Abstract

Blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with color conversion quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) hole transport layer (HTL) were fabricated. The absorbance and the photoluminescence spectra for the CdSe and the CdSe/ZnS QDs showed dominant exciton peaks. Current densities as functions of the voltage showed enhanced hole trapping and a decreased hole current in the OLEDs containing CdSe and CdSe/ZnS QDs embedded in a HTL. The phenomena were intensified due to the existence of the ZnS shell. The luminance-voltage curve and the electroluminescence spectra showed that the brightness of the blue OLEDs fabricated utilizing the HTL based on CdSe and CdSe/ZnS QDs embedded in a PVK layer reached over 3,000 cd/m2 and that the dominant exciton peak was shifted to longer wavelength.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Y. Zhang, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced efficiency in high-brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diodes through triplet management,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223303 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. H. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 543–548 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Q. Zhang and X. A. Cao, “Electroluminescence of green CdSe/ZnS quantum dots enhanced by harvesting excitons from phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253115 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met.160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Uddin and C. C. Teo, “Differential capacitance of hybrid organic/inorganic CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting device,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.105(1), 39–43 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Bistability and improved hole injection in organic bistable light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot embedded hole transport layer,” Synth. Met.160(11-12), 1216–1218 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, C. Henkel, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Radiative and non-radiative decay of a single molecule close to a metallic nanoparticle,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 368–375 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Li, T. Guo, and T. W. Kim, “Charge trapping in hybrid electroluminescence device containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a conducting poly(N-vinylcarbozole) layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 062104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231903 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. W. Wu, P. S. Wang, W. H. Tseng, J. H. Chang, and C. I. Wu, “Correlations of impedance-voltage characteristics and carrier mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.13(1), 13–17 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. T. Sun, I. H. Chan, P. C. Kao, and S. Y. Chu, “Electron injection and transport mechanisms of an electron transport layer in OLEDs,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(12), H1284–H1288 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Wu, P. S. Wang, W. H. Tseng, J. H. Chang, and C. I. Wu, “Correlations of impedance-voltage characteristics and carrier mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.13(1), 13–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (10)

C. T. Sun, I. H. Chan, P. C. Kao, and S. Y. Chu, “Electron injection and transport mechanisms of an electron transport layer in OLEDs,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(12), H1284–H1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. H. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced efficiency in high-brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diodes through triplet management,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Uddin and C. C. Teo, “Differential capacitance of hybrid organic/inorganic CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting device,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.105(1), 39–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

F. Li, T. Guo, and T. W. Kim, “Charge trapping in hybrid electroluminescence device containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a conducting poly(N-vinylcarbozole) layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 062104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Bistability and improved hole injection in organic bistable light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot embedded hole transport layer,” Synth. Met.160(11-12), 1216–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Zhang and X. A. Cao, “Electroluminescence of green CdSe/ZnS quantum dots enhanced by harvesting excitons from phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met.160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, C. Henkel, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Radiative and non-radiative decay of a single molecule close to a metallic nanoparticle,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 368–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B.-S.

Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bae, W. K.

W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brutting, W.

T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buchschuster, A.

T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

Y. Q. Zhang and X. A. Cao, “Electroluminescence of green CdSe/ZnS quantum dots enhanced by harvesting excitons from phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, C. Henkel, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Radiative and non-radiative decay of a single molecule close to a metallic nanoparticle,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 368–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, I. H.

C. T. Sun, I. H. Chan, P. C. Kao, and S. Y. Chu, “Electron injection and transport mechanisms of an electron transport layer in OLEDs,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(12), H1284–H1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. H.

I. W. Wu, P. S. Wang, W. H. Tseng, J. H. Chang, and C. I. Wu, “Correlations of impedance-voltage characteristics and carrier mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.13(1), 13–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Char, K. H.

W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. C.

Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choo, D. C.

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. Y.

C. T. Sun, I. H. Chan, P. C. Kao, and S. Y. Chu, “Electron injection and transport mechanisms of an electron transport layer in OLEDs,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(12), H1284–H1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y. P.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Zhang, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced efficiency in high-brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diodes through triplet management,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, E.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, M. K.

J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, C. Henkel, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Radiative and non-radiative decay of a single molecule close to a metallic nanoparticle,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 368–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

F. Li, T. Guo, and T. W. Kim, “Charge trapping in hybrid electroluminescence device containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a conducting poly(N-vinylcarbozole) layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 062104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. C.

Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henkel, C.

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, C. Henkel, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Radiative and non-radiative decay of a single molecule close to a metallic nanoparticle,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 368–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, P. H.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. H. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holm, M.

T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ikezawa, M.

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jang, C.

Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. O.

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met.160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Bistability and improved hole injection in organic bistable light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot embedded hole transport layer,” Synth. Met.160(11-12), 1216–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jing, P.

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K. H.

Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kao, P. C.

C. T. Sun, I. H. Chan, P. C. Kao, and S. Y. Chu, “Electron injection and transport mechanisms of an electron transport layer in OLEDs,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(12), H1284–H1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ki Bae, W.

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ki Nam, M.

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. J.

Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. W.

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, T. Guo, and T. W. Kim, “Charge trapping in hybrid electroluminescence device containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a conducting poly(N-vinylcarbozole) layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 062104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J.

W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. H.

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, N.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. H.

W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. S.

J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. G.

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D. U.

