Abstract

A conventional laser irradiation method is applied to fabricate carbon nanodots (C-dots). By uniformly dispersing the C-dots into N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) solution, white-light amplified spontaneous emission can be observed from the mixture under laser excitation at 266 nm. Peak wavelength and linewidth of the emission spectra are found to be around 450 and 120 nm respectively. It is verified that the presence of NMP enhances the emission efficiency of C-dots over the broad emission spectrum. This is because the excitation energy, which is not absorbed by the C-dots, is captured by the NMP and is subsequently transferred to the C-dots. Optical gain per peak power of the mixture at ~450 nm is found to be ~64 cm–1MW–1, which is about 39% higher than that without the use of NMP.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

X. M. Wu, H. Q. Cao, B. J. Li, and G. Yin, “The synthesis and fluorescence quenching properties of well soluble hybrid graphene material covalently functionalized with indolizine,” Nanotechnology22(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

X. M. Sun, D. C. Luo, J. F. Liu, and D. G. Evans, “Monodisperse chemically modified graphene obtained by density gradient ultracentrifugal rate separation,” ACS Nano4(6), 3381–3389 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Li, H. Q. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(3), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast photoluminescence from graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127404 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem.19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Peng and J. Travas-Sejdic, “Simple aqueous solution route to luminescent carbogenic dots from carbohydrates,” Chem. Mater.21(23), 5563–5565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, and W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys.95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. E. Riggs, Z. X. Guo, D. L. Carroll, and Y. P. Sun, “Strong luminescence of solubilized carbon nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.122(24), 5879–5880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H. Q.

X. M. Wu, H. Q. Cao, B. J. Li, and G. Yin, “The synthesis and fluorescence quenching properties of well soluble hybrid graphene material covalently functionalized with indolizine,” Nanotechnology22(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, D. L.

J. E. Riggs, Z. X. Guo, D. L. Carroll, and Y. P. Sun, “Strong luminescence of solubilized carbon nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.122(24), 5879–5880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G. X.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, and W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys.95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. Z.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, and W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys.95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, X. W.

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem.19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, and W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys.95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. G.

X. M. Sun, D. C. Luo, J. F. Liu, and D. G. Evans, “Monodisperse chemically modified graphene obtained by density gradient ultracentrifugal rate separation,” ACS Nano4(6), 3381–3389 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernando, K. A.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z. X.

J. E. Riggs, Z. X. Guo, D. L. Carroll, and Y. P. Sun, “Strong luminescence of solubilized carbon nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.122(24), 5879–5880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harruff, B. A.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, X. D.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast photoluminescence from graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127404 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, M. H.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, and W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys.95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. L.

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem.19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, W.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, and W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys.95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Z. H.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawaguchi, K.

X. Y. Li, H. Q. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(3), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kose, M. E.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshizaki, N.

X. Y. Li, H. Q. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(3), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, M.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B. J.

X. M. Wu, H. Q. Cao, B. J. Li, and G. Yin, “The synthesis and fluorescence quenching properties of well soluble hybrid graphene material covalently functionalized with indolizine,” Nanotechnology22(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. T.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. Y.

X. Y. Li, H. Q. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(3), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lian, S.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linnros, J.

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. F.

X. M. Sun, D. C. Luo, J. F. Liu, and D. G. Evans, “Monodisperse chemically modified graphene obtained by density gradient ultracentrifugal rate separation,” ACS Nano4(6), 3381–3389 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F. S.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, C. H.

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast photoluminescence from graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127404 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, D. C.

X. M. Sun, D. C. Luo, J. F. Liu, and D. G. Evans, “Monodisperse chemically modified graphene obtained by density gradient ultracentrifugal rate separation,” ACS Nano4(6), 3381–3389 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, P. G.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, G. H.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, and W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys.95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mak, K. F.

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast photoluminescence from graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127404 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meziani, M. J.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, D.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niu, K. Y.

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem.19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ong, T. S.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, P.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelant, I.

