. B. A. Ruzicka, L. K. Werake, H. Samassekou, and H. Zhao, “Ambipolar diffusion of photoexcited carriers in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 262119 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. Zhao, M. Mower, and G. Vignale, “Ambipolar spin diffusion and D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B79, 115321 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  35. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. X. Q. Zou, D. Zhan, X. F. Fan, D. Lee, S. K. Nair, L. Sun, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Luo, L. Liu, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, and E. E. M. Chia, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in pristine and FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141910 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 051912 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. Currie, J. D. Caldwell, F. J. Bezares, J. Robinson, T. Anderson, H. Chun, and M. Tadjer, “Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 211909 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472, 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malicacute, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B83, 153410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hale, S. M. Hornett, J. Moger, D. W. Horsell, and E. Hendry, “Hot phonon decay in supported and suspended exfoliated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83, 121404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Kurum, O. O. Ekiz, H. G. Yaglioglul, A. Elmali, M. Urel, H. Guner, A. K. Zrak, B. Ortac, and A. Dana, “Electrochemically tunable ultrafast optical response of graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 141103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaniyankandy, S. N. Achary, S. Rawalekar, and H. N. Ghosh, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics in graphene oxide: Evidence of electron trapping,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 19110–19116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Yee, J. H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K. J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon49, 4781–4785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Shang, T. Yu, J. Y. Lin, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in cvd-grown graphene,” ACS Nano5, 3278–3283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Obraztsov, M. G. Rybin, A. V. Tyurnina, S. V. Garnov, E. D. Obraztsova, A. N. Obtraztsov, and Y. P. Svirko, “Broadband light-induced absorbance change in multilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11, 1540–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhao, “Two-probe study of hot carriers in reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 084322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Currie, J. D. Caldwell, F. J. Bezares, J. Robinson, T. Anderson, H. Chun, and M. Tadjer, “Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 211909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Ruzicka, L. K. Werake, H. Zhao, S. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Femtosecond pump-probe studies of reduced graphene oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 173106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Zou, D. Zhan, X. F. Fan, D. Lee, S. K. Nair, L. Sun, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Luo, L. Liu, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, and E. E. M. Chia, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in pristine and FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond uv-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 163103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ruzicka, L. K. Werake, H. Samassekou, and H. Zhao, “Ambipolar diffusion of photoexcited carriers in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 262119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L. Q. Chu, Luxmi, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sun, C. Divin, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Spectroscopic measurement of interlayer screening in multilayer epitaxial graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 136802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, J. H. Strait, P. A. George, S. Shivaraman, V. B. Shields, M. Chandrashekhar, J. Hwang, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, C. S. Ruiz-Vargas, and J. Park, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of hot optical phonons in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 081917 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ruzicka, S. Wang, L. K. Werake, B. Weintrub, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhao, “Hot carrier diffusion in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82, 195414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Mak, C. H. Lui, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the thermal conductance of the graphene/sio[sub 2] interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 221904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. W. Newson, J. Dean, B. Schmidt, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast carrier kinetics in exfoliated graphene and thin graphite films,” Opt. Express17, 2326–2333 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 191911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, M. Mower, and G. Vignale, “Ambipolar spin diffusion and D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B79, 115321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, T. Kazimierczuk, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, and M. Potemski, “Slowing hot-carrier relaxation in graphene using a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene for the mode locking of fiber lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Li, W. W. Cai, J. H. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. X. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Zhao, “Temperature dependence of ambipolar diffusion in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 112104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achary, S. N.

S. Kaniyankandy, S. N. Achary, S. Rawalekar, and H. N. Ghosh, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics in graphene oxide: Evidence of electron trapping,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 19110–19116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, J.

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, J. H.

X. S. Li, W. W. Cai, J. H. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. X. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, T.