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Bistability and improved hole injection in organic bistable light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot embedded hole transport layer,” Synth. Met.160(11-12), 1216–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met.160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennartz, C.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

F. Li, T. Guo, and T. W. Kim, “Charge trapping in hybrid electroluminescence device containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a conducting poly(N-vinylcarbozole) layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 062104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J. S.

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. K.

J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lussem, B.

T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masumoto, Y.

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Molt, O.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motoyama, T.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nowy, S.

T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. H. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, E. D.

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, T. D.

T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwab, T.

T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slootsky, M.

Y. Zhang, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced efficiency in high-brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diodes through triplet management,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. T.

C. T. Sun, I. H. Chan, P. C. Kao, and S. Y. Chu, “Electron injection and transport mechanisms of an electron transport layer in OLEDs,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(12), H1284–H1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takamatsu, J.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teo, C. C.

A. Uddin and C. C. Teo, “Differential capacitance of hybrid organic/inorganic CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting device,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.105(1), 39–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomschke, M.

T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, W. H.

I. W. Wu, P. S. Wang, W. H. Tseng, J. H. Chang, and C. I. Wu, “Correlations of impedance-voltage characteristics and carrier mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.13(1), 13–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uddin, A.

A. Uddin and C. C. Teo, “Differential capacitance of hybrid organic/inorganic CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting device,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.105(1), 39–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J. M.

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, C. Henkel, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Radiative and non-radiative decay of a single molecule close to a metallic nanoparticle,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 368–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagenblast, G.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, J.

J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. S.

I. W. Wu, P. S. Wang, W. H. Tseng, J. H. Chang, and C. I. Wu, “Correlations of impedance-voltage characteristics and carrier mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.13(1), 13–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, J. A.

T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. I.

I. W. Wu, P. S. Wang, W. H. Tseng, J. H. Chang, and C. I. Wu, “Correlations of impedance-voltage characteristics and carrier mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.13(1), 13–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, I. W.

I. W. Wu, P. S. Wang, W. H. Tseng, J. H. Chang, and C. I. Wu, “Correlations of impedance-voltage characteristics and carrier mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.13(1), 13–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J. H.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. H. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yook, K. S.

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met.160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Bistability and improved hole injection in organic bistable light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot embedded hole transport layer,” Synth. Met.160(11-12), 1216–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. C.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced efficiency in high-brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diodes through triplet management,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Zhang and X. A. Cao, “Electroluminescence of green CdSe/ZnS quantum dots enhanced by harvesting excitons from phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, C. J.

J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. H. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B. H.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater.22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly efficient green-light-emitting diodes based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots with a chemical-composition gradient,” Adv. Mater.21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Zhang, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced efficiency in high-brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diodes through triplet management,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Zhang and X. A. Cao, “Electroluminescence of green CdSe/ZnS quantum dots enhanced by harvesting excitons from phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Jing, X. Yuan, W. Ji, M. Ikezawa, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, “Efficient energy transfer from hole transporting materials to CdSe-core CdS/ZnCdS/ZnS-multishell quantum dots in type II aligned blend films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, T. Guo, and T. W. Kim, “Charge trapping in hybrid electroluminescence device containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a conducting poly(N-vinylcarbozole) layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 062104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(23), 231903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

A. Uddin and C. C. Teo, “Differential capacitance of hybrid organic/inorganic CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting device,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.105(1), 39–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Schwab, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, K. Leo, and B. Lussem, “Efficiency enhancement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using conversion dyes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(8), 083118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

C. T. Sun, I. H. Chan, P. C. Kao, and S. Y. Chu, “Electron injection and transport mechanisms of an electron transport layer in OLEDs,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(12), H1284–H1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Wan, C. J. Zheng, M. K. Fung, X. K. Liu, C. S. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, “Multifunctional electron-transporting indolizine derivatives for highly efficient blue fluorescence, orange phosphorescence host and two-color based white OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(10), 4502–4510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

K. S. Lee, D. U. Lee, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, E. D. Ryu, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Lim, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a polyvinylcarbazole,” J. Mater. Sci.46(5), 1239–1243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

W. Ki Bae, J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lim, D. G. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. H. Char, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1-xZnx S @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. H. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, C. Henkel, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Radiative and non-radiative decay of a single molecule close to a metallic nanoparticle,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 368–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (2)

Y. C. Han, C. Jang, K. J. Kim, K. C. Choi, K. H. Jung, and B.-S. Bae, “The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic-inorganic hybrid materials and MgO,” Org. Electron.12(4), 609–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Wu, P. S. Wang, W. H. Tseng, J. H. Chang, and C. I. Wu, “Correlations of impedance-voltage characteristics and carrier mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.13(1), 13–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (3)

T. D. Schmidt, A. Buchschuster, M. Holm, S. Nowy, J. A. Weber, and W. Brutting, “Degradation effect on the magnetoresistance in organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met.161(7-8), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met.160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Bistability and improved hole injection in organic bistable light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot embedded hole transport layer,” Synth. Met.160(11-12), 1216–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the (a) blue organic light-emitting device (OLED) structure and (b) corresponding energy bands of the OLEDs containing CdSe quantum dots (QDs) or CdSe/ZnS QDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the (a) CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and (b) CdSe/ZnS QDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Current densities as functions of the applied voltage and (b) luminances as functions of the applied voltage for devices I and II. Filled circles and opened circles represent devices I and II, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminance efficiencies as functions of the current density for devices I and II. Filled circles and opened circles represent devices I and II, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electroluminescence spectra of devices I and II. Filled circles and opened circles represent devices I and II, respectively.

Metrics