Abstract

Ridge waveguides have been fabricated in Nd:YAG single crystal by using femtosecond laser micromachining in an oxygen ion irradiated planar waveguide. The microphotoluminescence features have been found well preserved in the waveguide structures. Continuous wave lasers have been realized at 1.06 µm at room temperature in the ridge waveguide system with a lasing threshold of ~39 mW and a slope efficiency of 35%, which show superior performance to the planar waveguide.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

2010

2009

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12(Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, F. He, Z. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic optical waveguides on glass chips with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1536–1538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarino, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He+-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys.100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ= 1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-Rueda, F.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

Bi, Z. F.

Calmano, T.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ= 1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Cheng, Y.

Degl’Innocenti, R.

R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarino, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He+-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys.100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Domenech, M.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ= 1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, M. M.

Dong, N. N.

Flores-Romero, E.

Ganesamoorthy, S.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García, G.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Blanco, S.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Cabañes, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García-Navarro, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarino, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He+-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys.100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarino, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He+-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys.100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, F.

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12(Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Swift nitrogen ion irradiated waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystal,” Opt. Express19(6), 5522–5527 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y. C.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanjilal, D.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karnal, A. K.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.

Kumar, P.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lauzurica, S.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ= 1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. H.

Lu, Q. M.

Marangoni, M.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, C.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J.

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molpeceres, C.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moorthy Babu, S.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narusawa, T.

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12(Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ocaña, J. L.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Olivares, J.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L. L.

Petermann, K.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12(Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarino, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He+-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys.100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, F.

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12(Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Reidt, S.

R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarino, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He+-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys.100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y. Y.

Rezzonico, D.

R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarino, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He+-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys.100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rickards, J.

Rodenas, A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A. V.

Siebenmorgen, J.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12(Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.

Tan, Y.

Torchia, G. A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trejo-Luna, R.

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12(Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, G. V.

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express12(10), 2264–2269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ= 1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

Wang, L.

Wang, Z. G.

Withford, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

Xu, Z.

Yao, Y. C.

Zhang, S. M.

Zhao, Q. Z.

Zhou, Z.

Appl. Phys. B

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12(Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ= 1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Reidt, A. Guarino, D. Rezzonico, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Micromachining of ridge optical waveguides on top of He+-implanted β-BaB2O4 crystals by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys.100(11), 113121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
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F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. DOI: .
[CrossRef]

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J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B257(1-2), 765–770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. S. Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope image of the end face of the ridge waveguide (dashed line surrounded region) fabricated by the fs laser ablated 17 MeV O5+ ion irradiated Nd:YAG crystal. The inset shows the top view of the ridge waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The Se (blue line), Sn (red line) curves as well as the refractive profile of the waveguide (yellow line) as a function of the depth from the sample surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical luminescence spectrum of 4F3/24I9/2 and 4F3/24I11/2 transition of Nd ions in the bulk Nd:YAG crystal. 1D spatial scan of the emitted intensity (b), spectral shift (c) and spectral broadening (d) of the hyper-sensitive 937.8 nm Nd3+ emission line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser emission spectrum from the planar and ridge Nd:YAG waveguides. The insets show the measured near-field intensity distribution of the (a) planar and (b) ridge waveguide laser modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output laser power at 1065 nm as a function of absorbed pump power at 808 nm obtained from the Nd:YAG (a) planar and (b) ridge waveguide.

Equations (1)

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Δn= sin 2 Θ m 2n

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