M. Currie, J. D. Caldwell, F. J. Bezares, J. Robinson, T. Anderson, H. Chun, and M. Tadjer, “Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 211909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anija, M.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 191911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472, 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. S. Li, W. W. Cai, J. H. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. X. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene for the mode locking of fiber lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

D. Sun, C. Divin, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Spectroscopic measurement of interlayer screening in multilayer epitaxial graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 136802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, T. Kazimierczuk, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, and M. Potemski, “Slowing hot-carrier relaxation in graphene using a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Currie, J. D. Caldwell, F. J. Bezares, J. Robinson, T. Anderson, H. Chun, and M. Tadjer, “Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 211909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472, 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malicacute, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B83, 153410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brown, N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. S. Li, W. W. Cai, J. H. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. X. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Currie, J. D. Caldwell, F. J. Bezares, J. Robinson, T. Anderson, H. Chun, and M. Tadjer, “Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 211909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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H. Wang, J. H. Strait, P. A. George, S. Shivaraman, V. B. Shields, M. Chandrashekhar, J. Hwang, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, C. S. Ruiz-Vargas, and J. Park, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of hot optical phonons in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 081917 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 063302 (2009).
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X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. S.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2, 1972–1977 (2011).
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X. Q. Zou, D. Zhan, X. F. Fan, D. Lee, S. K. Nair, L. Sun, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Luo, L. Liu, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, and E. E. M. Chia, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in pristine and FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Childres, I.

H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, L. Q.

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L. Q. Chu, Luxmi, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chun, H.

M. Currie, J. D. Caldwell, F. J. Bezares, J. Robinson, T. Anderson, H. Chun, and M. Tadjer, “Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 211909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Colby, R.

H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Li, W. W. Cai, J. H. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. X. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, C. X.

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond uv-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 163103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, E. H.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormode, D.

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M.

M. Currie, J. D. Caldwell, F. J. Bezares, J. Robinson, T. Anderson, H. Chun, and M. Tadjer, “Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 211909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dana, A.

U. Kurum, O. O. Ekiz, H. G. Yaglioglul, A. Elmali, M. Urel, H. Guner, A. K. Zrak, B. Ortac, and A. Dana, “Electrochemically tunable ultrafast optical response of graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 141103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dawlaty, J.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Heer, W. A.

D. Sun, C. Divin, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Spectroscopic measurement of interlayer screening in multilayer epitaxial graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 136802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, T. Kazimierczuk, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, and M. Potemski, “Slowing hot-carrier relaxation in graphene using a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dean, J.

Divin, C.

D. Sun, C. Divin, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Spectroscopic measurement of interlayer screening in multilayer epitaxial graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 136802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V.

H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekiz, O. O.

U. Kurum, O. O. Ekiz, H. G. Yaglioglul, A. Elmali, M. Urel, H. Guner, A. K. Zrak, B. Ortac, and A. Dana, “Electrochemically tunable ultrafast optical response of graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 141103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elmali, A.

U. Kurum, O. O. Ekiz, H. G. Yaglioglul, A. Elmali, M. Urel, H. Guner, A. K. Zrak, B. Ortac, and A. Dana, “Electrochemically tunable ultrafast optical response of graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 141103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malicacute, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B83, 153410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. F.

X. Q. Zou, D. Zhan, X. F. Fan, D. Lee, S. K. Nair, L. Sun, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Luo, L. Liu, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, and E. E. M. Chia, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in pristine and FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, T.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farmer, D. B.

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472, 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feenstra, R. M.

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L. Q. Chu, Luxmi, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

First, P. N.

D. Sun, C. Divin, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Spectroscopic measurement of interlayer screening in multilayer epitaxial graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 136802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, B.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnov, S. V.

P. A. Obraztsov, M. G. Rybin, A. V. Tyurnina, S. V. Garnov, E. D. Obraztsova, A. N. Obtraztsov, and Y. P. Svirko, “Broadband light-induced absorbance change in multilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11, 1540–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, P. A.

H. Wang, J. H. Strait, P. A. George, S. Shivaraman, V. B. Shields, M. Chandrashekhar, J. Hwang, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, C. S. Ruiz-Vargas, and J. Park, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of hot optical phonons in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 081917 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, H. N.

S. Kaniyankandy, S. N. Achary, S. Rawalekar, and H. N. Ghosh, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics in graphene oxide: Evidence of electron trapping,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 19110–19116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Golnik, A.

