Abstract

Quantum dot-based light emitting diodes have extensively been investigated over the past two decades in order to utilize high color purity and photophysical stability of quantum dots. In this review, progresses on the preparation of quantum dots, structural design of electroluminescence devices using quantum dots, and printing processes for full-color quantum dot display will be discussed. The obstacles originating from the use of heavy metals, large hole injection barrier, and imperfect printing processes for pixilation have limited the practical applications of quantum dot-based devices. It is expected that recent complementary approaches on materials, device structures, and new printing processes would accelerate the realization of quantum dot displays.

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2012 (2)

T. Kim, S. W. Kim, M. Kang, and S.-W. Kim, “Large-Scale Synthesis of InPZnS Alloy Quantum Dots with Dodecanethiol as a Composition Controller,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(2), 214–218 (2012).
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S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly Luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS Nanocrystals and Their Application to White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
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2011 (8)

J. Lim, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, M. K. Nam, J. Jung, C. Lee, K. Char, and S. Lee, “InP@ZnSeS, Core@Composition Gradient Shell Quantum Dots with Enhanced Stability,” Chem. Mater.23(20), 4459–4463 (2011).
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E. M. Likovich, R. Jaramillo, K. J. Russell, S. Ramanathan, and V. Narayanamurti, “High-current-density monolayer CdSe/ZnS quantum dot light-emitting devices with oxide electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(39), 4521–4525 (2011).
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L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 543–548 (2011).
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V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, D. Bozyigit, Y. Shirasaki, I. Rousseau, S. Geyer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from nanoscale materials via field-driven ionization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2927–2932 (2011).
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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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S. Coe-Sullivan, Z. Zhou, Y. Niu, J. Perkins, M. Stevenson, C. Breen, P. T. Kazlas, and J. S. Steckel, “12.2: Invited Paper: Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diodes for Near-to-eye and Direct View Display Applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers42(1), 135–138 (2011).
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D. K. Smith, J. M. Luther, O. E. Semonin, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Tuning the synthesis of ternary lead chalcogenide quantum dots by balancing precursor reactivity,” ACS Nano5(1), 183–190 (2011).
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P. Kambhampati, “Unraveling the structure and dynamics of excitons in semiconductor quantum dots,” Acc. Chem. Res.44(1), 1–13 (2011).
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2010 (8)

J. S. Owen, E. M. Chan, H. Liu, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Precursor conversion kinetics and the nucleation of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18206–18213 (2010).
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D. V. Talapin, J.-S. Lee, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. V. Shevchenko, “Prospects of colloidal nanocrystals for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 389–458 (2010).
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M. D. Regulacio and M.-Y. Han, “Composition-tunable alloyed semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.43(5), 621–630 (2010).
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M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing-process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(6), 673–685 (2010).
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V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J.-M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett.10(1), 24–29 (2010).
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H. M. Haverinen, R. A. Myllyla, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet Printed RGB Quantum Dot-Hybrid LED,” J. Disp. Technol.6(3), 87–89 (2010).
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W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. K. Nam, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Multicolored light-emitting diodes based on all-quantum-dot multilayer films using layer-by-layer assembly method,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2368–2373 (2010).
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E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
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A. L. Washington and G. F. Strouse, “Microwave Synthetic Route for Highly Emissive TOP/TOP-S Passivated CdS Quantum Dots,” Chem. Mater.21(15), 3586–3592 (2009).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, M. Zorn, H. Woo, H. Yoon, J. Lim, S. W. Kang, S. Weber, H.-J. Butt, R. Zentel, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “Characterization of Quantum Dot/Conducting Polymer Hybrid Films and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(48), 5022–5026 (2009).
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M. Zorn, W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, H. Lee, C. Lee, R. Zentel, and K. Char, “Quantum dot-block copolymer hybrids with improved properties and their application to quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano3(5), 1063–1068 (2009).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. E. Halpert, J. M. Caruge, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Selection of metal oxide charge transport layers for colloidal quantum dot LEDs,” ACS Nano3(11), 3581–3586 (2009).
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W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
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W. Ki Bae, J. Kwak, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1−xZnxS @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
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P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
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H. M. Haverinen, R. A. Myllyla, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing of light emitting quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 073108 (2009).
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Z. Deng, H. Yan, and Y. Liu, “Band gap engineering of quaternary-alloyed ZnCdSSe quantum dots via a facile phosphine-free colloidal method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(49), 17744–17745 (2009).
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Z. Kang, Y. Liu, C. H. A. Tsang, D. D. D. Ma, X. Fan, N.-B. Wong, and S.-T. Lee, “Water-Soluble Silicon Quantum Dots with Wavelength-Tunable Photoluminescence,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(6), 661–664 (2009).
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2008 (16)

