Abstract

Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ presents outstanding long lasting luminescence at about 610 nm. However, to be useful for in vivo optical imaging, persistent luminescence materials should possess high optical performance combined with sizes in the nanoscale. With this aim, we investigated two different techniques for the preparation of nanoparticles from Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ bulk powder. First, nanoparticles were successfully prepared with the pulsed laser ablation method in liquid (abbreviated as PLAL). Secondly, nanoparticles obtained by selective sedimentation from the bulk compound resulted in satisfactory yield and allowed to perform the first real-time in vivo imaging with Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ host. Finally the influence of surface functionalization on the biodistribution of the probe after systemic injection is discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  26. D. L. Harame, L. J. Bousse, J. D. Shott, and J. D. Meindl, “Ion-sensing devices with silicon nitride and borosilicate glass insulators,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.34(8), 1700–1707 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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  28. A. P. Castano, T. N. Demidova, and M. R. Hamblin, “Mechanisms in photodynamic therapy: part one-photosensitizers, photochemistry and cellular localization,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.1(4), 279–293 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2012

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. Van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin.132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2011

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express19(11), 10131–10137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, B. Viana, and S. Jacquart, “Designing a Red Persistent Luminescence Phosphor: The Example of YPO4:Pr3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, Ho, Dy),” J. Phys. Chem. C115(10), 4217–4227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, C. Richard, J. Seguin, N. Wattier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice,” ACS Nano5(2), 854–862 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Luminescent afterglow behavior in the M2Si5N8:Eu family (M=Ca, Sr, Ba),” Materials4(6), 980–990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+ doped compounds: a review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “Red persistent luminescent silicate nanoparticles,” Radiat. Meas.45(3–6), 497–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Lecointre, B. Viana, Q. le Masne de Chermont, A. Bessière, C. Chanéac, and D. Gourier, “Red long-lasting luminescence in clinoenstatite,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1527–1530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, P. Seidler, L. S. Wan, and C. Fill, “Formation, structure, and reactivity of amino-terminated organic films on silicon substrates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.329(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Hahn, S. Barcikowski, and B. N. Chichkov, “Influence on Nanoparticle Production during Pulsed Laser Ablation,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.3(2), 73–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Smith, H. Duan, A. M. Mohs, and S. Nie, “Bioconjugated quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.60(11), 1226–1240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, A. Bessiere, and B. Viana, “Lanthanide energy levels in YPO4,” Radiat. Meas.43(2-6), 222–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. Yang, P. W. May, L. Yin, R. Brown, and T. B. Scott, “Direct growth of highly organized crystalline carbon nitride from liquid phase pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Mater.18(21), 5058–5064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Usui, Y. Shimizu, T. Sasaki, and N. Koshizaki, “Photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in different surfactant solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(1), 120–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. P. Castano, T. N. Demidova, and M. R. Hamblin, “Mechanisms in photodynamic therapy: part one-photosensitizers, photochemistry and cellular localization,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.1(4), 279–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4: Ln (Ln = Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci.532-535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f(7)-> 4f(6)5d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin.104(4), 239–260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Mafuné, J.-Ya. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and Size Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Schlieper and W. Schnick, “Nitrido-silicate. I-Hochtemperatur-Synthesen und Kristallstrukturen von Ca2Si5N8,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.621(6), 1037–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. L. Harame, L. J. Bousse, J. D. Shott, and J. D. Meindl, “Ion-sensing devices with silicon nitride and borosilicate glass insulators,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.34(8), 1700–1707 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Airenne, K. J.

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Amans, D.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aschehoug, P.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4: Ln (Ln = Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci.532-535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barcikowski, S.

A. Hahn, S. Barcikowski, and B. N. Chichkov, “Influence on Nanoparticle Production during Pulsed Laser Ablation,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.3(2), 73–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bessiere, A.

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, B. Viana, and S. Jacquart, “Designing a Red Persistent Luminescence Phosphor: The Example of YPO4:Pr3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, Ho, Dy),” J. Phys. Chem. C115(10), 4217–4227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “Red persistent luminescent silicate nanoparticles,” Radiat. Meas.45(3–6), 497–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, A. Bessiere, and B. Viana, “Lanthanide energy levels in YPO4,” Radiat. Meas.43(2-6), 222–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bessière, A.