P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, T. Kazimierczuk, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, and M. Potemski, “Slowing hot-carrier relaxation in graphene using a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guner, H.

U. Kurum, O. O. Ekiz, H. G. Yaglioglul, A. Elmali, M. Urel, H. Guner, A. K. Zrak, B. Ortac, and A. Dana, “Electrochemically tunable ultrafast optical response of graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 141103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

J. Z. Shang, T. Yu, J. Y. Lin, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in cvd-grown graphene,” ACS Nano5, 3278–3283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond uv-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 163103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hale, P. J.

P. J. Hale, S. M. Hornett, J. Moger, D. W. Horsell, and E. Hendry, “Hot phonon decay in supported and suspended exfoliated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83, 121404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, B.

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartland, G.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartland, G. V.

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L. Q. Chu, Luxmi, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hass, J.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, C. H. Lui, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the thermal conductance of the graphene/sio[sub 2] interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 221904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

P. J. Hale, S. M. Hornett, J. Moger, D. W. Horsell, and E. Hendry, “Hot phonon decay in supported and suspended exfoliated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83, 121404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

K. J. Yee, J. H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K. J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon49, 4781–4785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornett, S. M.

P. J. Hale, S. M. Hornett, J. Moger, D. W. Horsell, and E. Hendry, “Hot phonon decay in supported and suspended exfoliated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83, 121404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horsell, D. W.

P. J. Hale, S. M. Hornett, J. Moger, D. W. Horsell, and E. Hendry, “Hot phonon decay in supported and suspended exfoliated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83, 121404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L. Q. Chu, Luxmi, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussain, M.

H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

H. Wang, J. H. Strait, P. A. George, S. Shivaraman, V. B. Shields, M. Chandrashekhar, J. Hwang, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, C. S. Ruiz-Vargas, and J. Park, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of hot optical phonons in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 081917 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jena, D.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11, 3184–3189 (2011).
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H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).
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C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
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M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malicacute, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B83, 153410 (2011).
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X. Q. Zou, D. Zhan, X. F. Fan, D. Lee, S. K. Nair, L. Sun, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Luo, L. Liu, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, and E. E. M. Chia, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in pristine and FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141910 (2010).
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C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
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A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 051912 (2011).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene for the mode locking of fiber lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, T. Kazimierczuk, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, and M. Potemski, “Slowing hot-carrier relaxation in graphene using a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245415 (2009).
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M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malicacute, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B83, 153410 (2011).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene for the mode locking of fiber lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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X. Q. Zou, D. Zhan, X. F. Fan, D. Lee, S. K. Nair, L. Sun, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Luo, L. Liu, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, and E. E. M. Chia, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in pristine and FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene for the mode locking of fiber lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhao, “Two-probe study of hot carriers in reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 084322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ruzicka, L. K. Werake, H. Samassekou, and H. Zhao, “Ambipolar diffusion of photoexcited carriers in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 262119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ruzicka, L. K. Werake, H. Zhao, S. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Femtosecond pump-probe studies of reduced graphene oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 173106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ruzicka, S. Wang, L. K. Werake, B. Weintrub, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhao, “Hot carrier diffusion in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82, 195414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, M. Mower, and G. Vignale, “Ambipolar spin diffusion and D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B79, 115321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, “Temperature dependence of ambipolar diffusion in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 112104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S. Y.

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, F.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472, 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, X. Q.

X. Q. Zou, D. Zhan, X. F. Fan, D. Lee, S. K. Nair, L. Sun, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Luo, L. Liu, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, and E. E. M. Chia, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in pristine and FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zrak, A. K.

