Abstract

Described herein are glass-clad optical fibers, fabricated using a molten core fiber draw process, comprising oxide cores in the Bi2O3 – GeO2 system. More specifically, the fibers utilized a borosilicate glass cladding with core compositions in the initial preform ranging from un-reacted crystalline Bi2O3-rich (Bi2O3 + GeO2) powders to stoichiometric crystalline Bi12GeO20. Fibers drawn from the as-purchased crystalline Bi2O3-rich powders were amorphous with a transmission of about 80% at 1.3 μm. Fibers drawn from the crystalline Bi12GeO20 core contained a mixture of crystalline bismuth germanate (Bi2GeO5) and bismuth oxide (δ-Bi2O3/BiO2-x). While representing an initial proof-of-concept, this work shows that commercially-relevant draw processing can be employed to yield fibers with core composition that are very difficult to fabricate using conventional methods and that the molten core method further enables in situ reactive chemistry to take place during fiberization resulting in amorphous or crystalline oxide core fibers depending on initial core composition. Perhaps more importantly is that optical fibers possessing acentric, hence optically nonlinear, oxide crystals can be realized in a scalable manufacturing manner though further optimization is required both of the core chemistry and process conditions in order to achieve a single phase and single crystalline fiber.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. B. Begeman and M. Jansen, “Bi407, the First Defined Binary. Bismuth(lll,V)-Oxide,” J. Less-Common Met.156, 123–135 (1989).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Dimesso, G. Gnappi, A. Montenero, P. Fabeni, and G. P. Pazzi, “The crystallization behaviour of bismuth germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.26(15), 4215–4219 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Farhi, S. Belkahla, K. Lebbou, and C. Dujardin, “BGO fibers growth by μ-pulling down technique and study of light propagation,” Phys. Procedia2(3), 819–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Zhuravleva, V. Chani, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “The micro-pulling-down growth of Bi4Si3O12 (BSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) fiber crystals and their scintillation efficiency,” J. Cryst. Growth310(7-9), 2152–2156 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

B. Kusz, K. Trzebiatowski, and R. Barczynski, “Ionic conductivity of bismuth silicate and bismuth germanate glasses,” Solid State Ion.159(3-4), 293–299 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Shim, J. Leea, A. Yoshikawaa, M. Niklb, D. Yoonc, and T. Fukudaa, “Growth of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by the micro-pulling-down method from bismuth rich composition,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 157–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Haines, O. Cambon, E. Philippot, L. Chapon, and S. Hull, “A neutron diffraction study of the thermal stability of the alpha-quartz-type structure in germanium dioxide,” J. Solid State Chem.166(2), 434–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

P. Halasyamani and K. Poeppelmeier, “Noncentrosymmetric Oxides,” Chem. Mater.10(10), 2753–2769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Kaplun and A. Meshalkin, “Stable and metastable phase equilibrium in the system Bi2O3 – GeO2,” J. Cryst. Growth167(1-2), 171–175 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (2)

J. Martin, I. Foldvari, and C. Hunt, “The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.70(12), 7554–7559 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Dimesso, G. Gnappi, A. Montenero, P. Fabeni, and G. P. Pazzi, “The crystallization behaviour of bismuth germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.26(15), 4215–4219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. Begeman and M. Jansen, “Bi407, the First Defined Binary. Bismuth(lll,V)-Oxide,” J. Less-Common Met.156, 123–135 (1989).