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express19(11), 10131–10137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lecointre, B. Viana, Q. le Masne de Chermont, A. Bessière, C. Chanéac, and D. Gourier, “Red long-lasting luminescence in clinoenstatite,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1527–1530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bessodes, M.

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, C. Richard, J. Seguin, N. Wattier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice,” ACS Nano5(2), 854–862 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boilot, J. P.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4: Ln (Ln = Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci.532-535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bos, A. J. J.

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. Van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin.132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, B. Viana, and S. Jacquart, “Designing a Red Persistent Luminescence Phosphor: The Example of YPO4:Pr3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, Ho, Dy),” J. Phys. Chem. C115(10), 4217–4227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, A. Bessiere, and B. Viana, “Lanthanide energy levels in YPO4,” Radiat. Meas.43(2-6), 222–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bousse, L. J.

D. L. Harame, L. J. Bousse, J. D. Shott, and J. D. Meindl, “Ion-sensing devices with silicon nitride and borosilicate glass insulators,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.34(8), 1700–1707 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Breton, G.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R.

L. Yang, P. W. May, L. Yin, R. Brown, and T. B. Scott, “Direct growth of highly organized crystalline carbon nitride from liquid phase pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Mater.18(21), 5058–5064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buissette, V.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4: Ln (Ln = Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci.532-535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Byk, G.

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castano, A. P.

A. P. Castano, T. N. Demidova, and M. R. Hamblin, “Mechanisms in photodynamic therapy: part one-photosensitizers, photochemistry and cellular localization,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.1(4), 279–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chanéac, C.

A. Lecointre, B. Viana, Q. le Masne de Chermont, A. Bessière, C. Chanéac, and D. Gourier, “Red long-lasting luminescence in clinoenstatite,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1527–1530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaput, F.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

A. Hahn, S. Barcikowski, and B. N. Chichkov, “Influence on Nanoparticle Production during Pulsed Laser Ablation,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.3(2), 73–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Demidova, T. N.

A. P. Castano, T. N. Demidova, and M. R. Hamblin, “Mechanisms in photodynamic therapy: part one-photosensitizers, photochemistry and cellular localization,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.1(4), 279–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diouf, M.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. Van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin.132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, B. Viana, and S. Jacquart, “Designing a Red Persistent Luminescence Phosphor: The Example of YPO4:Pr3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, Ho, Dy),” J. Phys. Chem. C115(10), 4217–4227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, A. Bessiere, and B. Viana, “Lanthanide energy levels in YPO4,” Radiat. Meas.43(2-6), 222–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f(7)-> 4f(6)5d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin.104(4), 239–260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duan, H.

A. M. Smith, H. Duan, A. M. Mohs, and S. Nie, “Bioconjugated quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.60(11), 1226–1240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dujardin, C.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, C.

J. Kim, P. Seidler, L. S. Wan, and C. Fill, “Formation, structure, and reactivity of amino-terminated organic films on silicon substrates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.329(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gacoin, T.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4: Ln (Ln = Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci.532-535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gourier, D.

A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express19(11), 10131–10137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “Red persistent luminescent silicate nanoparticles,” Radiat. Meas.45(3–6), 497–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, B. Viana, Q. le Masne de Chermont, A. Bessière, C. Chanéac, and D. Gourier, “Red long-lasting luminescence in clinoenstatite,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1527–1530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillin, Y.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, A.

A. Hahn, S. Barcikowski, and B. N. Chichkov, “Influence on Nanoparticle Production during Pulsed Laser Ablation,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.3(2), 73–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamblin, M. R.

A. P. Castano, T. N. Demidova, and M. R. Hamblin, “Mechanisms in photodynamic therapy: part one-photosensitizers, photochemistry and cellular localization,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.1(4), 279–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harame, D. L.

D. L. Harame, L. J. Bousse, J. D. Shott, and J. D. Meindl, “Ion-sensing devices with silicon nitride and borosilicate glass insulators,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.34(8), 1700–1707 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, A.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4: Ln (Ln = Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci.532-535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacquart, S.

