Abstract

We studied the origin of broad band light emission in the Ultraviolet (UV) to the red from silicon nanoparticles fabricated using a single low energy (32 keV) silver ion implantation with a fluence of 5*1015 ions/cm2 in crystalline Si. It is found from a systematic study of the annealing carried out at certain temperatures that the spectral characteristics in the UV and blue region remains unchanged except for the enhancement of light emission intensity due to annealing. The annealing results in nucleation of Ag nanoclusters in the vicinity of Si nanoparticles which enhances the emission intensity. Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurement demonstrates that the emission originates from both highly localized defect bound excitons at the nanoscale Si interface, as well as surface and interface traps associated with the increased surface area of the Si nanocrystals. The emission in the UV is due to interband transitions from localized excitonic states at the interface of Si/SiO2 or from the surface of Si nanocrystals. The radiative efficiency of the UV and the green emission from the Si nanoparticles can be modified by the localized plasmons interaction induced by the nucleation of Silver nanoparticles on controlled annealing of the samples. Broadband emission ranging from the UV to the red wavelength range can be obtained on Ag implanted onto a single silicon substrate.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.57(10), 1046–1048 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(8), 856–858 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. S. Iyer and Y. H. Xie, “Light emission from silicon,” Science260(5104), 40–46 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Tiwari, F. Rana, H. Hanafi, A. Hartstein, E. F. Crabbé, and K. Chan, “A silicon nanocrystals based memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(10), 1377–1379 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. M. Sankaran, D. Holunga, R. C. Flagan, and K. P. Giapis, “Synthesis of blue luminescent si nanoparticles using atmospheric-pressure microdischarges,” Nano Lett.5(3), 537–541 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Zhang, R. M. Kolbas, P. D. Milewski, D. J. Lichtenwalner, A. I. Kingon, and J. M. Zavada, “Light emission from thermally oxidized silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(21), 2684–2686 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. J. Mitchell, O. W. Holland, A. Neogi, J. Li, and F. D. McDaniel, “Formation of optically active osmium silicide in silica using ion implantation and thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2408–2410 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L.-S. Liao, X.-M. Bao, N.-S. Li, X.-Q. Zheng, and N.-B. Min, “Blue-, green-, and red-light emission from Si+-implanted thermal SiO2 films on crystalline silicon,” J. Lumin.68(2-4), 199–204 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Puzder, A. J. Williamson, J. C. Grossman, and G. Galli, “Surface chemistry of silicon nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(9), 097401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Hadjisavvas and P. C. Kelires, “Structure and energetics of Si nanocrystals embedded in a-SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(22), 226104 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Delerue, G. Allan, and M. Lannoo, “Theoretical aspects of the luminescence of porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(15), 11024–11036 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Delley and E. F. Steigmeier, “Quantum confinement in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter47(3), 1397–1400 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Öğüt, J. R. Chelikowsky, and S. Louie, “Quantum confinement and optical gaps in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(9), 1770–1773 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Al. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, “Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere,” Sov. Phys. Semicond.16, 772–775 (1982).
  19. A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Broad band light emission from Ag- ion implanted silicon nanocrystals,” Solid State Commun.151(20), 1405–1409 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, F. D. McDaniel, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Localized surface plasmon polariton enhanced radiative recombination in ion-implanted silicon emitters,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102201 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Yang, X. L. Wu, S. H. Li, H. Li, T. Qiu, Y. M. Yang, P. K. Chu, and G. G. Siu, “Origin of the 370-nm luminescence in Si oxide nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201906 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, G. G. Siu, G. S. Huang, Y. F. Mei, Z. Y. Zhang, S. S. Deng, and C. Tan, “Optical emission from excess Si defect centers in Si nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(15), 157402 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Tsybeskov, J. Vandyshev, and P. Fauchet, “Blue emission in porous silicon: Oxygen-related photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B49(11), 7821–7824 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X.-W. Pan, M.-M. Shi, D.-X. Zheng, N. L. Liu, G. Wu, M. Wang, and H.-Z. Chen, “Room-temperature solution route to free-standing SiO2-capped Si nanocrystals with green luminescence,” Mater. Chem. Phys.117(2-3), 517–521 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Size tunable visible luminescence from individual organic monolayer stabilized silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett.2(7), 681–685 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Neogi, H. Morkoç, T. Kuroda, and A. Tackeuchi, “Coupling of spontaneous emission from GaN-AlN quantum dots into silver surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 93–95 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K. S. Min, K. V. Shcheglov, C. M. Yang, H. A. Atwater, M. L. Brongersma, and A. Polman, “Defect-related versus excitonic visible light emission from ion beam synthesized Si nanocrystals in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(14), 2033–2035 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2011

