Abstract

The memory effect and redistribution of manganese (Mn) into subsequently regrown GaN-based epitaxial layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition were revealed. Low-temperature up-converted photoluminescence (UPL) and the secondary ion mass spectrometry were performed on GaN-based epitaxial samples with and without Mn doping to study the effect of residual Mn on optical property. UPL emission, which originated from residual Mn doping in regrown InGaN quantum wells (QWs) because of the memory effect of the reactor, could be eliminated in an air-exposed and H2-baking manner prior to the regrowth of the QWs. Considerable residual Mn background level and slow decay rate of Mn concentration tail were also observed in the regrown epitaxial layers, which could be attributed to the memory effect or surface segregation and diffusion from the Mn-doped underlying layer during regrowth in the Mn-free reactor.

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2011 (6)

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Photovoltaics: towards the intermediate band,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 137–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Huang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, W. C. Lai, W. C. Tsai, and W. H. Chang, “Linear photon up-conversion of 450 meV in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via Mn-doped GaN intermediate band photodetection,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1211–A1218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science 325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys. 3(3), 153–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Jonker, “Progress toward electrical injection of spin-polarized electrons into semiconductors,” Proc. IEEE 91(5), 727–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Luque and A. Martí, “A metallic intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(2), 73–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth 189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photon induced transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Ohba and A. Hatano, “A study on strong memory effects for Mg doping in GaN metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 145(1-4), 214–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abernathy, C. R.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Antolin, E.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appelbaum, I.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asghar, A.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Awschalom, D. D.

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys. 3(3), 153–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bedair, S. M.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. P.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berkman, E. A.

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bian, L.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boatner, L. A.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Budai, J. D.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buyanova, I. A.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campion, R. P.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science 325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. H.

Chen, G. T.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. M.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
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Chen, X.

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, H. M.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cibert, J.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Dietl, T.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietz, N.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El-Masry, N. A.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
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Emara, A.

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
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Eom, J.

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science 325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farshchi, R.

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fenwick, W. E.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I. T.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, D.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys. 3(3), 153–159 (2007).
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Fluegel, B.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foxon, C. T.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frajtag, P.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frazier, R.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. M.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, N. C.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, D. S.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
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T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
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Gudel, H. U.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
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Gupta, S.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haeger, D. A.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ham, M. H.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S. H.

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science 325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, M. C.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, M. P.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hatano, A.

Y. Ohba and A. Hatano, “A study on strong memory effects for Mg doping in GaN metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 145(1-4), 214–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hebard, A. F.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herfort, J.

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M. R.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, P. O.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hövel, S.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. S.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

Izadifard, M.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science 325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. T. Jonker, “Progress toward electrical injection of spin-polarized electrons into semiconductors,” Proc. IEEE 91(5), 727–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kane, M. H.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keune, W.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, A.

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth 189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koo, H. C.

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science 325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozodoy, P.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, K. W.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, N.

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth 189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, J. H.

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science 325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyrychenko, F. V.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

Lee, M. L.

Lee, S. J.

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, N.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Lo, F. Y.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luen, M. O.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
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A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
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Luque, A.

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Photovoltaics: towards the intermediate band,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 137–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Martí, “A metallic intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(2), 73–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photon induced transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
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Mahros, A. M.

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martí, A.

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Photovoltaics: towards the intermediate band,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 137–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Martí, “A metallic intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(2), 73–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photon induced transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mascarenhas, A.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mates, T.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsukura, F.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, U. K.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, Y.

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth 189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myoung, J. M.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narayanamurti, V.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Norton, D. P.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, S. V.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohba, Y.

Y. Ohba and A. Hatano, “A study on strong memory effects for Mg doping in GaN metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 145(1-4), 214–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, H.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, J. M.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olson, M. R.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. C.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, E. H.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. D.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paskov, P. P.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perry, C. H.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petracic, O.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Ramsteiner, M.

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, F.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, D.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, K. J.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaoka, C.

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth 189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, E.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Senawiratne, J.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalav, A.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Song, Q.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, C. J.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Storasta, L.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strassburg, M.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C. J.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tablero, C.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tahraoui, A.

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temkin, H.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thaler, G.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, W. C.

Tu, S. J.

Usui, A.

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth 189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wende, H.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Westerholt, K.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wieck, A. D.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wurfel, P.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xing, H.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. J.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 082109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth 189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohba and A. Hatano, “A study on strong memory effects for Mg doping in GaN metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 145(1-4), 214–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Photovoltaics: towards the intermediate band,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 137–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys. 3(3), 153–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photon induced transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. T. Jonker, “Progress toward electrical injection of spin-polarized electrons into semiconductors,” Proc. IEEE 91(5), 727–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

A. Luque and A. Martí, “A metallic intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(2), 73–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science 325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984), and references therein.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)-(d) Schematic structures in cross-section view for the samples A, B, C and D regrown with varied chamber treatments, respectively. (e)-(f) Schematic structures in cross-section view for the samples E and F grown on Mn-doped GaN templates without and with HCl surface treatments, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Low temperature (12 K) PL spectra of samples A and B excited by (a) 325 nm He-Cd laser and (b) 488 nm Ar laser (c) SIMS profiles of Ga, In, Mn and Si elements taken from the sample B as a function of depth from the surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Low temperature (12 K) PL spectra of samples A, C and D excited by (a) 325 nm He-Cd laser (b) 488 nm Ar laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SIMS profiles of Ga, In, Mn and Si elements taken from the (a) sample C and (b) sample D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SIMS profiles of Mn element taken from the samples E and F.

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