Abstract

A thin titania sol-gel layer was prepared on thermal oxide silica-on-silicon and borosilicate surfaces with spin-coating techniques under cold (room temperature) processing conditions. The physical structure and chemical uniformity of these layers were examined by a series of spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and ellipsometry) and microscopic (light microscopy, SEM and EDS) techniques. Selective binding with hydroxy-containing (-OH) organic compounds is explored.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D. Avnir, V. R. Kaufman, and R. Reisfeld, “Organic fluorescent dyes trapped in silica and silica-titania thin films by the sol-gel method. Photophysical, film and cage properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids74(2-3), 395–406 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Caruso and M. Antonietti, “Sol-gel nanocoating: an approach to the preparation of structured Materials,” Chem. Mater.13(10), 3272–3282 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, “Sol-gel synthesis and hydrothermal processing of anatase and rutile titania nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.11(11), 3113–3120 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).
  6. Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. Schlecht and J. A. Maurer, “Functionalization of glass substrates: mechanistic insights into the surface reaction of trialkoxysilanes,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1446–1448 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Yang and S. S. Saavedra, “Chemical Sensing Using Sol-Gel Derived Planar Waveguides and indicator Phases,” Anal. Chem.67(8), 1307–1314 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Almeida, “Sol–gel planar waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 176–181 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. X. Zhang, P. Liu, and Z. X. Su, “Low temperature preparation of titania coated PAN fiber and its photocatalytical property,” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.53(2), 319–324 (2006).
  12. K. Farhadi, F. Kheiria, and M. M. Golzan, “Cold deposition as a novel procedure for the preparation of titania sol-gel: a development of a high sensitive electrochemical method for determination of Cu(II) in the presence of arsenic(III),” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.55(5), 1113–1118 (2008).
  13. X. Quan, S. Yang, X. Ruan, and H. Zhao, “Preparation of titania nanotubes and their environmental applications as electrode,” Environ. Sci. Technol.39(10), 3770–3775 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, M. Naqshbandi, B. Gibson, I. Petermann, D. Stocks, and M. J. Crossley, “Porphyrin-doped solgel-lined structured optical fibers for local and remote sensing,” Opt. Lett.36(11), 1975–1977 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, “Evaluation of optical fiber microcell reactor for use in remote acid sensing,” Opt. Lett.35(6), 817–819 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, “Organic/inorganic hybrid network materials by the sol−gel approach,” Chem. Mater.8(8), 1667–1681 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. U. Diebold, “The surface science of titanium dioxide,” Surf. Sci. Rep.48(5-8), 53–229 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Yu and H. Ju, “Preparation of porous titania sol-gel matrix for immobilization of horseradish peroxidase by a vapor deposition method,” Anal. Chem.74(14), 3579–3583 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, H. de Bruyn, and M. J. Crossley, “Manipulating and controlling the evanescent field within optical waveguides using high index nanolayers,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 192–200 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Deb Roy, D. Sil, S. Jana, P. K. Biswas, and S. K. Bhadra, “Experimental Study of Perfectly Patterned Silica-Titania Optical Waveguide,” Photon. Sens.2(1), 81–91 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. U. Selvaraj, A. V. Prasadarao, S. Komarneni, and R. Roy, “Sol-gel fabrication of epitaxial and oriented TiO2 thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75(5), 1167–1170 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. I. Gouma and M. J. Mills, “Anatase-to-Rutile Transformation in Titania Powders,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 619–622 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Lopez, E. Sanchez, P. Bosch, Y. Meas, and R. Gomez, “FTIR and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopic characterization of TiO2 sol-gel,” Mater. Chem. Phys.32(2), 141–152 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Lopez, E. Ortiz, R. Gomez, and M. Picquart, “Amorphous sol-gel titania modified with heteropolyacids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.37(3), 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. H. Lee and W. C. Chen, “High refractive-index thin films prepared from trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methylmethacrylate)-titania materials,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 1137–1142 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