P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Broad band light emission from Ag- ion implanted silicon nanocrystals,” Solid State Commun.151(20), 1405–1409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, F. D. McDaniel, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Localized surface plasmon polariton enhanced radiative recombination in ion-implanted silicon emitters,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X.-W. Pan, M.-M. Shi, D.-X. Zheng, N. L. Liu, G. Wu, M. Wang, and H.-Z. Chen, “Room-temperature solution route to free-standing SiO2-capped Si nanocrystals with green luminescence,” Mater. Chem. Phys.117(2-3), 517–521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Mitchell, O. W. Holland, A. Neogi, J. Li, and F. D. McDaniel, “Formation of optically active osmium silicide in silica using ion implantation and thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2408–2410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. M. Sankaran, D. Holunga, R. C. Flagan, and K. P. Giapis, “Synthesis of blue luminescent si nanoparticles using atmospheric-pressure microdischarges,” Nano Lett.5(3), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, X. L. Wu, S. H. Li, H. Li, T. Qiu, Y. M. Yang, P. K. Chu, and G. G. Siu, “Origin of the 370-nm luminescence in Si oxide nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Neogi, H. Morkoç, T. Kuroda, and A. Tackeuchi, “Coupling of spontaneous emission from GaN-AlN quantum dots into silver surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 93–95 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

G. Hadjisavvas and P. C. Kelires, “Structure and energetics of Si nanocrystals embedded in a-SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(22), 226104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, G. G. Siu, G. S. Huang, Y. F. Mei, Z. Y. Zhang, S. S. Deng, and C. Tan, “Optical emission from excess Si defect centers in Si nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(15), 157402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Size tunable visible luminescence from individual organic monolayer stabilized silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett.2(7), 681–685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Puzder, A. J. Williamson, J. C. Grossman, and G. Galli, “Surface chemistry of silicon nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(9), 097401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

S. Öğüt, J. R. Chelikowsky, and S. Louie, “Quantum confinement and optical gaps in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(9), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

L.-S. Liao, X.-M. Bao, N.-S. Li, X.-Q. Zheng, and N.-B. Min, “Blue-, green-, and red-light emission from Si+-implanted thermal SiO2 films on crystalline silicon,” J. Lumin.68(2-4), 199–204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tiwari, F. Rana, H. Hanafi, A. Hartstein, E. F. Crabbé, and K. Chan, “A silicon nanocrystals based memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(10), 1377–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Min, K. V. Shcheglov, C. M. Yang, H. A. Atwater, M. L. Brongersma, and A. Polman, “Defect-related versus excitonic visible light emission from ion beam synthesized Si nanocrystals in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(14), 2033–2035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. Tsybeskov, J. Vandyshev, and P. Fauchet, “Blue emission in porous silicon: Oxygen-related photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B49(11), 7821–7824 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, R. M. Kolbas, P. D. Milewski, D. J. Lichtenwalner, A. I. Kingon, and J. M. Zavada, “Light emission from thermally oxidized silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(21), 2684–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. S. Iyer and Y. H. Xie, “Light emission from silicon,” Science260(5104), 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Delerue, G. Allan, and M. Lannoo, “Theoretical aspects of the luminescence of porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(15), 11024–11036 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Delley and E. F. Steigmeier, “Quantum confinement in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter47(3), 1397–1400 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(8), 856–858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.57(10), 1046–1048 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982

Al. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, “Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere,” Sov. Phys. Semicond.16, 772–775 (1982).

Allan, G.

C. Delerue, G. Allan, and M. Lannoo, “Theoretical aspects of the luminescence of porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(15), 11024–11036 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbouet, A.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

K. S. Min, K. V. Shcheglov, C. M. Yang, H. A. Atwater, M. L. Brongersma, and A. Polman, “Defect-related versus excitonic visible light emission from ion beam synthesized Si nanocrystals in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(14), 2033–2035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Averboukh, B.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.-M.

