Abstract

Transparent Ta2O5 nanostructured thin films have been fabricated using a multi-step anodization process. Obtained by a combination of the nanostructured surface and the deposition of the hydrophobic CFx coating, the transparent films can be made highly water repellent or superhydrophobic useful for self-cleaning and anti-fogging optical coatings. Contact angle measurements and optical transmittance curves of the nanostructured films are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater.17(21), 5231–5234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

W. Barthlott and C. Neinhuis, “Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces,” Planta202(1), 1–8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1971 (1)

D. Husted, L. Gruss, and T. Mackus, “Electrical properties of anodic oxide films of Ta, Nb, Zr, Ti, W, and V formed by the ion‐cathode method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.118(12), 1989–1992 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

L. Young, “The determination of the thickness, dielectric constant, and other properties of anodic oxide films on tantalum from the interference colours,” Proc. R. Soc. A244(1236), 41–53 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc.40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys.416(7), 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizenberg, J.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Autran, J. L.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bahadur, V.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balland, B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barthlott, W.

W. Barthlott and C. Neinhuis, “Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces,” Planta202(1), 1–8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, S.

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc.40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Borodin, S.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, J.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys.416(7), 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G. Z.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassie, A. B. D.

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc.40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Chaneliere, C.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. C.

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chapel, J. P.

J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

Chi, S.

W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. K.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, T. P.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.

W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. E.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Färm, E.

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fresnais, J.

J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ganesan, V.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, H.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghodsi, F. E.

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gogolides, E.

N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gruss, L.

D. Husted, L. Gruss, and T. Mackus, “Electrical properties of anodic oxide films of Ta, Nb, Zr, Ti, W, and V formed by the ion‐cathode method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.118(12), 1989–1992 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. T.

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hassel, A. W.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hatton, B.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirashima, H.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, C.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huskens, J.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husted, D.

D. Husted, L. Gruss, and T. Mackus, “Electrical properties of anodic oxide films of Ta, Nb, Zr, Ti, W, and V formed by the ion‐cathode method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.118(12), 1989–1992 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H.

C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Im, H.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Im, M.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ingrey, S. J.

Katata, N.

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kemell, M.

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ko, F.

C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kono, H.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupenkin, T.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupenkin, T. N.

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latthe, S. S.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G. W.

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Limmer, S. J.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ling, X. Y.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackus, T.

D. Husted, L. Gruss, and T. Mackus, “Electrical properties of anodic oxide films of Ta, Nb, Zr, Ti, W, and V formed by the ion‐cathode method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.118(12), 1989–1992 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, A.

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McHale, G.

G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Men, X.

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minami, T.

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, L.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miwa, M.

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, J.

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mozalev, A.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, T.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadargi, D. Y.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, A.

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neinhuis, C.

W. Barthlott and C. Neinhuis, “Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces,” Planta202(1), 1–8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newton, M. I.

G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimoto, S.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehse, K.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozer, N.

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phang, I. Y.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plihauka, A.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poncin-Epaillard, F.

J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reinhoudt, D. N.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritala, M.

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rubner, M. F.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saeki, I.

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakairi, M.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanderson, K. D.

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, T. M.

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shang, H. M.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, M.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater.17(21), 5231–5234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shirtcliffe, N. J.

G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. J.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, I. H.

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, C.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sulz, G.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadanaga, K.

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takai, K.

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. A.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tepehan, F. Z.

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tepehan, G. G.

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tryk, D. A.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tserepi, A.

N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vancso, G. J.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateswara Rao, A.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vourdas, N.

N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. N.

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Westwood, W. D.

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J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
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C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yabu, H.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater.17(21), 5231–5234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, G.

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, J. B.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, L.

L. Young, “The determination of the thickness, dielectric constant, and other properties of anodic oxide films on tantalum from the interference colours,” Proc. R. Soc. A244(1236), 41–53 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, L.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys.416(7), 636–664 (1935).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2)

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
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X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (2)

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater.17(21), 5231–5234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electrochim. Acta (2)

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
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A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
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J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
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A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (6)

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Microelectron. Eng. (1)

C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
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K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
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Soft Matter (1)

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
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Surf. Coat. Tech. (2)

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
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H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the multi-step anodization process of an Al-Ta bilayer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view SEM images of (a) the Al surface after the first Al2O3 layer was stripped, (b) the Al2O3 porous layer, (c) Ta2O5 nanoposts grown in the Al2O3 pores, and (d) the final nanostructured Ta2O5 thin film after the Al2O3 porous layer was stripped. (e) The cross-section view of the final nanostructured Ta2O5 thin film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A clean Ta2O5 nanograss surface which is highly hydrophilic showing a contact angle of less than 3°. (b) The same surface rendered superhydrophobic by depositing a CFx coating showing a contact angle 155 ± 2° with a hysteresis of 20°. (c) The transparent superhydrophobic nanograss film with two water droplets deposited on the surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The predicted transmittance spectra of two films with different layer thickness: the red curve is for a film consisting of a continuous Ta2O5 layer 300 nm thick and a Ta2O5 nanograss layer of 90 nm thick and the blue curve is for a film with a Ta2O5 continuous layer of 410 nm and a nanograss layer of 90 nm. (b) Measured transmittance spectra of quartz (green) and transparent nanograss films (blue, green) with the same dimensions.

Equations (5)

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cosθ=f( cos θ 0 +1 )1
R=r e iz × ( r e iz ) *
r e iz = r 1 + r 2 e i Δ 1 + r 3 e i( Δ 1 + Δ 2 ) + r 1 r 2 r 3 e i Δ 2 1+ r 1 r 2 e i Δ 1 + r 1 r 3 e i( Δ 1 + Δ 2 ) + r 2 r 3 e i Δ 2
n eff j α eff 2 k 0 = ε eff ε 0
f 0 ε 0 ε eff ε 0 +2 ε eff + f 2 ε 2 ε eff ε 2 +2 ε eff =0

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