R. Deb Roy, D. Sil, S. Jana, P. K. Biswas, and S. K. Bhadra, “Experimental Study of Perfectly Patterned Silica-Titania Optical Waveguide,” Photon. Sens.2(1), 81–91 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, H. de Bruyn, and M. J. Crossley, “Manipulating and controlling the evanescent field within optical waveguides using high index nanolayers,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 192–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Schlecht and J. A. Maurer, “Functionalization of glass substrates: mechanistic insights into the surface reaction of trialkoxysilanes,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1446–1448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, M. Naqshbandi, B. Gibson, I. Petermann, D. Stocks, and M. J. Crossley, “Porphyrin-doped solgel-lined structured optical fibers for local and remote sensing,” Opt. Lett.36(11), 1975–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, “Evaluation of optical fiber microcell reactor for use in remote acid sensing,” Opt. Lett.35(6), 817–819 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).

2008 (1)

K. Farhadi, F. Kheiria, and M. M. Golzan, “Cold deposition as a novel procedure for the preparation of titania sol-gel: a development of a high sensitive electrochemical method for determination of Cu(II) in the presence of arsenic(III),” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.55(5), 1113–1118 (2008).

2006 (3)

L. X. Zhang, P. Liu, and Z. X. Su, “Low temperature preparation of titania coated PAN fiber and its photocatalytical property,” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.53(2), 319–324 (2006).

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz, R. Gomez, and M. Picquart, “Amorphous sol-gel titania modified with heteropolyacids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.37(3), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Quan, S. Yang, X. Ruan, and H. Zhao, “Preparation of titania nanotubes and their environmental applications as electrode,” Environ. Sci. Technol.39(10), 3770–3775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

U. Diebold, “The surface science of titanium dioxide,” Surf. Sci. Rep.48(5-8), 53–229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. Yu and H. Ju, “Preparation of porous titania sol-gel matrix for immobilization of horseradish peroxidase by a vapor deposition method,” Anal. Chem.74(14), 3579–3583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

R. A. Caruso and M. Antonietti, “Sol-gel nanocoating: an approach to the preparation of structured Materials,” Chem. Mater.13(10), 3272–3282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Lee and W. C. Chen, “High refractive-index thin films prepared from trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methylmethacrylate)-titania materials,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 1137–1142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Gouma and M. J. Mills, “Anatase-to-Rutile Transformation in Titania Powders,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 619–622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. M. Almeida, “Sol–gel planar waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 176–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, “Sol-gel synthesis and hydrothermal processing of anatase and rutile titania nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.11(11), 3113–3120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, “Organic/inorganic hybrid network materials by the sol−gel approach,” Chem. Mater.8(8), 1667–1681 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Yang and S. S. Saavedra, “Chemical Sensing Using Sol-Gel Derived Planar Waveguides and indicator Phases,” Anal. Chem.67(8), 1307–1314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

T. Lopez, E. Sanchez, P. Bosch, Y. Meas, and R. Gomez, “FTIR and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopic characterization of TiO2 sol-gel,” Mater. Chem. Phys.32(2), 141–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Selvaraj, A. V. Prasadarao, S. Komarneni, and R. Roy, “Sol-gel fabrication of epitaxial and oriented TiO2 thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75(5), 1167–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Avnir, V. R. Kaufman, and R. Reisfeld, “Organic fluorescent dyes trapped in silica and silica-titania thin films by the sol-gel method. Photophysical, film and cage properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids74(2-3), 395–406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Aerts, A.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alberius, P. C. A.

P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R. M.

R. M. Almeida, “Sol–gel planar waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 176–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Antonietti, M.

R. A. Caruso and M. Antonietti, “Sol-gel nanocoating: an approach to the preparation of structured Materials,” Chem. Mater.13(10), 3272–3282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Åslund, M. L.

Avnir, D.

D. Avnir, V. R. Kaufman, and R. Reisfeld, “Organic fluorescent dyes trapped in silica and silica-titania thin films by the sol-gel method. Photophysical, film and cage properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids74(2-3), 395–406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Azamar, J. A.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhadra, S. K.