L.-S. Liao, X.-M. Bao, N.-S. Li, X.-Q. Zheng, and N.-B. Min, “Blue-, green-, and red-light emission from Si+-implanted thermal SiO2 films on crystalline silicon,” J. Lumin.68(2-4), 199–204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barbara, P. F.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Size tunable visible luminescence from individual organic monolayer stabilized silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett.2(7), 681–685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ben Assayag, G.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonafos, C.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

K. S. Min, K. V. Shcheglov, C. M. Yang, H. A. Atwater, M. L. Brongersma, and A. Polman, “Defect-related versus excitonic visible light emission from ion beam synthesized Si nanocrystals in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(14), 2033–2035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brugger, J.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.57(10), 1046–1048 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carrada, M.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.

S. Tiwari, F. Rana, H. Hanafi, A. Hartstein, E. F. Crabbé, and K. Chan, “A silicon nanocrystals based memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(10), 1377–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheah, K. W.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chelikowsky, J. R.

S. Öğüt, J. R. Chelikowsky, and S. Louie, “Quantum confinement and optical gaps in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(9), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Z.

X.-W. Pan, M.-M. Shi, D.-X. Zheng, N. L. Liu, G. Wu, M. Wang, and H.-Z. Chen, “Room-temperature solution route to free-standing SiO2-capped Si nanocrystals with green luminescence,” Mater. Chem. Phys.117(2-3), 517–521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.-J.

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, P. K.

X. Yang, X. L. Wu, S. H. Li, H. Li, T. Qiu, Y. M. Yang, P. K. Chu, and G. G. Siu, “Origin of the 370-nm luminescence in Si oxide nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Claverie, A.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crabbé, E. F.

S. Tiwari, F. Rana, H. Hanafi, A. Hartstein, E. F. Crabbé, and K. Chan, “A silicon nanocrystals based memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(10), 1377–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Delerue, C.

C. Delerue, G. Allan, and M. Lannoo, “Theoretical aspects of the luminescence of porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(15), 11024–11036 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delley, B.

B. Delley and E. F. Steigmeier, “Quantum confinement in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter47(3), 1397–1400 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demangeot, F.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S. S.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, G. G. Siu, G. S. Huang, Y. F. Mei, Z. Y. Zhang, S. S. Deng, and C. Tan, “Optical emission from excess Si defect centers in Si nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(15), 157402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diercks, D. R.

P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Doeswijk, L.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, C.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Efros, A. L.

Al. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, “Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere,” Sov. Phys. Semicond.16, 772–775 (1982).

Efros, Al. L.

Al. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, “Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere,” Sov. Phys. Semicond.16, 772–775 (1982).

English, D. S.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Size tunable visible luminescence from individual organic monolayer stabilized silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett.2(7), 681–685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P.

L. Tsybeskov, J. Vandyshev, and P. Fauchet, “Blue emission in porous silicon: Oxygen-related photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B49(11), 7821–7824 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

R. M. Sankaran, D. Holunga, R. C. Flagan, and K. P. Giapis, “Synthesis of blue luminescent si nanoparticles using atmospheric-pressure microdischarges,” Nano Lett.5(3), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galli, G.

A. Puzder, A. J. Williamson, J. C. Grossman, and G. Galli, “Surface chemistry of silicon nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(9), 097401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giapis, K. P.

R. M. Sankaran, D. Holunga, R. C. Flagan, and K. P. Giapis, “Synthesis of blue luminescent si nanoparticles using atmospheric-pressure microdischarges,” Nano Lett.5(3), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godefroo, S.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, M.

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(8), 856–858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grisolia, J.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, J. C.

A. Puzder, A. J. Williamson, J. C. Grossman, and G. Galli, “Surface chemistry of silicon nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(9), 097401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, K. G.

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Broad band light emission from Ag- ion implanted silicon nanocrystals,” Solid State Commun.151(20), 1405–1409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, F. D. McDaniel, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Localized surface plasmon polariton enhanced radiative recombination in ion-implanted silicon emitters,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hadjisavvas, G.