W. Lin, K. Fritz, G. Guerin, G. R. Bardajee, S. Hinds, V. Sukhovatkin, E. H. Sargent, G. D. Scholes, and M. A. Winnik, “Highly luminescent lead sulfide nanocrystals in organic solvents and water through ligand exchange with poly(acrylic acid),” Langmuir24(15), 8215–8219 (2008).
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K. A. Abel, J. Shan, J.-C. Boyer, F. Harris, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Highly Photoluminescent PbS Nanocrystals: The Beneficial Effect of Trioctylphosphine,” Chem. Mater.20(12), 3794–3796 (2008).
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X. Ji, D. Copenhaver, C. Sichmeller, and X. Peng, “Ligand bonding and dynamics on colloidal nanocrystals at room temperature: the case of alkylamines on CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5726–5735 (2008).
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W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-Scale One-Pot Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Blue Emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS Nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.20(16), 5307–5313 (2008).
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E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet printing as a deposition and patterning tool for polymers and inorganic particles,” Soft Matter4(4), 703–713 (2008).
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A. Rizzo, M. Mazzeo, M. Palumbo, G. Lerario, S. D'Amone, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes from Microcontact-Printing Double-Transfer of Colloidal Semiconductor CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots onto Organic Layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(10), 1886–1891 (2008).
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A. Rizzo, M. Mazzeo, M. Biasiucci, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “White electroluminescence from a microcontact-printing-deposited CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum-dot monolayer,” Small4(12), 2143–2147 (2008).
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L. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Contact printing of quantum dot light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4513–4517 (2008).
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P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
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J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 247–250 (2008).
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J. W. Stouwdam and R. A. J. Janssen, “Red, green, and blue quantum dot LEDs with solution processable ZnO nanocrystal electron injection layers,” J. Mater. Chem.18(16), 1889–1894 (2008).
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L. Li and P. Reiss, “One-pot synthesis of highly luminescent InP/ZnS nanocrystals without precursor injection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(35), 11588–11589 (2008).
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N. P. Gurusinghe, N. N. Hewa-Kasakarage, and M. Zamkov, “Composition-Tunable Properties of CdSxTe1−x Alloy Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(33), 12795–12800 (2008).
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J. Ouyang, C. I. Ratcliffe, D. Kingston, B. Wilkinson, J. Kuijper, X. Wu, J. A. Ripmeester, and K. Yu, “Gradiently Alloyed ZnxCd1−xS Colloidal Photoluminescent Quantum Dots Synthesized via a Noninjection One-Pot Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4908–4919 (2008).
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W. K. Bae, K. Char, H. Hur, and S. Lee, “Single-Step Synthesis of Quantum Dots with Chemical Composition Gradients,” Chem. Mater.20(2), 531–539 (2008).
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Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 717–722 (2007).
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H. Huang, A. Dorn, G. P. Nair, V. Bulović, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bias-induced photoluminescence quenching of single colloidal quantum dots embedded in organic semiconductors,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3781–3786 (2007).
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Y. H. Niu, A. M. Munro, Y. J. Cheng, Y. Q. Tian, M. S. Liu, J. L. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, I. Jen-La Plante, D. S. Ginger, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Improved Performance from Multilayer Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes via Thermal Annealing of the Quantum Dot Layer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(20), 3371–3376 (2007).
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C. Bertoni, D. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmuller, “Fabrication and characterization of red-emitting electroluminescent devices based on thiol-stabilized semiconductor nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 034107 (2007).
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P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
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S. Alom Ruiz and C. S. Chen, “Microcontact printing: A tool to pattern,” Soft Matter3(2), 168–177 (2007).
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M. Protière and P. Reiss, “Highly luminescent Cd1−xZnxSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals emitting in the blue-green spectral range,” Small3(3), 399–403 (2007).
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X. Zhong, Y. Feng, Y. Zhang, Z. Gu, and L. Zou, “A facile route to violet- to orange-emitting CdxZn1−xSe alloy nanocrystals via cation exchange reaction,” Nanotechnology18(38), 385606 (2007).
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G. Morello, M. De Giorgi, S. Kudera, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, and M. Anni, “Temperature and Size Dependence of Nonradiative Relaxation and Exciton−Phonon Coupling in Colloidal CdTe Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(16), 5846–5849 (2007).
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H. Liu, J. S. Owen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Mechanistic study of precursor evolution in colloidal group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystal synthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(2), 305–312 (2007).
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L. Cademartiri, J. Bertolotti, R. Sapienza, D. S. Wiersma, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “Multigram scale, solventless, and diffusion-controlled route to highly monodisperse PbS nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(2), 671–673 (2006).
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J. Xu, J.-P. Ge, and Y.-D. Li, “Solvothermal synthesis of monodisperse PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(6), 2497–2501 (2006).
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L. A. Swafford, L. A. Weigand, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, J. L. Rapaport, T. L. Watt, S. K. Dixit, L. C. Feldman, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Homogeneously alloyed CdSxSe1−x nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and composition/size-dependent band gap,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(37), 12299–12306 (2006).
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Y.-M. Sung, Y.-J. Lee, and K.-S. Park, “Kinetic analysis for formation of Cd1-xZnxSe solid-solution nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(28), 9002–9003 (2006).
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J. McBride, J. Treadway, L. C. Feldman, S. J. Pennycook, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Structural basis for near unity quantum yield core/shell nanostructures,” Nano Lett.6(7), 1496–1501 (2006).
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T.-Y. Chu, J.-F. Chen, S.-Y. Chen, C.-J. Chen, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 053503 (2006).
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J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
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J. S. Steckel, P. Snee, S. Coe-Sullivan, J. P. Zimmer, J. E. Halpert, P. Anikeeva, L.-A. Kim, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Color-saturated green-emitting QD-LEDs,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(35), 5796–5799 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (8)

