Abstract

We study the effect of 30 keV gallium ion implantation on the optical properties of diamond, as determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry. We find that the refractive index of the implanted layer can be either lower, or higher, than that of pristine diamond, depending on the implantation dose. This observation provides a new route to optical device fabrication in diamond using focused ion beam methods. In particular, in the low dose regime, lowering of the refractive index would allow for core-cladding type structures to be defined where the core has not interacted with the beam, and is hence undamaged by the implantation.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D. D. Awschalom, R. Epstein, and R. Hanson, “The diamond age of spintronics,” Sci. Am.297, 84–91 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 397–405 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Diamond waveguides fabricated by reactive ion etching,” Opt. Express16, 19512–19519 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. D. Greentree, C. M. de Sterke, and S. Prawer, “Flexible design of ultrahigh-Q microcavities in diamond-based photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express17, 6465–6475 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. D. Palik ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1998), pp. 665–673.
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. V. Khomich, V. I. Kovalev, E. V. Zavedeev, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, and A. A. Gippius, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of buried graphitized layers in the ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum78, 583–587 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Kalish and S. Prawer, “Graphitization of diamond by ion impact: Fundamentals and applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B106, 492–499 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Prawer and R. Kalish, “Ion-beam-induced transformation of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B51, 15711–15722 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. E. Aspnes, “The Accurate Determination of Optical Properties by Ellipsometry,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, Orlando, 1985), pp. 89–112.
  20. R. M. A. Azzam, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland Pub. Co., New York, 1977).
  21. H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA, 1999).
  22. A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical dispersion-relations for amorphous-semiconductors and amorphous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B34, 7018–7026 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical-properties of crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B38, 1865–1874 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. F. Ziegler, “SRIM-2003,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B219, 1027–1036 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Prawer and A. D. Greentree, “Diamond for Quantum Computing,” Science320, 1601–1602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 397–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

D. D. Awschalom, R. Epstein, and R. Hanson, “The diamond age of spintronics,” Sci. Am.297, 84–91 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Khomich, V. I. Kovalev, E. V. Zavedeev, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, and A. A. Gippius, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of buried graphitized layers in the ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum78, 583–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. F. Ziegler, “SRIM-2003,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B219, 1027–1036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Kalish and S. Prawer, “Graphitization of diamond by ion impact: Fundamentals and applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B106, 492–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Prawer and R. Kalish, “Ion-beam-induced transformation of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B51, 15711–15722 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical-properties of crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B38, 1865–1874 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical dispersion-relations for amorphous-semiconductors and amorphous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B34, 7018–7026 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. L. Hines, “Radiation Damage of Diamond by 20-keV Carbon Ions,” Phys. Rev.138, A1747–A1751 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aharonovich, I.

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 397–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “The Accurate Determination of Optical Properties by Ellipsometry,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, Orlando, 1985), pp. 89–112.

Awschalom, D. D.

D. D. Awschalom, R. Epstein, and R. Hanson, “The diamond age of spintronics,” Sci. Am.297, 84–91 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland Pub. Co., New York, 1977).

Bhatia, K. L.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bloomer, I.

A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical-properties of crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B38, 1865–1874 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical dispersion-relations for amorphous-semiconductors and amorphous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B34, 7018–7026 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bosia, F.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brener, R.

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Calusi, S.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Castelletto, S.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cytermann, C.

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Drummond, I. C.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R.

D. D. Awschalom, R. Epstein, and R. Hanson, “The diamond age of spintronics,” Sci. Am.297, 84–91 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabian, S.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fairchild, B. A.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Field, E.

E. FieldThe Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond (Academic Press, London, 1992).

Forouhi, A. R.

A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical-properties of crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B38, 1865–1874 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical dispersion-relations for amorphous-semiconductors and amorphous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B34, 7018–7026 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ganesan, K.

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Diamond waveguides fabricated by reactive ion etching,” Opt. Express16, 19512–19519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geddes, J.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B. C.