G. Hadjisavvas and P. C. Kelires, “Structure and energetics of Si nanocrystals embedded in a-SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(22), 226104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanafi, H.

S. Tiwari, F. Rana, H. Hanafi, A. Hartstein, E. F. Crabbé, and K. Chan, “A silicon nanocrystals based memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(10), 1377–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hartstein, A.

S. Tiwari, F. Rana, H. Hanafi, A. Hartstein, E. F. Crabbé, and K. Chan, “A silicon nanocrystals based memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(10), 1377–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hayne, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, O. W.

L. J. Mitchell, O. W. Holland, A. Neogi, J. Li, and F. D. McDaniel, “Formation of optically active osmium silicide in silica using ion implantation and thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2408–2410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holunga, D.

R. M. Sankaran, D. Holunga, R. C. Flagan, and K. P. Giapis, “Synthesis of blue luminescent si nanoparticles using atmospheric-pressure microdischarges,” Nano Lett.5(3), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, G. S.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, G. G. Siu, G. S. Huang, Y. F. Mei, Z. Y. Zhang, S. S. Deng, and C. Tan, “Optical emission from excess Si defect centers in Si nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(15), 157402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. S. Iyer and Y. H. Xie, “Light emission from silicon,” Science260(5104), 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jivanescu, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelires, P. C.

G. Hadjisavvas and P. C. Kelires, “Structure and energetics of Si nanocrystals embedded in a-SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(22), 226104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Broad band light emission from Ag- ion implanted silicon nanocrystals,” Solid State Commun.151(20), 1405–1409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, F. D. McDaniel, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Localized surface plasmon polariton enhanced radiative recombination in ion-implanted silicon emitters,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kingon, A. I.

D. Zhang, R. M. Kolbas, P. D. Milewski, D. J. Lichtenwalner, A. I. Kingon, and J. M. Zavada, “Light emission from thermally oxidized silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(21), 2684–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kolbas, R. M.

D. Zhang, R. M. Kolbas, P. D. Milewski, D. J. Lichtenwalner, A. I. Kingon, and J. M. Zavada, “Light emission from thermally oxidized silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(21), 2684–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korgel, B. A.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Size tunable visible luminescence from individual organic monolayer stabilized silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett.2(7), 681–685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

Lannoo, M.

C. Delerue, G. Allan, and M. Lannoo, “Theoretical aspects of the luminescence of porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(15), 11024–11036 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lebedev, O. I.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmann, V.

V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(8), 856–858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

X. Yang, X. L. Wu, S. H. Li, H. Li, T. Qiu, Y. M. Yang, P. K. Chu, and G. G. Siu, “Origin of the 370-nm luminescence in Si oxide nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

L. J. Mitchell, O. W. Holland, A. Neogi, J. Li, and F. D. McDaniel, “Formation of optically active osmium silicide in silica using ion implantation and thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2408–2410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, N.-S.

L.-S. Liao, X.-M. Bao, N.-S. Li, X.-Q. Zheng, and N.-B. Min, “Blue-, green-, and red-light emission from Si+-implanted thermal SiO2 films on crystalline silicon,” J. Lumin.68(2-4), 199–204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. H.

X. Yang, X. L. Wu, S. H. Li, H. Li, T. Qiu, Y. M. Yang, P. K. Chu, and G. G. Siu, “Origin of the 370-nm luminescence in Si oxide nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.-S.

L.-S. Liao, X.-M. Bao, N.-S. Li, X.-Q. Zheng, and N.-B. Min, “Blue-, green-, and red-light emission from Si+-implanted thermal SiO2 films on crystalline silicon,” J. Lumin.68(2-4), 199–204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenwalner, D. J.

D. Zhang, R. M. Kolbas, P. D. Milewski, D. J. Lichtenwalner, A. I. Kingon, and J. M. Zavada, “Light emission from thermally oxidized silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(21), 2684–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N. L.

X.-W. Pan, M.-M. Shi, D.-X. Zheng, N. L. Liu, G. Wu, M. Wang, and H.-Z. Chen, “Room-temperature solution route to free-standing SiO2-capped Si nanocrystals with green luminescence,” Mater. Chem. Phys.117(2-3), 517–521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Louie, S.