S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-Area Ordered Quantum-Dot Monolayers via Phase Separation During Spin-Casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1117–1124 (2005).
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D. Pan, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, X. Ji, and L. An, “Synthesis of Extremely Small CdSe and Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core–Shell Nanocrystals via a Novel Two-Phase Thermal Approach,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(2), 176–179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution,” Science310(5747), 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basché, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and characterization of highly luminescent CdSe-core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS multishell nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(20), 7480–7488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Kim, J. P. Zimmer, S. Ohnishi, J. B. Tracy, J. V. Frangioni, and M. G. Bawendi, “Engineering InAsxP1−x/InP/ZnSe III-V alloyed core/shell quantum dots for the near-infrared,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(30), 10526–10532 (2005).
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Y. C. Li, M. F. Ye, C. H. Yang, X. H. Li, and Y. F. Li, “Composition- and Shape-Controlled Synthesis and Optical Properties of ZnxCd1−xS Alloyed Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(3), 433–441 (2005).
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C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1025–1102 (2005).
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D. Vanmaekelbergh and P. Liljeroth, “Electron-conducting quantum dot solids: novel materials based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev.34(4), 299–312 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

A. Puzder, A. J. Williamson, N. Zaitseva, G. Galli, L. Manna, and A. P. Alivisatos, “The Effect of Organic Ligand Binding on the Growth of CdSe Nanoparticles Probed by Ab Initio Calculations,” Nano Lett.4(12), 2361–2365 (2004).
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J. Zou, R. K. Baldwin, K. A. Pettigrew, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “Solution Synthesis of Ultrastable Luminescent Siloxane-Coated Silicon Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1181–1186 (2004).
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W. W. Yu, J. C. Falkner, B. S. Shih, and V. L. Colvin, “Preparation and Characterization of Monodisperse PbSe Semiconductor Nanocrystals in a Noncoordinating Solvent,” Chem. Mater.16(17), 3318–3322 (2004).
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L. Qu, W. W. Yu, and X. Peng, “In Situ Observation of the Nucleation and Growth of CdSe Nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.4(3), 465–469 (2004).
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X. Zhong, Z. Zhang, S. Liu, M. Han, and W. Knoll, “Embryonic Nuclei-Induced Alloying Process for the Reproducible Synthesis of Blue-Emitting ZnxCd1−xSe Nanocrystals with Long-Time Thermal Stability in Size Distribution and Emission Wavelength,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(40), 15552–15559 (2004).
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S. F. Wuister, C. de Mello Donegá, and A. Meijerink, “Influence of Thiol Capping on the Exciton Luminescence and Decay Kinetics of CdTe and CdSe Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(45), 17393–17397 (2004).
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D. V. Talapin, I. Mekis, S. Götzinger, A. Kornowski, O. Benson, and H. Weller, “CdSe/CdS/ZnS and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS Core−Shell−Shell Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(49), 18826–18831 (2004).
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A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron Transport Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chem. Mater.16(23), 4556–4573 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (8)

S. Coe-Sullivan, W.-K. Woo, J. S. Steckel, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Tuning the performance of hybrid organic/inorganic quantum dot light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 123–130 (2003).
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J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
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X. Zhong, M. Han, Z. Dong, T. J. White, and W. Knoll, “Composition-tunable ZnxCd1−xSe nanocrystals with high luminescence and stability,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(28), 8589–8594 (2003).
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X. Zhong, Y. Feng, W. Knoll, and M. Han, “Alloyed ZnxCd1−xS nanocrystals with highly narrow luminescence spectral width,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(44), 13559–13563 (2003).
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R. E. Bailey and S. Nie, “Alloyed semiconductor quantum dots: tuning the optical properties without changing the particle size,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(23), 7100–7106 (2003).
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X. Wang, L. Qu, J. Zhang, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Surface-Related Emission in Highly Luminescent CdSe Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett.3(8), 1103–1106 (2003).
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B. K. H. Yen, N. E. Stott, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “A Continuous-Flow Microcapillary Reactor for the Preparation of a Size Series of CdSe Nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(21), 1858–1862 (2003).
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M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS Nanocrystals with Size-Tunable Near-Infrared Emission: Observation of Post-Synthesis Self-Narrowing of the Particle Size Distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
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2002 (8)