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Diamond waveguides fabricated by reactive ion etching,” Opt. Express16, 19512–19519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gippius, A. A.

A. V. Khomich, V. I. Kovalev, E. V. Zavedeev, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, and A. A. Gippius, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of buried graphitized layers in the ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum78, 583–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giuntini, L.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greentree, A. D.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 397–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. D. Greentree, C. M. de Sterke, and S. Prawer, “Flexible design of ultrahigh-Q microcavities in diamond-based photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express17, 6465–6475 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Prawer and A. D. Greentree, “Diamond for Quantum Computing,” Science320, 1601–1602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R.

D. D. Awschalom, R. Epstein, and R. Hanson, “The diamond age of spintronics,” Sci. Am.297, 84–91 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, D. P.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hines, R. L.

R. L. Hines, “Radiation Damage of Diamond by 20-keV Carbon Ions,” Phys. Rev.138, A1747–A1751 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hiscocks, M. P.

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Diamond waveguides fabricated by reactive ion etching,” Opt. Express16, 19512–19519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huntington, S.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S. T.

Jamieson, D. N.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

John, P.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jubber, M. G.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kalbitzer, S.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kalish, R.

R. Kalish and S. Prawer, “Graphitization of diamond by ion impact: Fundamentals and applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B106, 492–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Prawer and R. Kalish, “Ion-beam-induced transformation of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B51, 15711–15722 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khmelnitskiy, R. A.

A. V. Khomich, V. I. Kovalev, E. V. Zavedeev, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, and A. A. Gippius, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of buried graphitized layers in the ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum78, 583–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khomich, A. V.

A. V. Khomich, V. I. Kovalev, E. V. Zavedeev, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, and A. A. Gippius, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of buried graphitized layers in the ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum78, 583–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klatt, C.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, V. I.

A. V. Khomich, V. I. Kovalev, E. V. Zavedeev, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, and A. A. Gippius, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of buried graphitized layers in the ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum78, 583–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krätschmer, W.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, F.

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Diamond waveguides fabricated by reactive ion etching,” Opt. Express16, 19512–19519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagomarsino, S.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lau, D. W. M.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liehr, M.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lo Giudice, A.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marks, N.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massi, M.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, D.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCullough, R. W.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGahan, W. A.

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA, 1999).

McGrath, J. L.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, W. R.

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Milne, D. K.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moore, D.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, P.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 397–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. D. Greentree, C. M. de Sterke, and S. Prawer, “Flexible design of ultrahigh-Q microcavities in diamond-based photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express17, 6465–6475 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Diamond waveguides fabricated by reactive ion etching,” Opt. Express16, 19512–19519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Prawer and A. D. Greentree, “Diamond for Quantum Computing,” Science320, 1601–1602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kalish and S. Prawer, “Graphitization of diamond by ion impact: Fundamentals and applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B106, 492–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Prawer and R. Kalish, “Ion-beam-induced transformation of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B51, 15711–15722 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rabeau, J.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reichart, P.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richter, V.

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, M.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubanov, S.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, J.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlapp, M.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sellschop, J. F. P.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaanan, M.

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, D. A.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, R.

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, C.-H.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suarez-Martinez, I.

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Tompkins, H. G.

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA, 1999).

Uzan-Saguy, C.

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vannoni, M.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vittone, E.

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. I. B.

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zaitsev, M.

M. ZaitsevOptical Properties of Diamond: A Data Handbook (Springer, Berlin, 2001).

Zavedeev, E. V.