S. Öğüt, J. R. Chelikowsky, and S. Louie, “Quantum confinement and optical gaps in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(9), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z. C.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, F. D.

P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, F. D. McDaniel, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Localized surface plasmon polariton enhanced radiative recombination in ion-implanted silicon emitters,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Mitchell, O. W. Holland, A. Neogi, J. Li, and F. D. McDaniel, “Formation of optically active osmium silicide in silica using ion implantation and thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2408–2410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mei, Y. F.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, G. G. Siu, G. S. Huang, Y. F. Mei, Z. Y. Zhang, S. S. Deng, and C. Tan, “Optical emission from excess Si defect centers in Si nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(15), 157402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milewski, P. D.

D. Zhang, R. M. Kolbas, P. D. Milewski, D. J. Lichtenwalner, A. I. Kingon, and J. M. Zavada, “Light emission from thermally oxidized silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(21), 2684–2686 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Min, K. S.

K. S. Min, K. V. Shcheglov, C. M. Yang, H. A. Atwater, M. L. Brongersma, and A. Polman, “Defect-related versus excitonic visible light emission from ion beam synthesized Si nanocrystals in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(14), 2033–2035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Min, N.-B.

L.-S. Liao, X.-M. Bao, N.-S. Li, X.-Q. Zheng, and N.-B. Min, “Blue-, green-, and red-light emission from Si+-implanted thermal SiO2 films on crystalline silicon,” J. Lumin.68(2-4), 199–204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, L. J.

L. J. Mitchell, O. W. Holland, A. Neogi, J. Li, and F. D. McDaniel, “Formation of optically active osmium silicide in silica using ion implantation and thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2408–2410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Moshchalkov, V. V.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neogi, A.

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Broad band light emission from Ag- ion implanted silicon nanocrystals,” Solid State Commun.151(20), 1405–1409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, F. D. McDaniel, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Localized surface plasmon polariton enhanced radiative recombination in ion-implanted silicon emitters,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Mitchell, O. W. Holland, A. Neogi, J. Li, and F. D. McDaniel, “Formation of optically active osmium silicide in silica using ion implantation and thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2408–2410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Neogi, H. Morkoç, T. Kuroda, and A. Tackeuchi, “Coupling of spontaneous emission from GaN-AlN quantum dots into silver surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 93–95 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ögüt, S.

S. Öğüt, J. R. Chelikowsky, and S. Louie, “Quantum confinement and optical gaps in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(9), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paillard, V.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.-W.

X.-W. Pan, M.-M. Shi, D.-X. Zheng, N. L. Liu, G. Wu, M. Wang, and H.-Z. Chen, “Room-temperature solution route to free-standing SiO2-capped Si nanocrystals with green luminescence,” Mater. Chem. Phys.117(2-3), 517–521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paramo, J. A.

P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Park, N.-M.

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. Y.

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Broad band light emission from Ag- ion implanted silicon nanocrystals,” Solid State Commun.151(20), 1405–1409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, F. D. McDaniel, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Localized surface plasmon polariton enhanced radiative recombination in ion-implanted silicon emitters,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pell, L. E.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Size tunable visible luminescence from individual organic monolayer stabilized silicon nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett.2(7), 681–685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

K. S. Min, K. V. Shcheglov, C. M. Yang, H. A. Atwater, M. L. Brongersma, and A. Polman, “Defect-related versus excitonic visible light emission from ion beam synthesized Si nanocrystals in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(14), 2033–2035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poudel, P. P.

P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Poudel, P. R.

P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Puzder, A.

A. Puzder, A. J. Williamson, J. C. Grossman, and G. Galli, “Surface chemistry of silicon nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(9), 097401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, G. G.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, T.

X. Yang, X. L. Wu, S. H. Li, H. Li, T. Qiu, Y. M. Yang, P. K. Chu, and G. G. Siu, “Origin of the 370-nm luminescence in Si oxide nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rana, F.

S. Tiwari, F. Rana, H. Hanafi, A. Hartstein, E. F. Crabbé, and K. Chan, “A silicon nanocrystals based memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(10), 1377–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rout, B.

P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, R. M.

R. M. Sankaran, D. Holunga, R. C. Flagan, and K. P. Giapis, “Synthesis of blue luminescent si nanoparticles using atmospheric-pressure microdischarges,” Nano Lett.5(3), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schamm, S.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T.-Y.