S.-M. Lee, Y. W. Jun, S.-N. Cho, and J. Cheon, “Single-crystalline star-shaped nanocrystals and their evolution: programming the geometry of nano-building blocks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(38), 11244–11245 (2002).
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D. Battaglia and X. Peng, “Formation of High Quality InP and InAs Nanocrystals in a Noncoordinating Solvent,” Nano Lett.2(9), 1027–1030 (2002).
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W. W. Yu and X. Peng, “Formation of high-quality CdS and other II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals in noncoordinating solvents: tunable reactivity of monomers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.41(13), 2368–2371 (2002).
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X. Chen, A. Y. Nazzal, M. Xiao, Z. A. Peng, and X. Peng, “Photoluminescence from single CdSe quantum rods,” J. Lumin.97(3-4), 205–211 (2002).
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D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Size Tunable Visible Luminescence from Individual Organic Monolayer Stabilized Silicon Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett.2(7), 681–685 (2002).
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S. Park, B. L. Clark, D. A. Keszler, J. P. Bender, J. F. Wager, T. A. Reynolds, and G. S. Herman, “Low-temperature thin-film deposition and crystallization,” Science297(5578), 65 (2002).
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L. Qu and X. Peng, “Control of photoluminescence properties of CdSe nanocrystals in growth,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(9), 2049–2055 (2002).
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S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature420(6917), 800–803 (2002).
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2001 (6)

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Highly Luminescent Monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals Synthesized in a Hexadecylamine−Trioctylphosphine Oxide−Trioctylphospine Mixture,” Nano Lett.1(4), 207–211 (2001).
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J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
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D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Evolution of an Ensemble of Nanoparticles in a Colloidal Solution: Theoretical Study,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(49), 12278–12285 (2001).
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L. Qu, Z. A. Peng, and X. Peng, “Alternative Routes toward High Quality CdSe Nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.1(6), 333–337 (2001).
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Z. A. Peng and X. Peng, “Formation of high-quality CdTe, CdSe, and CdS nanocrystals using CdO as precursor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.123(1), 183–184 (2001).
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M. Shim and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Organic-capped ZnO nanocrystals: synthesis and n-type character,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.123(47), 11651–11654 (2001).
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2000 (4)

C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Nanocrystals and Close-Packed Nanocrystal Assemblies,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 545–610 (2000).
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A. L. Efros and M. Rosen, “The Electronic Structure Of Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 475–521 (2000).
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V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
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M. Gao, C. Lesser, S. Kirstein, H. Mohwald, A. L. Rogach, and H. Weller, “Electroluminescence of different colors from polycation/CdTe nanocrystal self-assembled films,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2297–2302 (2000).
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1999 (1)

V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electron and hole relaxation pathways in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B60(19), 13740–13749 (1999).
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1998 (3)

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Bright UV-Blue Luminescent Colloidal ZnSe Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B102(19), 3655–3657 (1998).
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S.-H. Wei and A. Zunger, “Calculated natural band offsets of all II–VI and III–V semiconductors: Chemical trends and the role of cation d orbitals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(16), 2011–2013 (1998).
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H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
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1997 (4)

M. C. Schlamp, X. Peng, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Improved efficiencies in light emitting diodes made with CdSe(CdS) core/shell type nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” J. Appl. Phys.82(11), 5837–5842 (1997).
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X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(30), 7019–7029 (1997).
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B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core−Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B101(46), 9463–9475 (1997).
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H. Fu and A. Zunger, “InP quantum dots: Electronic structure, surface effects, and the redshifted emission,” Phys. Rev. B56(3), 1496–1508 (1997).
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1996 (5)

A. L. Efros, M. Rosen, M. Kuno, M. Nirmal, D. J. Norris, and M. Bawendi, “Band-edge exciton in quantum dots of semiconductors with a degenerate valence band: Dark and bright exciton states,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter54(7), 4843–4856 (1996).
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D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, “Measurement and assignment of the size-dependent optical spectrum in CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(24), 16338–16346 (1996).
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D. J. Norris, A. L. Efros, M. Rosen, and M. G. Bawendi, “Size dependence of exciton fine structure in CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(24), 16347–16354 (1996).
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M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and Characterization of Strongly Luminescing ZnS-Capped CdSe Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem.100(2), 468–471 (1996).
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Y. Tian, T. Newton, N. A. Kotov, D. M. Guldi, and J. H. Fendler, “Coupled Composite CdS−CdSe and Core−Shell Types of (CdS)CdSe and (CdSe)CdS Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem.100(21), 8927–8939 (1996).
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1994 (3)