R. Deb Roy, D. Sil, S. Jana, P. K. Biswas, and S. K. Bhadra, “Experimental Study of Perfectly Patterned Silica-Titania Optical Waveguide,” Photon. Sens.2(1), 81–91 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, P. K.

R. Deb Roy, D. Sil, S. Jana, P. K. Biswas, and S. K. Bhadra, “Experimental Study of Perfectly Patterned Silica-Titania Optical Waveguide,” Photon. Sens.2(1), 81–91 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, P.

T. Lopez, E. Sanchez, P. Bosch, Y. Meas, and R. Gomez, “FTIR and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopic characterization of TiO2 sol-gel,” Mater. Chem. Phys.32(2), 141–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boskovic, D.

Canning, J.

Caruso, R. A.

R. A. Caruso and M. Antonietti, “Sol-gel nanocoating: an approach to the preparation of structured Materials,” Chem. Mater.13(10), 3272–3282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chase, G. G.

S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).

Chen, W. C.

L. H. Lee and W. C. Chen, “High refractive-index thin films prepared from trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methylmethacrylate)-titania materials,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 1137–1142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chmelka, B. F.

P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crossley, M. J.

de Bruyn, H.

Deb Roy, R.

R. Deb Roy, D. Sil, S. Jana, P. K. Biswas, and S. K. Bhadra, “Experimental Study of Perfectly Patterned Silica-Titania Optical Waveguide,” Photon. Sens.2(1), 81–91 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Depla, A.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diebold, U.

U. Diebold, “The surface science of titanium dioxide,” Surf. Sci. Rep.48(5-8), 53–229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, E. A.

S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).

Fan, F.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Farhadi, K.

K. Farhadi, F. Kheiria, and M. M. Golzan, “Cold deposition as a novel procedure for the preparation of titania sol-gel: a development of a high sensitive electrochemical method for determination of Cu(II) in the presence of arsenic(III),” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.55(5), 1113–1118 (2008).

Feng, J.

Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frindell, K. L.

P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B.

Golzan, M. M.

K. Farhadi, F. Kheiria, and M. M. Golzan, “Cold deposition as a novel procedure for the preparation of titania sol-gel: a development of a high sensitive electrochemical method for determination of Cu(II) in the presence of arsenic(III),” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.55(5), 1113–1118 (2008).

Gomez, R.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz, R. Gomez, and M. Picquart, “Amorphous sol-gel titania modified with heteropolyacids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.37(3), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Lopez, E. Sanchez, P. Bosch, Y. Meas, and R. Gomez, “FTIR and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopic characterization of TiO2 sol-gel,” Mater. Chem. Phys.32(2), 141–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gouma, P. I.

P. I. Gouma and M. J. Mills, “Anatase-to-Rutile Transformation in Titania Powders,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 619–622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.

Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayward, R. C.

P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houthoofd, K.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huyang, G.

Jana, S.

R. Deb Roy, D. Sil, S. Jana, P. K. Biswas, and S. K. Bhadra, “Experimental Study of Perfectly Patterned Silica-Titania Optical Waveguide,” Photon. Sens.2(1), 81–91 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ju, H.

J. Yu and H. Ju, “Preparation of porous titania sol-gel matrix for immobilization of horseradish peroxidase by a vapor deposition method,” Anal. Chem.74(14), 3579–3583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, Y. C.

S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).

Kaufman, V. R.

D. Avnir, V. R. Kaufman, and R. Reisfeld, “Organic fluorescent dyes trapped in silica and silica-titania thin films by the sol-gel method. Photophysical, film and cage properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids74(2-3), 395–406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kheiria, F.

K. Farhadi, F. Kheiria, and M. M. Golzan, “Cold deposition as a novel procedure for the preparation of titania sol-gel: a development of a high sensitive electrochemical method for determination of Cu(II) in the presence of arsenic(III),” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.55(5), 1113–1118 (2008).

Khoury, T.

Kirschhock, C. E. A.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Komarneni, S.