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

H. Peng and J. Travas-Sejdic, “Simple aqueous solution route to luminescent carbogenic dots from carbohydrates,” Chem. Mater.21(23), 5563–5565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pyatenko, A.

X. Y. Li, H. Q. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(3), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riggs, J. E.

J. E. Riggs, Z. X. Guo, D. L. Carroll, and Y. P. Sun, “Strong luminescence of solubilized carbon nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.122(24), 5879–5880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast photoluminescence from graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127404 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, Y.

X. Y. Li, H. Q. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(3), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem.19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. M.

X. M. Sun, D. C. Luo, J. F. Liu, and D. G. Evans, “Monodisperse chemically modified graphene obtained by density gradient ultracentrifugal rate separation,” ACS Nano4(6), 3381–3389 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. P.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Riggs, Z. X. Guo, D. L. Carroll, and Y. P. Sun, “Strong luminescence of solubilized carbon nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.122(24), 5879–5880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Travas-Sejdic, J.

H. Peng and J. Travas-Sejdic, “Simple aqueous solution route to luminescent carbogenic dots from carbohydrates,” Chem. Mater.21(23), 5563–5565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, C. H.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valenta, J.

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Veca, L. M.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. F.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Q.

X. Y. Li, H. Q. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(3), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X. M.

X. M. Wu, H. Q. Cao, B. J. Li, and G. Yin, “The synthesis and fluorescence quenching properties of well soluble hybrid graphene material covalently functionalized with indolizine,” Nanotechnology22(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, S. Y.

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem.19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G.

X. M. Wu, H. Q. Cao, B. J. Li, and G. Yin, “The synthesis and fluorescence quenching properties of well soluble hybrid graphene material covalently functionalized with indolizine,” Nanotechnology22(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, N. Q.

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem.19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

X. M. Sun, D. C. Luo, J. F. Liu, and D. G. Evans, “Monodisperse chemically modified graphene obtained by density gradient ultracentrifugal rate separation,” ACS Nano4(6), 3381–3389 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

H. T. Li, X. D. He, Z. H. Kang, H. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. Lian, C. H. Tsang, X. Yang, and S. T. Lee, “Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(26), 4430–4434 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carbon (1)

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. S. Ong, M. Lam, W. Z. Chen, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, and T. C. Chong, “Carbon nanoparticles based nonlinear optical liquid,” Carbon42(12-13), 2735–2737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

X. Y. Li, H. Q. Wang, Y. Shimizu, A. Pyatenko, K. Kawaguchi, and N. Koshizaki, “Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(3), 932–934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. Peng and J. Travas-Sejdic, “Simple aqueous solution route to luminescent carbogenic dots from carbohydrates,” Chem. Mater.21(23), 5563–5565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (3)

J. E. Riggs, Z. X. Guo, D. L. Carroll, and Y. P. Sun, “Strong luminescence of solubilized carbon nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.122(24), 5879–5880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. S. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, and Y. P. Sun, “Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(37), 11318–11319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, and S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, and W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys.95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem.19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

X. M. Wu, H. Q. Cao, B. J. Li, and G. Yin, “The synthesis and fluorescence quenching properties of well soluble hybrid graphene material covalently functionalized with indolizine,” Nanotechnology22(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast photoluminescence from graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127404 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TEM images of C-dots, and (b) Photos of C-dots dispersed inside NMP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Plot of PL intensity as a function of excitation light intensity, and (b) FWHM of the emission spectra of the C-dots and NMP mixture under 266 nm laser excitation at room temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of output intensity versus pumping length L of the C-dots and NMP mixture for different pump intensities. The inset photo shows the experimental setup for the measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Plot of emission spectra of the NMP versus different pump intensities at room temperature. The inset shows the light-light curve and photo of the NMP under 266 nm laser excitation, and (b) Absorption spectrum of the C-dots.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Plot of light–light curve and FWHM of the emission spectra of the C-dots deposited on a quartz substrate, and (b) The corresponding emission spectra. The inset shows the photo of C-dots on quartz substrate under laser excitation.

Equations (1)

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I tot (L,λ)= I sp (λ) G(λ) [ exp( G(λ)L )1 ]

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