D. J. Norris, A. Sacra, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Measurement of the size dependent hole spectrum in CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(16), 2612–2615 (1994).
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O. I. Micic, C. J. Curtis, K. M. Jones, J. R. Sprague, and A. J. Nozik, “Synthesis and Characterization of InP Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem.98(19), 4966–4969 (1994).
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V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
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1993 (1)

A. Kumar and G. M. Whitesides, “Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol “ink” followed by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(14), 2002–2004 (1993).
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1990 (1)

A. R. Kortan, R. Hull, R. L. Opila, M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Steigerwald, P. J. Carroll, and L. E. Brus, “Nucleation and growth of cadmium selendie on zinc sulfide quantum crystallite seeds, and vice versa, in inverse micelle media,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.112(4), 1327–1332 (1990).
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1983 (1)

R. Rossetti, S. Nakahara, and L. E. Brus, “Quantum size effects in the redox potentials, resonance Raman spectra, and electronic spectra of CdS crystallites in aqueous solution,” J. Chem. Phys.79(2), 1086–1088 (1983).
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Abel, K. A.

K. A. Abel, J. Shan, J.-C. Boyer, F. Harris, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Highly Photoluminescent PbS Nanocrystals: The Beneficial Effect of Trioctylphosphine,” Chem. Mater.20(12), 3794–3796 (2008).
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Alivisatos, A. P.

J. S. Owen, E. M. Chan, H. Liu, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Precursor conversion kinetics and the nucleation of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18206–18213 (2010).
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H. Liu, J. S. Owen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Mechanistic study of precursor evolution in colloidal group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystal synthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(2), 305–312 (2007).
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I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution,” Science310(5747), 462–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Puzder, A. J. Williamson, N. Zaitseva, G. Galli, L. Manna, and A. P. Alivisatos, “The Effect of Organic Ligand Binding on the Growth of CdSe Nanoparticles Probed by Ab Initio Calculations,” Nano Lett.4(12), 2361–2365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(30), 7019–7029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schlamp, X. Peng, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Improved efficiencies in light emitting diodes made with CdSe(CdS) core/shell type nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” J. Appl. Phys.82(11), 5837–5842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature370(6488), 354–357 (1994).
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Alom Ruiz, S.

S. Alom Ruiz and C. S. Chen, “Microcontact printing: A tool to pattern,” Soft Matter3(2), 168–177 (2007).
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Amaratunga, G.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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An, L.

D. Pan, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, X. Ji, and L. An, “Synthesis of Extremely Small CdSe and Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core–Shell Nanocrystals via a Novel Two-Phase Thermal Approach,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(2), 176–179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anikeeva, P.

J. S. Steckel, P. Snee, S. Coe-Sullivan, J. P. Zimmer, J. E. Halpert, P. Anikeeva, L.-A. Kim, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Color-saturated green-emitting QD-LEDs,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(35), 5796–5799 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anikeeva, P. O.

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
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P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
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L. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Contact printing of quantum dot light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4513–4517 (2008).
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P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
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Anni, M.

G. Morello, M. De Giorgi, S. Kudera, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, and M. Anni, “Temperature and Size Dependence of Nonradiative Relaxation and Exciton−Phonon Coupling in Colloidal CdTe Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(16), 5846–5849 (2007).
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Babel, A.

A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron Transport Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chem. Mater.16(23), 4556–4573 (2004).
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Bae, W. K.

J. Lim, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, M. K. Nam, J. Jung, C. Lee, K. Char, and S. Lee, “InP@ZnSeS, Core@Composition Gradient Shell Quantum Dots with Enhanced Stability,” Chem. Mater.23(20), 4459–4463 (2011).
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W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. K. Nam, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Multicolored light-emitting diodes based on all-quantum-dot multilayer films using layer-by-layer assembly method,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2368–2373 (2010).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, M. Zorn, H. Woo, H. Yoon, J. Lim, S. W. Kang, S. Weber, H.-J. Butt, R. Zentel, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “Characterization of Quantum Dot/Conducting Polymer Hybrid Films and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(48), 5022–5026 (2009).
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M. Zorn, W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, H. Lee, C. Lee, R. Zentel, and K. Char, “Quantum dot-block copolymer hybrids with improved properties and their application to quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano3(5), 1063–1068 (2009).
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W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
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W. K. Bae, K. Char, H. Hur, and S. Lee, “Single-Step Synthesis of Quantum Dots with Chemical Composition Gradients,” Chem. Mater.20(2), 531–539 (2008).
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W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-Scale One-Pot Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Blue Emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS Nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.20(16), 5307–5313 (2008).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficieny full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. (to be published).
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Bailey, R. E.