U. Selvaraj, A. V. Prasadarao, S. Komarneni, and R. Roy, “Sol-gel fabrication of epitaxial and oriented TiO2 thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75(5), 1167–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, E. J.

P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. H.

L. H. Lee and W. C. Chen, “High refractive-index thin films prepared from trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methylmethacrylate)-titania materials,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 1137–1142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lesthaeghe, D.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

L. X. Zhang, P. Liu, and Z. X. Su, “Low temperature preparation of titania coated PAN fiber and its photocatalytical property,” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.53(2), 319–324 (2006).

Lopez, T.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz, R. Gomez, and M. Picquart, “Amorphous sol-gel titania modified with heteropolyacids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.37(3), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Lopez, E. Sanchez, P. Bosch, Y. Meas, and R. Gomez, “FTIR and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopic characterization of TiO2 sol-gel,” Mater. Chem. Phys.32(2), 141–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G.

Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manjarrez, J.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martens, J. A.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, J. A.

C. A. Schlecht and J. A. Maurer, “Functionalization of glass substrates: mechanistic insights into the surface reaction of trialkoxysilanes,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1446–1448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meas, Y.

T. Lopez, E. Sanchez, P. Bosch, Y. Meas, and R. Gomez, “FTIR and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopic characterization of TiO2 sol-gel,” Mater. Chem. Phys.32(2), 141–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miao, Z.

Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mills, M. J.

P. I. Gouma and M. J. Mills, “Anatase-to-Rutile Transformation in Titania Powders,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 619–622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naqshbandi, M.

Ortiz, E.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz, R. Gomez, and M. Picquart, “Amorphous sol-gel titania modified with heteropolyacids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.37(3), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz-Islas, E.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, J.

Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Padden, W.

Park, J. Y.

S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).

Park, S. J.

S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).

Petermann, I.

Picquart, M.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz, R. Gomez, and M. Picquart, “Amorphous sol-gel titania modified with heteropolyacids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.37(3), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prasadarao, A. V.

U. Selvaraj, A. V. Prasadarao, S. Komarneni, and R. Roy, “Sol-gel fabrication of epitaxial and oriented TiO2 thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75(5), 1167–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quan, X.

X. Quan, S. Yang, X. Ruan, and H. Zhao, “Preparation of titania nanotubes and their environmental applications as electrode,” Environ. Sci. Technol.39(10), 3770–3775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quintana, P.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramsier, R. D.

S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).

Reisfeld, R.

D. Avnir, V. R. Kaufman, and R. Reisfeld, “Organic fluorescent dyes trapped in silica and silica-titania thin films by the sol-gel method. Photophysical, film and cage properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids74(2-3), 395–406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

U. Selvaraj, A. V. Prasadarao, S. Komarneni, and R. Roy, “Sol-gel fabrication of epitaxial and oriented TiO2 thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75(5), 1167–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, X.

X. Quan, S. Yang, X. Ruan, and H. Zhao, “Preparation of titania nanotubes and their environmental applications as electrode,” Environ. Sci. Technol.39(10), 3770–3775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saavedra, S. S.

L. Yang and S. S. Saavedra, “Chemical Sensing Using Sol-Gel Derived Planar Waveguides and indicator Phases,” Anal. Chem.67(8), 1307–1314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, E.

T. Lopez, E. Sanchez, P. Bosch, Y. Meas, and R. Gomez, “FTIR and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopic characterization of TiO2 sol-gel,” Mater. Chem. Phys.32(2), 141–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schlecht, C. A.

C. A. Schlecht and J. A. Maurer, “Functionalization of glass substrates: mechanistic insights into the surface reaction of trialkoxysilanes,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1446–1448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraj, U.

U. Selvaraj, A. V. Prasadarao, S. Komarneni, and R. Roy, “Sol-gel fabrication of epitaxial and oriented TiO2 thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75(5), 1167–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sil, D.

R. Deb Roy, D. Sil, S. Jana, P. K. Biswas, and S. K. Bhadra, “Experimental Study of Perfectly Patterned Silica-Titania Optical Waveguide,” Photon. Sens.2(1), 81–91 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stocks, D.

