Abstract

Hybrid materials composed of organically modified silica nanoparticles and oligosiloxanes exhibited homogeneous dispersion without any phase separation or aggregation and good solution processability. These hybrid materials exhibited good solubility of photoinitiator and high transmittance of above 90% in visible wavelength ranges. In particular, the materials showed high photocurability, with degrees of conversion under UV exposure above 90%. With high photosensitivity, the hybrid materials were used for direct photopatterning without the developing process used in the photomask method. The various optical surface structures on a micrometer scale were easily fabricated in the hybrid films upon UV exposure, and the samples exhibited good root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of around 1 nm.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

D. J. Kang and B. S. Bae, “Photo-imageable sol-gel hybrid materials for simple fabrication of micro-optical elements,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(9), 903–912 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

D. J. Kang, W. S. Kim, B. S. Bae, H. K. Park, and B. H. Jung, “Direct photofabrication of refractive-index-modulated multimode optical waveguide using photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

W. S. Kim, R. Houbertz, T. H. Lee, and B. S. Bae, “Effect of photoinitiator on photopolymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER),” J. Polym. Sci. B 42(10), 1979–1986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (2)

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft crosslinkable azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Bae, O. H. Park, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of self-developed waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16(11), 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Sramek, R. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and application,” Adv. Mater. 10(15), 1219–1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

Akella, A.

Atkins, G. R.

B. S. Bae, O. H. Park, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of self-developed waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16(11), 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B. S.

D. J. Kang and B. S. Bae, “Photo-imageable sol-gel hybrid materials for simple fabrication of micro-optical elements,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(9), 903–912 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kang, J. P. Jeong, and B. S. Bae, “Direct photofabrication of focal-length-controlled microlens array using photoinduced migration mechanisms of photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8347–8353 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8347 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kang, W. S. Kim, B. S. Bae, H. K. Park, and B. H. Jung, “Direct photofabrication of refractive-index-modulated multimode optical waveguide using photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Kim, R. Houbertz, T. H. Lee, and B. S. Bae, “Effect of photoinitiator on photopolymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER),” J. Polym. Sci. B 42(10), 1979–1986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Bae, O. H. Park, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of self-developed waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16(11), 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Charters, R.

B. S. Bae, O. H. Park, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of self-developed waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16(11), 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Descour, M. R.

Douay, M.

R. Sramek, R. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Gambogi, W. J.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and application,” Adv. Mater. 10(15), 1219–1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. H.

Hesselink, L.

Honda, T.

Honkanen, S.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Houbertz, R.

W. S. Kim, R. Houbertz, T. H. Lee, and B. S. Bae, “Effect of photoinitiator on photopolymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER),” J. Polym. Sci. B 42(10), 1979–1986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft crosslinkable azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. P.

Jung, B. H.

D. J. Kang, W. S. Kim, B. S. Bae, H. K. Park, and B. H. Jung, “Direct photofabrication of refractive-index-modulated multimode optical waveguide using photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. J.

Kang, D. P.

Kärkkäinen, A. H. O.

Kim, B. U.

Kim, D. Y.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. S.

D. J. Kang, W. S. Kim, B. S. Bae, H. K. Park, and B. H. Jung, “Direct photofabrication of refractive-index-modulated multimode optical waveguide using photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Kim, R. Houbertz, T. H. Lee, and B. S. Bae, “Effect of photoinitiator on photopolymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER),” J. Polym. Sci. B 42(10), 1979–1986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krongauz, V. A.

Kumar, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. H.

W. S. Kim, R. Houbertz, T. H. Lee, and B. S. Bae, “Effect of photoinitiator on photopolymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER),” J. Polym. Sci. B 42(10), 1979–1986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Y.

Liu, W.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. S. Bae, O. H. Park, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of self-developed waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16(11), 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mendes, S. B.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

R. Sramek, R. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. K.

D. J. Kang, W. S. Kim, B. S. Bae, H. K. Park, and B. H. Jung, “Direct photofabrication of refractive-index-modulated multimode optical waveguide using photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, O. H.

B. S. Bae, O. H. Park, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of self-developed waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16(11), 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rantala, J. T.

A. H. O. Kärkkäinen, J. T. Rantala, J. M. Tamkin, and M. R. Descour, “Photolithographic processing of hybrid glasses for microoptics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(3), 614–623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmieg, J. J.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and application,” Adv. Mater. 10(15), 1219–1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft crosslinkable azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, R.

R. Sramek, R. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sramek, R.

R. Sramek, R. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tamkin, J. M.

Tripathy, S. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trout, T. J.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and application,” Adv. Mater. 10(15), 1219–1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ubukata, T.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft crosslinkable azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A. M.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and application,” Adv. Mater. 10(15), 1219–1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, V.

Williams, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

R. Sramek, R. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J. W.

Yu, W.

Yuan, X.-C.

Zettsu, N.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft crosslinkable azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

D. J. Kang and B. S. Bae, “Photo-imageable sol-gel hybrid materials for simple fabrication of micro-optical elements,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(9), 903–912 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft crosslinkable azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and application,” Adv. Mater. 10(15), 1219–1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. J. Kang, W. S. Kim, B. S. Bae, H. K. Park, and B. H. Jung, “Direct photofabrication of refractive-index-modulated multimode optical waveguide using photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

B. S. Bae, O. H. Park, R. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of self-developed waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16(11), 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

R. Sramek, R. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. B (1)

W. S. Kim, R. Houbertz, T. H. Lee, and B. S. Bae, “Effect of photoinitiator on photopolymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER),” J. Polym. Sci. B 42(10), 1979–1986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) FT-IR spectra of 1800–1600 cm−1 range and (b) the conversion degree (black square line) and C = C peak decrease (red circle line) in the photosensitive hybrid films depending on UV exposure time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transparency of the fabricated hybrid films with 30 wt% organically modified colloidal-silica nanoparticles and 70 wt% oligosiloxanes and the oligosloxane films without colloidal-silica nanoparticles (red line: hybrid films, black line: oligosiloxane films).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical micrographs of the various-shaped surface structures with (a) a Fresnel-type circle, (b) a Fresnel-type circle array, and (c) a circle array directly photofabricated in the highly photosensitive and transparent hybrid films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron micrographs of the various-shaped surface structures with (a) a Fresnel-type circle, (b) a circle, (c) a circle array-1, and (d) a circle array-2 directly photofabricated in highly photosensitive and transparent hybrid films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM images of the photofabricated surface structures in photosensitive and transparent hybrid films (left: 3D image, right: 2D image).

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