R. E. Bailey and S. Nie, “Alloyed semiconductor quantum dots: tuning the optical properties without changing the particle size,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(23), 7100–7106 (2003).
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Baldwin, R. K.

J. Zou, R. K. Baldwin, K. A. Pettigrew, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “Solution Synthesis of Ultrastable Luminescent Siloxane-Coated Silicon Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1181–1186 (2004).
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Barbara, P. F.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Size Tunable Visible Luminescence from Individual Organic Monolayer Stabilized Silicon Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett.2(7), 681–685 (2002).
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Bardajee, G. R.

W. Lin, K. Fritz, G. Guerin, G. R. Bardajee, S. Hinds, V. Sukhovatkin, E. H. Sargent, G. D. Scholes, and M. A. Winnik, “Highly luminescent lead sulfide nanocrystals in organic solvents and water through ligand exchange with poly(acrylic acid),” Langmuir24(15), 8215–8219 (2008).
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Bardecker, J. A.

Y. H. Niu, A. M. Munro, Y. J. Cheng, Y. Q. Tian, M. S. Liu, J. L. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, I. Jen-La Plante, D. S. Ginger, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Improved Performance from Multilayer Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes via Thermal Annealing of the Quantum Dot Layer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(20), 3371–3376 (2007).
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J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
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Basché, T.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basché, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and characterization of highly luminescent CdSe-core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS multishell nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(20), 7480–7488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battaglia, D.

D. Battaglia and X. Peng, “Formation of High Quality InP and InAs Nanocrystals in a Noncoordinating Solvent,” Nano Lett.2(9), 1027–1030 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M.