1986 (1)

R. Feigelson, “Pulling optical fibers,” J. Cryst. Growth79(1-3), 669–680 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

B. Cockayne, “The uses and enigmas of the Al2O3-Y2O3 phase system,” J. Less Common Met.114(1), 199–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

1980 (1)

J. White and A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 5–7 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

H. Hartwig, “On the Structure of Bismuthsesquioxide: The α, β, γ, and δ-phase,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.444(1), 151–166 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. Weber and R. Monchamp, “Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and Decay Properties,” J. Appl. Phys.44(12), 5495–5499 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Bortfeld and H. Meier, “Refractive indices and electro-optic coefficients of the eulitities Bi4Ge3O12 and Bi4Si3O12,” J. Appl. Phys.43(12), 5110–5111 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive Molten Core Fabrication of Silicon Optical Fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ballato and E. Snitzer, “Fabrication of fibers with high rare-earth concentrations for Faraday isolator applications,” Appl. Opt.34(30), 6848–6854 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Barczynski, R.

B. Kusz, K. Trzebiatowski, and R. Barczynski, “Ionic conductivity of bismuth silicate and bismuth germanate glasses,” Solid State Ion.159(3-4), 293–299 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Begeman, B.

B. Begeman and M. Jansen, “Bi407, the First Defined Binary. Bismuth(lll,V)-Oxide,” J. Less-Common Met.156, 123–135 (1989).

Belkahla, S.

H. Farhi, S. Belkahla, K. Lebbou, and C. Dujardin, “BGO fibers growth by μ-pulling down technique and study of light propagation,” Phys. Procedia2(3), 819–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Bortfeld, D.

D. Bortfeld and H. Meier, “Refractive indices and electro-optic coefficients of the eulitities Bi4Ge3O12 and Bi4Si3O12,” J. Appl. Phys.43(12), 5110–5111 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

Bulatov, L. I.

Burka, L.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cambon, O.

J. Haines, O. Cambon, E. Philippot, L. Chapon, and S. Hull, “A neutron diffraction study of the thermal stability of the alpha-quartz-type structure in germanium dioxide,” J. Solid State Chem.166(2), 434–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chani, V.

M. Zhuravleva, V. Chani, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “The micro-pulling-down growth of Bi4Si3O12 (BSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) fiber crystals and their scintillation efficiency,” J. Cryst. Growth310(7-9), 2152–2156 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chapon, L.

J. Haines, O. Cambon, E. Philippot, L. Chapon, and S. Hull, “A neutron diffraction study of the thermal stability of the alpha-quartz-type structure in germanium dioxide,” J. Solid State Chem.166(2), 434–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cockayne, B.

B. Cockayne, “The uses and enigmas of the Al2O3-Y2O3 phase system,” J. Less Common Met.114(1), 199–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Daw, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

Dimesso, L.

L. Dimesso, G. Gnappi, A. Montenero, P. Fabeni, and G. P. Pazzi, “The crystallization behaviour of bismuth germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.26(15), 4215–4219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dujardin, C.

H. Farhi, S. Belkahla, K. Lebbou, and C. Dujardin, “BGO fibers growth by μ-pulling down technique and study of light propagation,” Phys. Procedia2(3), 819–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Ellison, M.

Evans, E.

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

Fabeni, P.

L. Dimesso, G. Gnappi, A. Montenero, P. Fabeni, and G. P. Pazzi, “The crystallization behaviour of bismuth germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.26(15), 4215–4219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

Farhi, H.

H. Farhi, S. Belkahla, K. Lebbou, and C. Dujardin, “BGO fibers growth by μ-pulling down technique and study of light propagation,” Phys. Procedia2(3), 819–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feigelson, R.

R. Feigelson, “Pulling optical fibers,” J. Cryst. Growth79(1-3), 669–680 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Firstov, S. V.

Foldvari, I.

J. Martin, I. Foldvari, and C. Hunt, “The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.70(12), 7554–7559 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Foy, P.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive Molten Core Fabrication of Silicon Optical Fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, S.

Fukudaa, T.

J. Shim, J. Leea, A. Yoshikawaa, M. Niklb, D. Yoonc, and T. Fukudaa, “Growth of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by the micro-pulling-down method from bismuth rich composition,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 157–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gnappi, G.