Stucky, G. D.

P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z. X.

L. X. Zhang, P. Liu, and Z. X. Su, “Low temperature preparation of titania coated PAN fiber and its photocatalytical property,” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.53(2), 319–324 (2006).

Tang, Y.

Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Erp, T. S.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Speybroeck, V.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradova, E.

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, “Sol-gel synthesis and hydrothermal processing of anatase and rutile titania nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.11(11), 3113–3120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waroquier, M.

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J. Y.

J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, “Organic/inorganic hybrid network materials by the sol−gel approach,” Chem. Mater.8(8), 1667–1681 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilkes, G. L.

J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, “Organic/inorganic hybrid network materials by the sol−gel approach,” Chem. Mater.8(8), 1667–1681 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Yang and S. S. Saavedra, “Chemical Sensing Using Sol-Gel Derived Planar Waveguides and indicator Phases,” Anal. Chem.67(8), 1307–1314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

X. Quan, S. Yang, X. Ruan, and H. Zhao, “Preparation of titania nanotubes and their environmental applications as electrode,” Environ. Sci. Technol.39(10), 3770–3775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ying, J. Y.

C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, “Sol-gel synthesis and hydrothermal processing of anatase and rutile titania nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.11(11), 3113–3120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Yu and H. Ju, “Preparation of porous titania sol-gel matrix for immobilization of horseradish peroxidase by a vapor deposition method,” Anal. Chem.74(14), 3579–3583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. X.

L. X. Zhang, P. Liu, and Z. X. Su, “Low temperature preparation of titania coated PAN fiber and its photocatalytical property,” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.53(2), 319–324 (2006).

Zhao, H.

X. Quan, S. Yang, X. Ruan, and H. Zhao, “Preparation of titania nanotubes and their environmental applications as electrode,” Environ. Sci. Technol.39(10), 3770–3775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

L. Yang and S. S. Saavedra, “Chemical Sensing Using Sol-Gel Derived Planar Waveguides and indicator Phases,” Anal. Chem.67(8), 1307–1314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu and H. Ju, “Preparation of porous titania sol-gel matrix for immobilization of horseradish peroxidase by a vapor deposition method,” Anal. Chem.74(14), 3579–3583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (5)

R. A. Caruso and M. Antonietti, “Sol-gel nanocoating: an approach to the preparation of structured Materials,” Chem. Mater.13(10), 3272–3282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, “Sol-gel synthesis and hydrothermal processing of anatase and rutile titania nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.11(11), 3113–3120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. C. A. Alberius, K. L. Frindell, R. C. Hayward, E. J. Kramer, G. D. Stucky, and B. F. Chmelka, “General predictive syntheses of cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar silica and titania mesostructured thin films,” Chem. Mater.14(8), 3284–3294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, “Organic/inorganic hybrid network materials by the sol−gel approach,” Chem. Mater.8(8), 1667–1681 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Lee and W. C. Chen, “High refractive-index thin films prepared from trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methylmethacrylate)-titania materials,” Chem. Mater.13(3), 1137–1142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electroanalysis (1)

Q. Li, G. Luo, J. Feng, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Amperometric Detection of Glucose with Glucose Oxidase Absorbed on Porous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Film,” Electroanalysis13(5), 413–416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

X. Quan, S. Yang, X. Ruan, and H. Zhao, “Preparation of titania nanotubes and their environmental applications as electrode,” Environ. Sci. Technol.39(10), 3770–3775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

U. Selvaraj, A. V. Prasadarao, S. Komarneni, and R. Roy, “Sol-gel fabrication of epitaxial and oriented TiO2 thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75(5), 1167–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Gouma and M. J. Mills, “Anatase-to-Rutile Transformation in Titania Powders,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.84(3), 619–622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chin. Chem. Soc. (2)

L. X. Zhang, P. Liu, and Z. X. Su, “Low temperature preparation of titania coated PAN fiber and its photocatalytical property,” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.53(2), 319–324 (2006).