S. Coe-Sullivan, W.-K. Woo, J. S. Steckel, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Tuning the performance of hybrid organic/inorganic quantum dot light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 123–130 (2003).
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S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature420(6917), 800–803 (2002).
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A. L. Efros, M. Rosen, M. Kuno, M. Nirmal, D. J. Norris, and M. Bawendi, “Band-edge exciton in quantum dots of semiconductors with a degenerate valence band: Dark and bright exciton states,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter54(7), 4843–4856 (1996).
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Bawendi, M. G.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, D. Bozyigit, Y. Shirasaki, I. Rousseau, S. Geyer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from nanoscale materials via field-driven ionization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2927–2932 (2011).
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V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J.-M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett.10(1), 24–29 (2010).
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P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
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V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. E. Halpert, J. M. Caruge, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Selection of metal oxide charge transport layers for colloidal quantum dot LEDs,” ACS Nano3(11), 3581–3586 (2009).
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J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 247–250 (2008).
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P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
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L. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Contact printing of quantum dot light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4513–4517 (2008).
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P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
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H. Huang, A. Dorn, G. P. Nair, V. Bulović, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bias-induced photoluminescence quenching of single colloidal quantum dots embedded in organic semiconductors,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3781–3786 (2007).
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J. S. Steckel, P. Snee, S. Coe-Sullivan, J. P. Zimmer, J. E. Halpert, P. Anikeeva, L.-A. Kim, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Color-saturated green-emitting QD-LEDs,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(35), 5796–5799 (2006).
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S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-Area Ordered Quantum-Dot Monolayers via Phase Separation During Spin-Casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1117–1124 (2005).
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S.-W. Kim, J. P. Zimmer, S. Ohnishi, J. B. Tracy, J. V. Frangioni, and M. G. Bawendi, “Engineering InAsxP1−x/InP/ZnSe III-V alloyed core/shell quantum dots for the near-infrared,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(30), 10526–10532 (2005).
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B. K. H. Yen, N. E. Stott, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “A Continuous-Flow Microcapillary Reactor for the Preparation of a Size Series of CdSe Nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(21), 1858–1862 (2003).
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C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Nanocrystals and Close-Packed Nanocrystal Assemblies,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 545–610 (2000).
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V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
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V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electron and hole relaxation pathways in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B60(19), 13740–13749 (1999).
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H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
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B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core−Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B101(46), 9463–9475 (1997).
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D. J. Norris, A. L. Efros, M. Rosen, and M. G. Bawendi, “Size dependence of exciton fine structure in CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(24), 16347–16354 (1996).
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D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, “Measurement and assignment of the size-dependent optical spectrum in CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(24), 16338–16346 (1996).
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D. J. Norris, A. Sacra, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Measurement of the size dependent hole spectrum in CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(16), 2612–2615 (1994).
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A. R. Kortan, R. Hull, R. L. Opila, M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Steigerwald, P. J. Carroll, and L. E. Brus, “Nucleation and growth of cadmium selendie on zinc sulfide quantum crystallite seeds, and vice versa, in inverse micelle media,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.112(4), 1327–1332 (1990).
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D. K. Smith, J. M. Luther, O. E. Semonin, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Tuning the synthesis of ternary lead chalcogenide quantum dots by balancing precursor reactivity,” ACS Nano5(1), 183–190 (2011).
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S. Park, B. L. Clark, D. A. Keszler, J. P. Bender, J. F. Wager, T. A. Reynolds, and G. S. Herman, “Low-temperature thin-film deposition and crystallization,” Science297(5578), 65 (2002).
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D. V. Talapin, I. Mekis, S. Götzinger, A. Kornowski, O. Benson, and H. Weller, “CdSe/CdS/ZnS and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS Core−Shell−Shell Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(49), 18826–18831 (2004).
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L. Cademartiri, J. Bertolotti, R. Sapienza, D. S. Wiersma, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “Multigram scale, solventless, and diffusion-controlled route to highly monodisperse PbS nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(2), 671–673 (2006).
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C. Bertoni, D. Gallardo, S. Dunn, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmuller, “Fabrication and characterization of red-emitting electroluminescent devices based on thiol-stabilized semiconductor nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 034107 (2007).
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A. Rizzo, M. Mazzeo, M. Biasiucci, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “White electroluminescence from a microcontact-printing-deposited CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum-dot monolayer,” Small4(12), 2143–2147 (2008).
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L. A. Swafford, L. A. Weigand, M. J. Bowers, J. R. McBride, J. L. Rapaport, T. L. Watt, S. K. Dixit, L. C. Feldman, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Homogeneously alloyed CdSxSe1−x nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and composition/size-dependent band gap,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(37), 12299–12306 (2006).
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K. A. Abel, J. Shan, J.-C. Boyer, F. Harris, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Highly Photoluminescent PbS Nanocrystals: The Beneficial Effect of Trioctylphosphine,” Chem. Mater.20(12), 3794–3796 (2008).
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V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, D. Bozyigit, Y. Shirasaki, I. Rousseau, S. Geyer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from nanoscale materials via field-driven ionization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2927–2932 (2011).
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S. Coe-Sullivan, Z. Zhou, Y. Niu, J. Perkins, M. Stevenson, C. Breen, P. T. Kazlas, and J. S. Steckel, “12.2: Invited Paper: Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diodes for Near-to-eye and Direct View Display Applications,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers42(1), 135–138 (2011).
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A. R. Kortan, R. Hull, R. L. Opila, M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Steigerwald, P. J. Carroll, and L. E. Brus, “Nucleation and growth of cadmium selendie on zinc sulfide quantum crystallite seeds, and vice versa, in inverse micelle media,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.112(4), 1327–1332 (1990).
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V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, D. Bozyigit, Y. Shirasaki, I. Rousseau, S. Geyer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from nanoscale materials via field-driven ionization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2927–2932 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J.-M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett.10(1), 24–29 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Quantum dot light-emitting devices with electroluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. E. Halpert, J. M. Caruge, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Selection of metal oxide charge transport layers for colloidal quantum dot LEDs,” ACS Nano3(11), 3581–3586 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Contact printing of quantum dot light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4513–4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett.7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Huang, A. Dorn, G. P. Nair, V. Bulović, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bias-induced photoluminescence quenching of single colloidal quantum dots embedded in organic semiconductors,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3781–3786 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Steckel, P. Snee, S. Coe-Sullivan, J. P. Zimmer, J. E. Halpert, P. Anikeeva, L.-A. Kim, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Color-saturated green-emitting QD-LEDs,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(35), 5796–5799 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, W. K. Woo, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Large-Area Ordered Quantum-Dot Monolayers via Phase Separation During Spin-Casting,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(7), 1117–1124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Coe-Sullivan, W.-K. Woo, J. S. Steckel, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Tuning the performance of hybrid organic/inorganic quantum dot light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.4(2-3), 123–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature420(6917), 800–803 (2002).
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C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1025–1102 (2005).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, M. Zorn, H. Woo, H. Yoon, J. Lim, S. W. Kang, S. Weber, H.-J. Butt, R. Zentel, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “Characterization of Quantum Dot/Conducting Polymer Hybrid Films and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(48), 5022–5026 (2009).
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Cademartiri, L.

L. Cademartiri, J. Bertolotti, R. Sapienza, D. S. Wiersma, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “Multigram scale, solventless, and diffusion-controlled route to highly monodisperse PbS nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(2), 671–673 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, P. J.