L. Dimesso, G. Gnappi, A. Montenero, P. Fabeni, and G. P. Pazzi, “The crystallization behaviour of bismuth germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.26(15), 4215–4219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, N.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guryanov, A. N.

Haines, J.

J. Haines, O. Cambon, E. Philippot, L. Chapon, and S. Hull, “A neutron diffraction study of the thermal stability of the alpha-quartz-type structure in germanium dioxide,” J. Solid State Chem.166(2), 434–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Halasyamani, P.

P. Halasyamani and K. Poeppelmeier, “Noncentrosymmetric Oxides,” Chem. Mater.10(10), 2753–2769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hartwig, H.

H. Hartwig, “On the Structure of Bismuthsesquioxide: The α, β, γ, and δ-phase,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.444(1), 151–166 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, T.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive Molten Core Fabrication of Silicon Optical Fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hubbard, C.

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

Hull, S.

J. Haines, O. Cambon, E. Philippot, L. Chapon, and S. Hull, “A neutron diffraction study of the thermal stability of the alpha-quartz-type structure in germanium dioxide,” J. Solid State Chem.166(2), 434–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, C.

J. Martin, I. Foldvari, and C. Hunt, “The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.70(12), 7554–7559 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, M.

B. Begeman and M. Jansen, “Bi407, the First Defined Binary. Bismuth(lll,V)-Oxide,” J. Less-Common Met.156, 123–135 (1989).

Kanbara, H.

Kaplun, A.

A. Kaplun and A. Meshalkin, “Stable and metastable phase equilibrium in the system Bi2O3 – GeO2,” J. Cryst. Growth167(1-2), 171–175 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. F.

Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kustov, E. F.

Kusz, B.

B. Kusz, K. Trzebiatowski, and R. Barczynski, “Ionic conductivity of bismuth silicate and bismuth germanate glasses,” Solid State Ion.159(3-4), 293–299 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lebbou, K.

H. Farhi, S. Belkahla, K. Lebbou, and C. Dujardin, “BGO fibers growth by μ-pulling down technique and study of light propagation,” Phys. Procedia2(3), 819–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leea, J.

J. Shim, J. Leea, A. Yoshikawaa, M. Niklb, D. Yoonc, and T. Fukudaa, “Growth of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by the micro-pulling-down method from bismuth rich composition,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 157–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

J. Martin, I. Foldvari, and C. Hunt, “The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.70(12), 7554–7559 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

Matthewson, M. J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive Molten Core Fabrication of Silicon Optical Fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

McMurdie, H.

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

Meier, H.

D. Bortfeld and H. Meier, “Refractive indices and electro-optic coefficients of the eulitities Bi4Ge3O12 and Bi4Si3O12,” J. Appl. Phys.43(12), 5110–5111 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Melkumov, M. A.

Meshalkin, A.

A. Kaplun and A. Meshalkin, “Stable and metastable phase equilibrium in the system Bi2O3 – GeO2,” J. Cryst. Growth167(1-2), 171–175 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Monchamp, R.

M. Weber and R. Monchamp, “Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and Decay Properties,” J. Appl. Phys.44(12), 5495–5499 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Montenero, A.

L. Dimesso, G. Gnappi, A. Montenero, P. Fabeni, and G. P. Pazzi, “The crystallization behaviour of bismuth germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.26(15), 4215–4219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morris, M.

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

Morris, S.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive Molten Core Fabrication of Silicon Optical Fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Niklb, M.

J. Shim, J. Leea, A. Yoshikawaa, M. Niklb, D. Yoonc, and T. Fukudaa, “Growth of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by the micro-pulling-down method from bismuth rich composition,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 157–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paretzkin, B.

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

Parker, H.

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

Pazzi, G. P.

L. Dimesso, G. Gnappi, A. Montenero, P. Fabeni, and G. P. Pazzi, “The crystallization behaviour of bismuth germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.26(15), 4215–4219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Philippot, E.