A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express19(11), 10131–10137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, B. Viana, and S. Jacquart, “Designing a Red Persistent Luminescence Phosphor: The Example of YPO4:Pr3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, Ho, Dy),” J. Phys. Chem. C115(10), 4217–4227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jolivet, J. P.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaikkonen, M. U.

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Khandadash, R.

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, P. Seidler, L. S. Wan, and C. Fill, “Formation, structure, and reactivity of amino-terminated organic films on silicon substrates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.329(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohno, J.-Ya.

F. Mafuné, J.-Ya. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and Size Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kondow, T.

F. Mafuné, J.-Ya. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and Size Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koshizaki, N.

H. Usui, Y. Shimizu, T. Sasaki, and N. Koshizaki, “Photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in different surfactant solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(1), 120–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

le Masne de Chermont, Q.

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, B. Viana, Q. le Masne de Chermont, A. Bessière, C. Chanéac, and D. Gourier, “Red long-lasting luminescence in clinoenstatite,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1527–1530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecointre, A.

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, B. Viana, and S. Jacquart, “Designing a Red Persistent Luminescence Phosphor: The Example of YPO4:Pr3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, Ho, Dy),” J. Phys. Chem. C115(10), 4217–4227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express19(11), 10131–10137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “Red persistent luminescent silicate nanoparticles,” Radiat. Meas.45(3–6), 497–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, B. Viana, Q. le Masne de Chermont, A. Bessière, C. Chanéac, and D. Gourier, “Red long-lasting luminescence in clinoenstatite,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1527–1530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ledoux, G.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mafuné, F.

F. Mafuné, J.-Ya. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and Size Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maîtrejean, S.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malaterre, C.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maldiney, T.

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, C. Richard, J. Seguin, N. Wattier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice,” ACS Nano5(2), 854–862 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancini, C.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Masenelli-Varlot, K.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

May, P. W.

L. Yang, P. W. May, L. Yin, R. Brown, and T. B. Scott, “Direct growth of highly organized crystalline carbon nitride from liquid phase pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Mater.18(21), 5058–5064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meindl, J. D.

D. L. Harame, L. J. Bousse, J. D. Shott, and J. D. Meindl, “Ion-sensing devices with silicon nitride and borosilicate glass insulators,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.34(8), 1700–1707 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mohs, A. M.

A. M. Smith, H. Duan, A. M. Mohs, and S. Nie, “Bioconjugated quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.60(11), 1226–1240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

A. M. Smith, H. Duan, A. M. Mohs, and S. Nie, “Bioconjugated quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.60(11), 1226–1240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellé, F.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perriat, P.

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poelman, D.

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Luminescent afterglow behavior in the M2Si5N8:Eu family (M=Ca, Sr, Ba),” Materials4(6), 980–990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+ doped compounds: a review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Priolkar, K.

Richard, C.

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, C. Richard, J. Seguin, N. Wattier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice,” ACS Nano5(2), 854–862 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, T.

H. Usui, Y. Shimizu, T. Sasaki, and N. Koshizaki, “Photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in different surfactant solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(1), 120–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawabe, H.

F. Mafuné, J.-Ya. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and Size Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scherman, D.

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, C. Richard, J. Seguin, N. Wattier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice,” ACS Nano5(2), 854–862 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlieper, T.

T. Schlieper and W. Schnick, “Nitrido-silicate. I-Hochtemperatur-Synthesen und Kristallstrukturen von Ca2Si5N8,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.621(6), 1037–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schnick, W.

T. Schlieper and W. Schnick, “Nitrido-silicate. I-Hochtemperatur-Synthesen und Kristallstrukturen von Ca2Si5N8,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.621(6), 1037–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scott, T. B.

L. Yang, P. W. May, L. Yin, R. Brown, and T. B. Scott, “Direct growth of highly organized crystalline carbon nitride from liquid phase pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Mater.18(21), 5058–5064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seguin, J.

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, C. Richard, J. Seguin, N. Wattier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice,” ACS Nano5(2), 854–862 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, P.

J. Kim, P. Seidler, L. S. Wan, and C. Fill, “Formation, structure, and reactivity of amino-terminated organic films on silicon substrates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.329(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, Y.