A. R. Kortan, R. Hull, R. L. Opila, M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Steigerwald, P. J. Carroll, and L. E. Brus, “Nucleation and growth of cadmium selendie on zinc sulfide quantum crystallite seeds, and vice versa, in inverse micelle media,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.112(4), 1327–1332 (1990).
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Caruge, J. M.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. E. Halpert, J. M. Caruge, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Selection of metal oxide charge transport layers for colloidal quantum dot LEDs,” ACS Nano3(11), 3581–3586 (2009).
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J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caruge, J.-M.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J.-M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett.10(1), 24–29 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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J. S. Owen, E. M. Chan, H. Liu, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Precursor conversion kinetics and the nucleation of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18206–18213 (2010).
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J. Lim, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, M. K. Nam, J. Jung, C. Lee, K. Char, and S. Lee, “InP@ZnSeS, Core@Composition Gradient Shell Quantum Dots with Enhanced Stability,” Chem. Mater.23(20), 4459–4463 (2011).
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W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. K. Nam, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Multicolored light-emitting diodes based on all-quantum-dot multilayer films using layer-by-layer assembly method,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2368–2373 (2010).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, M. Zorn, H. Woo, H. Yoon, J. Lim, S. W. Kang, S. Weber, H.-J. Butt, R. Zentel, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “Characterization of Quantum Dot/Conducting Polymer Hybrid Films and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(48), 5022–5026 (2009).
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M. Zorn, W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, H. Lee, C. Lee, R. Zentel, and K. Char, “Quantum dot-block copolymer hybrids with improved properties and their application to quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano3(5), 1063–1068 (2009).
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W. Ki Bae, J. Kwak, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Ki Nam, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Deep blue light-emitting diodes based on Cd1−xZnxS @ ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology20(7), 075202 (2009).
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W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, J. W. Park, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
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W. K. Bae, K. Char, H. Hur, and S. Lee, “Single-Step Synthesis of Quantum Dots with Chemical Composition Gradients,” Chem. Mater.20(2), 531–539 (2008).
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W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-Scale One-Pot Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Blue Emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS Nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.20(16), 5307–5313 (2008).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficieny full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. (to be published).
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Chen, B.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
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Chen, C. H.

T.-Y. Chu, J.-F. Chen, S.-Y. Chen, C.-J. Chen, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 053503 (2006).
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S. Alom Ruiz and C. S. Chen, “Microcontact printing: A tool to pattern,” Soft Matter3(2), 168–177 (2007).
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Chen, C.-J.

T.-Y. Chu, J.-F. Chen, S.-Y. Chen, C.-J. Chen, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 053503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-F.

T.-Y. Chu, J.-F. Chen, S.-Y. Chen, C.-J. Chen, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 053503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Y.

T.-Y. Chu, J.-F. Chen, S.-Y. Chen, C.-J. Chen, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 053503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Rev.105(4), 1025–1102 (2005).
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X. Chen, A. Y. Nazzal, M. Xiao, Z. A. Peng, and X. Peng, “Photoluminescence from single CdSe quantum rods,” J. Lumin.97(3-4), 205–211 (2002).
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S.-M. Lee, Y. W. Jun, S.-N. Cho, and J. Cheon, “Single-crystalline star-shaped nanocrystals and their evolution: programming the geometry of nano-building blocks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(38), 11244–11245 (2002).
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Cho, H.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficieny full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. (to be published).
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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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Cho, S.-N.

S.-M. Lee, Y. W. Jun, S.-N. Cho, and J. Cheon, “Single-crystalline star-shaped nanocrystals and their evolution: programming the geometry of nano-building blocks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(38), 11244–11245 (2002).
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Choi, B. L.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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Chu, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Chu, J.-F. Chen, S.-Y. Chen, C.-J. Chen, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(5), 053503 (2006).
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Cingolani, R.

A. Rizzo, M. Mazzeo, M. Palumbo, G. Lerario, S. D'Amone, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes from Microcontact-Printing Double-Transfer of Colloidal Semiconductor CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots onto Organic Layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(10), 1886–1891 (2008).
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A. Rizzo, M. Mazzeo, M. Biasiucci, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “White electroluminescence from a microcontact-printing-deposited CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum-dot monolayer,” Small4(12), 2143–2147 (2008).
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G. Morello, M. De Giorgi, S. Kudera, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, and M. Anni, “Temperature and Size Dependence of Nonradiative Relaxation and Exciton−Phonon Coupling in Colloidal CdTe Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(16), 5846–5849 (2007).
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Clark, B. L.

S. Park, B. L. Clark, D. A. Keszler, J. P. Bender, J. F. Wager, T. A. Reynolds, and G. S. Herman, “Low-temperature thin-film deposition and crystallization,” Science297(5578), 65 (2002).
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Coe, S.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature420(6917), 800–803 (2002).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (11)

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SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

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Small (3)

A. Rizzo, M. Mazzeo, M. Biasiucci, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “White electroluminescence from a microcontact-printing-deposited CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum-dot monolayer,” Small4(12), 2143–2147 (2008).
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