J. Haines, O. Cambon, E. Philippot, L. Chapon, and S. Hull, “A neutron diffraction study of the thermal stability of the alpha-quartz-type structure in germanium dioxide,” J. Solid State Chem.166(2), 434–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Podila, R.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poeppelmeier, K.

P. Halasyamani and K. Poeppelmeier, “Noncentrosymmetric Oxides,” Chem. Mater.10(10), 2753–2769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poole, K. F.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Powers, D. R.

Pyrros, N.

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

Rao, A. M.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reppert, J.

Rice, R.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive Molten Core Fabrication of Silicon Optical Fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. R.

Samson, B. N.

Sanamyan, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. R.

Shim, J.

J. Shim, J. Leea, A. Yoshikawaa, M. Niklb, D. Yoonc, and T. Fukudaa, “Growth of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by the micro-pulling-down method from bismuth rich composition,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 157–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimizugawa, Y.

Shori, R.

Shubin, A. V.

Singh, R.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive Molten Core Fabrication of Silicon Optical Fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Tanaka, K.

Tick, P. A.

Tritt, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trzebiatowski, K.

B. Kusz, K. Trzebiatowski, and R. Barczynski, “Ionic conductivity of bismuth silicate and bismuth germanate glasses,” Solid State Ion.159(3-4), 293–299 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Umnikov, A. A.

Weber, M.

M. Weber and R. Monchamp, “Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and Decay Properties,” J. Appl. Phys.44(12), 5495–5499 (1973).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

J. White and A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 5–7 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yanagida, T.

M. Zhuravleva, V. Chani, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “The micro-pulling-down growth of Bi4Si3O12 (BSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) fiber crystals and their scintillation efficiency,” J. Cryst. Growth310(7-9), 2152–2156 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. White and A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 5–7 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

Yazgan-Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoonc, D.

J. Shim, J. Leea, A. Yoshikawaa, M. Niklb, D. Yoonc, and T. Fukudaa, “Growth of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by the micro-pulling-down method from bismuth rich composition,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 157–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, A.

M. Zhuravleva, V. Chani, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “The micro-pulling-down growth of Bi4Si3O12 (BSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) fiber crystals and their scintillation efficiency,” J. Cryst. Growth310(7-9), 2152–2156 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawaa, A.

J. Shim, J. Leea, A. Yoshikawaa, M. Niklb, D. Yoonc, and T. Fukudaa, “Growth of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by the micro-pulling-down method from bismuth rich composition,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 157–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive Molten Core Fabrication of Silicon Optical Fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuravleva, M.

M. Zhuravleva, V. Chani, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “The micro-pulling-down growth of Bi4Si3O12 (BSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) fiber crystals and their scintillation efficiency,” J. Cryst. Growth310(7-9), 2152–2156 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. White and A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 5–7 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

P. Halasyamani and K. Poeppelmeier, “Noncentrosymmetric Oxides,” Chem. Mater.10(10), 2753–2769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of Silicon Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, I. Foldvari, and C. Hunt, “The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.70(12), 7554–7559 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Weber and R. Monchamp, “Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and Decay Properties,” J. Appl. Phys.44(12), 5495–5499 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. Bortfeld and H. Meier, “Refractive indices and electro-optic coefficients of the eulitities Bi4Ge3O12 and Bi4Si3O12,” J. Appl. Phys.43(12), 5110–5111 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (5)

R. Feigelson, “Pulling optical fibers,” J. Cryst. Growth79(1-3), 669–680 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaplun and A. Meshalkin, “Stable and metastable phase equilibrium in the system Bi2O3 – GeO2,” J. Cryst. Growth167(1-2), 171–175 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Shim, J. Leea, A. Yoshikawaa, M. Niklb, D. Yoonc, and T. Fukudaa, “Growth of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by the micro-pulling-down method from bismuth rich composition,” J. Cryst. Growth243(1), 157–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhuravleva, V. Chani, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “The micro-pulling-down growth of Bi4Si3O12 (BSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) fiber crystals and their scintillation efficiency,” J. Cryst. Growth310(7-9), 2152–2156 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Less Common Met. (1)

B. Cockayne, “The uses and enigmas of the Al2O3-Y2O3 phase system,” J. Less Common Met.114(1), 199–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Less-Common Met. (1)

B. Begeman and M. Jansen, “Bi407, the First Defined Binary. Bismuth(lll,V)-Oxide,” J. Less-Common Met.156, 123–135 (1989).