N.-M. Park, C.-J. Choi, T.-Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shcheglov, K. V.

K. S. Min, K. V. Shcheglov, C. M. Yang, H. A. Atwater, M. L. Brongersma, and A. Polman, “Defect-related versus excitonic visible light emission from ion beam synthesized Si nanocrystals in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(14), 2033–2035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, M.-M.

X.-W. Pan, M.-M. Shi, D.-X. Zheng, N. L. Liu, G. Wu, M. Wang, and H.-Z. Chen, “Room-temperature solution route to free-standing SiO2-capped Si nanocrystals with green luminescence,” Mater. Chem. Phys.117(2-3), 517–521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, A. K.

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Broad band light emission from Ag- ion implanted silicon nanocrystals,” Solid State Commun.151(20), 1405–1409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, F. D. McDaniel, S. Y. Park, M. Kim, and A. Neogi, “Localized surface plasmon polariton enhanced radiative recombination in ion-implanted silicon emitters,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Siu, G. G.

X. Yang, X. L. Wu, S. H. Li, H. Li, T. Qiu, Y. M. Yang, P. K. Chu, and G. G. Siu, “Origin of the 370-nm luminescence in Si oxide nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, G. G. Siu, G. S. Huang, Y. F. Mei, Z. Y. Zhang, S. S. Deng, and C. Tan, “Optical emission from excess Si defect centers in Si nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(15), 157402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steigmeier, E. F.

B. Delley and E. F. Steigmeier, “Quantum confinement in Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter47(3), 1397–1400 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stesmans, A.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strzhemechny, Y. M.

P. R. Poudel, J. A. Paramo, P. P. Poudel, D. R. Diercks, Y. M. Strzhemechny, B. Rout, and F. D. McDaniel, “Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

H. Chen, C. Li, Z. Jiao, Z. Yu, Z. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Li, H. Song, Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Gong, and X. Sun, “Silica nano-rings and nano-hollows: Preparation and UV photoluminescence emission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(40-41), 4562–4566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tackeuchi, A.

Tan, C.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, G. G. Siu, G. S. Huang, Y. F. Mei, Z. Y. Zhang, S. S. Deng, and C. Tan, “Optical emission from excess Si defect centers in Si nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(15), 157402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiwari, S.

S. Tiwari, F. Rana, H. Hanafi, A. Hartstein, E. F. Crabbé, and K. Chan, “A silicon nanocrystals based memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(10), 1377–1379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsybeskov, L.

L. Tsybeskov, J. Vandyshev, and P. Fauchet, “Blue emission in porous silicon: Oxygen-related photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B49(11), 7821–7824 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van den Boogaart, M. A. F.

A. Arbouet, M. Carrada, F. Demangeot, V. Paillard, G. Ben Assayag, C. Bonafos, A. Claverie, S. Schamm, C. Dumas, J. Grisolia, M. A. F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, and L. Doeswijk, “Photoluminescence characterization of few-nanocrystals electronic devices,” J. Lumin.121(2), 340–343 (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) HRTEM image showing formation of Si nanocrystals. (b-e) shows the micro PL emission from various sections of the same wafer due to optical excitation with the HeCd laser source. (b) corresponds to the UV emission centered at 3.27 eV nm shown in Fig. 2, (c) corresponds to the blue spectral emission as shown in Fig. 3, (d) corresponds to the green spectral emission as shown in Fig. 4, (e) corresponds to red spectral emission as shown in Fig. 5. (f-right side) shows size distribution of Si NCs formation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) CW- PL spectrum of UV region at RT with excitation at 325 nm. (b) PL lifetime at 3.25 eV with excitation at 350 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) CW- PL spectra of blue region at RT with excitation at 325 nm. (b) PL life time measured at 2.98 (solid), 2.84 (grey), and 2.63 eV (dashed) at 370 nm excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) CW- PL spectrum of the green region with excitation at either 325 or 442 nm. (b) PL lifetime measured at RT using ps excitation source at 400 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RT CW- PL emission in the near IR region with excitation at 442 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PLE spectra measured with the detector in the UV and Blue emission energies to show the presence of electronic states for carrier transitions.

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