H. Usui, Y. Shimizu, T. Sasaki, and N. Koshizaki, “Photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in different surfactant solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(1), 120–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shott, J. D.

D. L. Harame, L. J. Bousse, J. D. Shott, and J. D. Meindl, “Ion-sensing devices with silicon nitride and borosilicate glass insulators,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.34(8), 1700–1707 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smet, P. F.

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. Van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin.132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Luminescent afterglow behavior in the M2Si5N8:Eu family (M=Ca, Sr, Ba),” Materials4(6), 980–990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+ doped compounds: a review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. M.

A. M. Smith, H. Duan, A. M. Mohs, and S. Nie, “Bioconjugated quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.60(11), 1226–1240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, Y.

F. Mafuné, J.-Ya. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and Size Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Usui, H.

H. Usui, Y. Shimizu, T. Sasaki, and N. Koshizaki, “Photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in different surfactant solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(1), 120–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van den Eeckhout, K.

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. Van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin.132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Luminescent afterglow behavior in the M2Si5N8:Eu family (M=Ca, Sr, Ba),” Materials4(6), 980–990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+ doped compounds: a review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van der Kolk, E.

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. Van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin.132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express19(11), 10131–10137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, B. Viana, and S. Jacquart, “Designing a Red Persistent Luminescence Phosphor: The Example of YPO4:Pr3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, Ho, Dy),” J. Phys. Chem. C115(10), 4217–4227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “Red persistent luminescent silicate nanoparticles,” Radiat. Meas.45(3–6), 497–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, B. Viana, Q. le Masne de Chermont, A. Bessière, C. Chanéac, and D. Gourier, “Red long-lasting luminescence in clinoenstatite,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1527–1530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, A. Bessiere, and B. Viana, “Lanthanide energy levels in YPO4,” Radiat. Meas.43(2-6), 222–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4: Ln (Ln = Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci.532-535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wan, L. S.

J. Kim, P. Seidler, L. S. Wan, and C. Fill, “Formation, structure, and reactivity of amino-terminated organic films on silicon substrates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.329(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wattier, N.

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maldiney, C. Richard, J. Seguin, N. Wattier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice,” ACS Nano5(2), 854–862 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, P. W. May, L. Yin, R. Brown, and T. B. Scott, “Direct growth of highly organized crystalline carbon nitride from liquid phase pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Mater.18(21), 5058–5064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yang, P. W. May, L. Yin, R. Brown, and T. B. Scott, “Direct growth of highly organized crystalline carbon nitride from liquid phase pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Mater.18(21), 5058–5064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ylä-Herttuala, S.

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

T. Maldiney, C. Richard, J. Seguin, N. Wattier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice,” ACS Nano5(2), 854–862 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.

A. M. Smith, H. Duan, A. M. Mohs, and S. Nie, “Bioconjugated quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.60(11), 1226–1240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bioconjug. Chem.

T. Maldiney, M. U. Kaikkonen, J. Seguin, Q. le Masne de Chermont, M. Bessodes, K. J. Airenne, S. Ylä-Herttuala, D. Scherman, and C. Richard, “In vitro targeting of avidin-expressing glioma cells with biotinylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Bioconjug. Chem. (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

L. Yang, P. W. May, L. Yin, R. Brown, and T. B. Scott, “Direct growth of highly organized crystalline carbon nitride from liquid phase pulsed laser ablation,” Chem. Mater.18(21), 5058–5064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

D. L. Harame, L. J. Bousse, J. D. Shott, and J. D. Meindl, “Ion-sensing devices with silicon nitride and borosilicate glass insulators,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.34(8), 1700–1707 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Pharm.

T. Maldiney, G. Byk, N. Wattier, J. Seguin, R. Khandadash, M. Bessodes, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Synthesis and functionalization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles with small molecules and evaluation of their targeting ability,” Int. J. Pharm.423(1), 102–107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

T. Maldiney, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, A. Bessière, M. Bessodes, D. Gourier, C. Richard, and D. Scherman, “Controlling electron trap depth to enhance optical properties of persistent luminescence nanoparticles for in vivo imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(30), 11810–11815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

J. Kim, P. Seidler, L. S. Wan, and C. Fill, “Formation, structure, and reactivity of amino-terminated organic films on silicon substrates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.329(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.