K. Farhadi, F. Kheiria, and M. M. Golzan, “Cold deposition as a novel procedure for the preparation of titania sol-gel: a development of a high sensitive electrochemical method for determination of Cu(II) in the presence of arsenic(III),” J. Chin. Chem. Soc.55(5), 1113–1118 (2008).

J. Eng. Fiber Fabr. (1)

S. J. Park, Y. C. Kang, J. Y. Park, E. A. Evans, R. D. Ramsier, and G. G. Chase, “Physical characteristics of titania nanofibers synthesized by sol-gel and electrospinning techniques,” J. Eng. Fiber Fabr.5(1), 50–56 (2010).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

R. M. Almeida, “Sol–gel planar waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 176–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Avnir, V. R. Kaufman, and R. Reisfeld, “Organic fluorescent dyes trapped in silica and silica-titania thin films by the sol-gel method. Photophysical, film and cage properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids74(2-3), 395–406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

A. Depla, D. Lesthaeghe, T. S. van Erp, A. Aerts, K. Houthoofd, F. Fan, C. Li, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, C. E. A. Kirschhock, and J. A. Martens, “29-Si NMR and UV-Raman Investigation of Initial Oligomerization Reaction Pathways in Acid-Catalyzed Silica Sol-Gel Chemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(9), 3562–3571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz, R. Gomez, and M. Picquart, “Amorphous sol-gel titania modified with heteropolyacids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.37(3), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Lopez, E. Sanchez, P. Bosch, Y. Meas, and R. Gomez, “FTIR and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopic characterization of TiO2 sol-gel,” Mater. Chem. Phys.32(2), 141–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, and Y. Tang, “Electrochemically induced sol-gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(7), 717–720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

T. Lopez, E. Ortiz-Islas, E. Vinogradova, J. Manjarrez, J. A. Azamar, J. J. Alvarado-Gil, and P. Quintana, “Structural, optical and vibrational properties of sol–gel titania/valproic acid reservoirs,” Opt. Mater.29(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photon. Sens. (1)

R. Deb Roy, D. Sil, S. Jana, P. K. Biswas, and S. K. Bhadra, “Experimental Study of Perfectly Patterned Silica-Titania Optical Waveguide,” Photon. Sens.2(1), 81–91 (2012).
[CrossRef]

RSC Adv. (1)

C. A. Schlecht and J. A. Maurer, “Functionalization of glass substrates: mechanistic insights into the surface reaction of trialkoxysilanes,” RSC Adv.1(8), 1446–1448 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

U. Diebold, “The surface science of titanium dioxide,” Surf. Sci. Rep.48(5-8), 53–229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscope image of the TiO2 sol-gel layer formed by spin-coating, comparing the center with particle aggregation over a smooth surface (left) to the grooved rim (right). The TiO2 binding model following from [7] and the expected TiO2 network based on [8] are shown in the centre.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) FTIR measurement of the TiO2 layer on B2O3/SiO2 (red) and SiO2 (blue) at different regions of the substrates; (b) the Ti-O bending peak at ~1635 cm−1 is indicated by the arrow; (c) reference spectra: solid matrix of TiO2 particles showing peaks corresponding to Ti-O and O-H.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of cross-sectional view of the TiO2 layer; (b) EDS line-scan over the arrow region, showing O, C, Ti, and Si; (c) Index of the TiO2 layer at the wavelength at (370 – 1000) nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UV-VIS spectra: (a) light passing through TiO2 layer with hydroxyporphyrin (P) before and after HCl acidification, followed by NH3 basification; (b) porphyrin/TiO2 layer after heating and washing over several days; (c); porphyrin/TiO2 (sintered) layer after heating and washing over several days; (d)TiO2 layer with rhodamine B (RB) and bromothymol blue (BTB), (e) TiO2 layer with thymol blue (TB) after acidifying and basifying (separately).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) SEM image - TiO2 layer (5% [TPT]); (b) SEM image - TiO2 layer (1% [TPT]), (c) SEM image - TiO2 after heating (300 °C); (d) SEM image - TiO2 with spin-coating at 6000 RPM.

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