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

L. Dimesso, G. Gnappi, A. Montenero, P. Fabeni, and G. P. Pazzi, “The crystallization behaviour of bismuth germanate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.26(15), 4215–4219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

J. Haines, O. Cambon, E. Philippot, L. Chapon, and S. Hull, “A neutron diffraction study of the thermal stability of the alpha-quartz-type structure in germanium dioxide,” J. Solid State Chem.166(2), 434–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

NBS Monograph (1)

M. Morris, H. McMurdie, E. Evans, B. Paretzkin, H. Parker, N. Pyrros, and C. Hubbard, “Standard x-ray diffraction patterns - data for 71 substances,” NBS Monograph25(Sec. 20), 19 (1984).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Procedia (1)

H. Farhi, S. Belkahla, K. Lebbou, and C. Dujardin, “BGO fibers growth by μ-pulling down technique and study of light propagation,” Phys. Procedia2(3), 819–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ion. (1)

B. Kusz, K. Trzebiatowski, and R. Barczynski, “Ionic conductivity of bismuth silicate and bismuth germanate glasses,” Solid State Ion.159(3-4), 293–299 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (1)

H. Hartwig, “On the Structure of Bismuthsesquioxide: The α, β, γ, and δ-phase,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.444(1), 151–166 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Powder Diffraction Standard Number: 01–073–9108 (International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), Newtown Square, PA, USA).

Powder Diffraction Standard Number: 00–027–0053 (International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), Newtown Square, PA, USA).

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Fukasawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion Spliceable and High Efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for Short-length and Broadband Application Pumped at 1480 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuI5.

K. Kikuchi, K. Taira, and N. Sugimoto, “Highly-nonlinear Bismuth Oxide-based glass fibers for all-optical signal processing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper ThY6.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) spectra, with overlaid standard reflections from noted phases, for precursors employed in this work: (a) unreacted Bi2O3-rich bismuth germanate powder and (b) Bi12GeO20 single crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrograph of cross-section of borosilicate-clad (a) amorphous bismuth-rich glass and (b) crystalline bismuth germanate core optical fiber. The cracks present in the crystalline fiber (Fig. 2(b)) are likely due to the sample being biphasic with differing thermal expansion coefficients and elastic constants.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy compositional profile across the borosilicate-clad amorphous bismuth-rich core optical fiber: (a) elemental profile and (b) compound profile. The high silica-content regions on both sides of profile indicate the glass cladding region whereas high bismuth-content regions in the center indicate the core region. It is noted for completeness that boron is too-light to be resolved accurately using EDX; accordingly, the elemental percentages in the cladding are slightly off due to this discrepancy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) spectra, with overlaid standard reflections from noted phases, for optical fiber drawn from Bi12GeO20.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy compositional profile across the borosilicate-clad crystalline bismuth germanate core optical fiber: (a) elemental profile and (b) compound profile. The high silica-content regions on both sides of profile indicate the glass cladding region whereas high bismuth-content regions in the center indicate the core region. It is noted for completeness that boron is too-light to be resolved accurately using EDX; accordingly, the elemental percentages in the cladding are slightly off due to this discrepancy.

Equations (2)

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Bi 12 GeO 20  Bi 2 GeO 5 +  5 Bi 2 O 3 .
Bi 12 GeO 20 + x O   Bi 2 GeO 5 + 10  BiO 1.5+0.1x .

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