A. Hahn, S. Barcikowski, and B. N. Chichkov, “Influence on Nanoparticle Production during Pulsed Laser Ablation,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.3(2), 73–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. Van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin.132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f(7)-> 4f(6)5d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin.104(4), 239–260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, B. Viana, Q. le Masne de Chermont, A. Bessière, C. Chanéac, and D. Gourier, “Red long-lasting luminescence in clinoenstatite,” J. Lumin.129(12), 1527–1530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

F. Mafuné, J.-Ya. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and Size Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Usui, Y. Shimizu, T. Sasaki, and N. Koshizaki, “Photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in different surfactant solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(1), 120–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C

D. Amans, C. Malaterre, M. Diouf, C. Mancini, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, G. Breton, Y. Guillin, C. Dujardin, K. Masenelli-Varlot, and P. Perriat, “Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids Containing a Complexing Molecule: Impact on Size Distributions and Prepared Phases,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5131–5139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, B. Viana, and S. Jacquart, “Designing a Red Persistent Luminescence Phosphor: The Example of YPO4:Pr3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, Ho, Dy),” J. Phys. Chem. C115(10), 4217–4227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Materials

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Luminescent afterglow behavior in the M2Si5N8:Eu family (M=Ca, Sr, Ba),” Materials4(6), 980–990 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+ doped compounds: a review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.

A. P. Castano, T. N. Demidova, and M. R. Hamblin, “Mechanisms in photodynamic therapy: part one-photosensitizers, photochemistry and cellular localization,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.1(4), 279–293 (2004).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J. P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiat. Meas.

A. Lecointre, A. Bessiere, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “Red persistent luminescent silicate nanoparticles,” Radiat. Meas.45(3–6), 497–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. J. Bos, P. Dorenbos, A. Bessiere, and B. Viana, “Lanthanide energy levels in YPO4,” Radiat. Meas.43(2-6), 222–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4: Ln (Ln = Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci.532-535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.

T. Schlieper and W. Schnick, “Nitrido-silicate. I-Hochtemperatur-Synthesen und Kristallstrukturen von Ca2Si5N8,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.621(6), 1037–1041 (1995).
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Other

B. Mercier, “Propriétés de luminescence et effets de confinement dans Gd2O3:Eu,” Ph-D thesis (University Claude Bernard Lyon, 2005), http://pcml.univ-lyon1.fr/texte-theses_pdf/these%20B-MERCIER.pdf .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Decay of the afterglow intensity in CSN after 1 min excitation with 1000 lx of an unfiltered Xe arc lamp. The dotted line indicates the 0.32 mcd/m2 threshold level. Inset: Trap filling probability using various excitation wavelengths, as measured with thermoluminescence excitation spectroscopy [14].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

355 nm laser power effect on the particles concentration measured according to the intensity of the diffuse light and the irradiation time (1 hour or 2 hours).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of the CSN NPs obtained from the PLAL technique. TEM measurements were performed on a EI Tecnai 120 Twin microscope operating at 120 kV and equipped with a high resolution Gatan Orius CCD 4 k 6 4 k numeric camera. Left: NPs in NaOH aqueous solution (scale bar: 5 nm). Right: NPs in NaOH with acetate as stabilizing agent. Inset: NPs magnification (scale bar: 10 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectrum of bulk and nanoparticles made from CSN in solution under UV light excitation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic representation of CSN-NH2 and CSN-PEG synthesis from CSN-OH.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Characterization of CSN nanoparticles before and after functionalization steps. A: Size distribution of hydroxyl-terminated CSN and PEGylated CSN in 150 mM NaCl; B: Zeta potential measurements after each functionalization step; C: Transmission electron micrography of CSN-OH in 5mM NaOH (scale bar: 200 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Biodistribution of CSN-OH and CSN-PEG, 15 minutes after tail vain injection. Luminescence intensity is expressed in false color unit (1 unit = 2800 photons per s.cm2.steradians).

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