A. V. Khomich, V. I. Kovalev, E. V. Zavedeev, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, and A. A. Gippius, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of buried graphitized layers in the ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum78, 583–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, “SRIM-2003,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B219, 1027–1036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Ion Beam Assisted Lift-Off Technique for Three-Dimensional Micromachining of Free Standing Single-Crystal Diamond,” Adv. Mater.17, 2427–2430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Fairchild, S. Rubanov, D. W. M. Lau, M. Robinson, I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Marks, A. D. Greentree, D. McCulloch, and S. Prawer, “Mechanism for the amorphisation of diamond,” Adv. Mater.24, 2024–2029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitzation of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67, 1194–1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Relat. Mater. (1)

P. Olivero, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, S. Lagomarsino, A. Lo Giudice, M. Massi, M. Vannoni, and E. Vittone, “Controlled variation of the refractive index in ion-damaged diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater.19, 428–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Relat. Mater. (2)

M. P. Hiscocks, K. Ganesan, W. R. McKenzie, B. C. Gibson, F. Ladouceur, and S. Prawer, “Towards characterisation of millimetre length waveguides and new fabrication method for nanoscale diamond photonic structures,” Diamond Relat. Mater.20, 556–559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Jubber, M. Liehr, J. L. McGrath, J. I. B. Wilson, I. C. Drummond, P. John, D. K. Milne, R. W. McCullough, J. Geddes, D. P. Higgins, and M. Schlapp, “Atom beam treatment of diamond films,” Diamond Relat. Mater.4, 445–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 397–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (2)

R. Kalish and S. Prawer, “Graphitization of diamond by ion impact: Fundamentals and applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B106, 492–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ziegler, “SRIM-2003,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B219, 1027–1036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical-properties of crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B38, 1865–1874 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. L. Hines, “Radiation Damage of Diamond by 20-keV Carbon Ions,” Phys. Rev.138, A1747–A1751 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Prawer and R. Kalish, “Ion-beam-induced transformation of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B51, 15711–15722 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Optical dispersion-relations for amorphous-semiconductors and amorphous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B34, 7018–7026 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

D. D. Awschalom, R. Epstein, and R. Hanson, “The diamond age of spintronics,” Sci. Am.297, 84–91 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Prawer and A. D. Greentree, “Diamond for Quantum Computing,” Science320, 1601–1602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

K. L. Bhatia, S. Fabian, S. Kalbitzer, C. Klatt, W. Krätschmer, R. Stoll, and J. F. P. Sellschop, “Optical effects in carbon-ion irradiated diamond,” Thin Solid Films324, 11–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

A. V. Khomich, V. I. Kovalev, E. V. Zavedeev, R. A. Khmelnitskiy, and A. A. Gippius, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of buried graphitized layers in the ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum78, 583–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. E. Aspnes, “The Accurate Determination of Optical Properties by Ellipsometry,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, Orlando, 1985), pp. 89–112.

R. M. A. Azzam, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland Pub. Co., New York, 1977).

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA, 1999).

E. D. Palik ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1998), pp. 665–673.

E. FieldThe Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond (Academic Press, London, 1992).

M. ZaitsevOptical Properties of Diamond: A Data Handbook (Springer, Berlin, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A micrograph of white light reflectance measurement of the sample qualitatively indicates the changes of the optical properties of diamond induced by the implantation. Darker regions correspond to reductions in the refractive index compared with the bulk, and brighter regions indicate that the refractive index is increased. The numbers inside each square are the implanted Ga fluences in ions/cm2. Note: the almost vertical black lines on the surface of the sample are polishing marks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy dependence of the refractive index of diamond from our SE measurements (line), and as found in the literature [1012] (squares). The inset describes the layer model that was used in our SE. It consisted of four layers: (air / surface roughness layer (L2) / implanted layer (L1) / diamond): three layers only were used for diamond (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The optical constants n (squares) and κ (circles) of the implanted diamond as a function of fluence at λ = 637 nm. The horizontal line shows the value of n for pristine diamond, and its extinction coefficient value was κ ∼ 5 × 10−4 at this wavelength. (b) The optical resistivity, derived from the ellipsometry measurements of the implanted samples at λ = 637 nm (where the conductivity, σ, is proportional to nκω), compared with DC resistance measured on the same samples, and the resistance of diamond implanted with C, and Xe from Ref. [17, 18]. Note the qualitative agreement between the heavy ion results.

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