U. Kurum, O. O. Ekiz, H. G. Yaglioglul, A. Elmali, M. Urel, H. Guner, A. K. Zrak, B. Ortac, and A. Dana, “Electrochemically tunable ultrafast optical response of graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 141103 (2011).
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ACS Nano

J. Z. Shang, T. Yu, J. Y. Lin, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in cvd-grown graphene,” ACS Nano5, 3278–3283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene for the mode locking of fiber lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Zhao, “Temperature dependence of ambipolar diffusion in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 112104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ruzicka, L. K. Werake, H. Zhao, S. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Femtosecond pump-probe studies of reduced graphene oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 173106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Kurum, O. O. Ekiz, H. G. Yaglioglul, A. Elmali, M. Urel, H. Guner, A. K. Zrak, B. Ortac, and A. Dana, “Electrochemically tunable ultrafast optical response of graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 141103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 051912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Wang, J. H. Strait, P. A. George, S. Shivaraman, V. B. Shields, M. Chandrashekhar, J. Hwang, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, C. S. Ruiz-Vargas, and J. Park, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of hot optical phonons in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 081917 (2010).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ruzicka, L. K. Werake, H. Samassekou, and H. Zhao, “Ambipolar diffusion of photoexcited carriers in bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 262119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 191911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond uv-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 163103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Mak, C. H. Lui, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the thermal conductance of the graphene/sio[sub 2] interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 221904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Currie, J. D. Caldwell, F. J. Bezares, J. Robinson, T. Anderson, H. Chun, and M. Tadjer, “Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 211909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Zou, D. Zhan, X. F. Fan, D. Lee, S. K. Nair, L. Sun, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Luo, L. Liu, T. Yu, Z. X. Shen, and E. E. M. Chia, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in pristine and FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carbon

K. J. Yee, J. H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K. J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon49, 4781–4785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhao, “Two-probe study of hot carriers in reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 084322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Cao, Q. Yu, R. Colby, D. Pandey, C. S. Park, J. Lian, D. Zemlyanov, I. Childres, V. Drachev, E. A. Stach, M. Hussain, H. Li, S. S. Pei, and Y. P. Chen, “Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 044310 (2010).
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J. Phys. Chem. C

S. Kaniyankandy, S. N. Achary, S. Rawalekar, and H. N. Ghosh, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics in graphene oxide: Evidence of electron trapping,” J. Phys. Chem. C115, 19110–19116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

P. A. Obraztsov, M. G. Rybin, A. V. Tyurnina, S. V. Garnov, E. D. Obraztsova, A. N. Obtraztsov, and Y. P. Svirko, “Broadband light-induced absorbance change in multilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11, 1540–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11, 3184–3189 (2011).
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L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L. Q. Chu, Luxmi, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett.10, 4328–4334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472, 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malicacute, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B83, 153410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. J. Hale, S. M. Hornett, J. Moger, D. W. Horsell, and E. Hendry, “Hot phonon decay in supported and suspended exfoliated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83, 121404 (2011).
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P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, T. Kazimierczuk, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, and M. Potemski, “Slowing hot-carrier relaxation in graphene using a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

B. A. Ruzicka, S. Wang, L. K. Werake, B. Weintrub, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhao, “Hot carrier diffusion in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82, 195414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, M. Mower, and G. Vignale, “Ambipolar spin diffusion and D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B79, 115321 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Sun, C. Divin, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Spectroscopic measurement of interlayer screening in multilayer epitaxial graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 136802 (2010).
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D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

X. S. Li, W. W. Cai, J. H. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. X. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Differential reflection of the CVD graphene sample as a function of the probe delay and probe position, measured with a 1500-nm pump and a 1761-nm probe. (b) Black solid line: the differential reflection as a function of the probe delay when the center of the probe spot overlaps with the pump spot. Blue dotted line: same measurement but performed as the sample has been exposed to a laser pulse of 2.3 mJ/cm2 for 20 minutes. The squares in the inset of (b) shows the squared width as a function of probe delay, deduced from Gaussian fits to the profiles shown in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The differential transmission (a) and reflection (b) signals measured for a 750-nm pump fluence of 0.7 mJ/cm2 with an 810 nm probe. The insets show the spatial profiles of the signal at several probe delays measured by scanning the probe spot across the pump spot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The differential transmission (a) and reflection (b) signals for a pump fluence of 0.5 mJ/cm2 measured before (black solid line) and after (red dashed line) 20-minute exposure to a 1500-nm and 2.3 mJ/cm2 laser pulse.

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