Abstract

We report on Z–scan measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of semitransparent pyrolytic carbon films. The nonlinear refractive index of the film is as high as 8.23 × 10−9 cm2/W and shows a non–monotonous dependence on the film thickness. We demonstrate that, although the linear absorption coefficient of the pyrolytic carbon films is comparable to that of crystalline graphite, the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the films is much lower than that of graphene.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. V. Sgobba and D. M. Guldi, “Carbon nanotubes—electronic/electrochemical properties and application for nanoelectronics and photonics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 165–184 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. O. Pierson, “Pyrolytic graphite,” in Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond and Fullerenes: Properties, Processing and Applications (Noyes Publications, 1993).
  6. W. Benzinger, A. Becker, and K. J. Hüttinger, “Chemistry and kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of pyrocarbon: I. Fundamentals of kinetics and chemical reaction engineering,” Carbon34(8), 957–966 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kaplas and Y. Svirko, “Direct deposition of semitransparent conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” J. Nanophotonics6(1), 061703 (2012).
  9. M. Kyoung and M. Lee, “Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun.171(1-3), 145–148 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “Characterization of optical and nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in various liquids,” Opt. Commun.240(4-6), 437–448 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M. S. Rafique, K. Siraj, S. Shahid, M. S. Anwar, and H. Faiz, “Theoretical and experimental comparison of splashing in different materials,” in 31st EPS Conference on Plasma Phys. London ECA (2004), Vol. 28G, P-2.049.
  13. H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Wiliam Andrew, 2005).
  14. A. Lehmuskero, M. Kuittinen, and P. Vahimaa, “Refractive index and extinction coefficient dependence of thin Al and Ir films on deposition technique and thickness,” Opt. Express15(17), 10744–10752 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Borghesi and G. Guizetti, “Graphite,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, 1998).
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  17. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett.14(17), 955–957 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Karvonen (Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland), J. Rönn, S. Kujala, Y. Chen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen are preparing a manuscript to be called “Nonlinear optical properties of glass doped with Ag nanoparticles”.
  22. G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaplas and Y. Svirko, “Direct deposition of semitransparent conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” J. Nanophotonics6(1), 061703 (2012).

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

V. Sgobba and D. M. Guldi, “Carbon nanotubes—electronic/electrochemical properties and application for nanoelectronics and photonics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 165–184 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “Characterization of optical and nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in various liquids,” Opt. Commun.240(4-6), 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, “Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun.171(1-3), 145–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. Benzinger, A. Becker, and K. J. Hüttinger, “Chemistry and kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of pyrocarbon: I. Fundamentals of kinetics and chemical reaction engineering,” Carbon34(8), 957–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alves, E.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “Characterization of optical and nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in various liquids,” Opt. Commun.240(4-6), 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Bao, Q. L.

Becker, A.

W. Benzinger, A. Becker, and K. J. Hüttinger, “Chemistry and kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of pyrocarbon: I. Fundamentals of kinetics and chemical reaction engineering,” Carbon34(8), 957–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benzinger, W.

W. Benzinger, A. Becker, and K. J. Hüttinger, “Chemistry and kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of pyrocarbon: I. Fundamentals of kinetics and chemical reaction engineering,” Carbon34(8), 957–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, R. C.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duesberg, G. S.

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, N.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, M.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “Characterization of optical and nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in various liquids,” Opt. Commun.240(4-6), 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Guldi, D. M.

V. Sgobba and D. M. Guldi, “Carbon nanotubes—electronic/electrochemical properties and application for nanoelectronics and photonics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 165–184 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hüttinger, K. J.

W. Benzinger, A. Becker, and K. J. Hüttinger, “Chemistry and kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of pyrocarbon: I. Fundamentals of kinetics and chemical reaction engineering,” Carbon34(8), 957–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaplas, T.

T. Kaplas and Y. Svirko, “Direct deposition of semitransparent conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” J. Nanophotonics6(1), 061703 (2012).

Karvonen, L.

J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keeley, G. P.

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kian Ping, L.

Kockaert, P.

Kuittinen, M.

Kujala, S.

J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “Characterization of optical and nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in various liquids,” Opt. Commun.240(4-6), 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kyoung, M.

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, “Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun.171(1-3), 145–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, “Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun.171(1-3), 145–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lehmuskero, A.

Loh, K. P.

Marques, C.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massar, S.

McEvoy, N.

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, H.

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peltekis, N.

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perebeinos, V.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rezvani, E.

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rönn, J.

J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “Characterization of optical and nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in various liquids,” Opt. Commun.240(4-6), 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Said, A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Säynätjoki, A.

J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sgobba, V.

V. Sgobba and D. M. Guldi, “Carbon nanotubes—electronic/electrochemical properties and application for nanoelectronics and photonics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 165–184 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett.14(17), 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “Characterization of optical and nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in various liquids,” Opt. Commun.240(4-6), 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y.

T. Kaplas and Y. Svirko, “Direct deposition of semitransparent conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” J. Nanophotonics6(1), 061703 (2012).

Tang, D. Y.

Tervonen, A.

J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vahimaa, P.

Van Stryland, E.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Virally, S.

Wei, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, R.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhao, L. M.

Carbon (2)

W. Benzinger, A. Becker, and K. J. Hüttinger, “Chemistry and kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of pyrocarbon: I. Fundamentals of kinetics and chemical reaction engineering,” Carbon34(8), 957–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. McEvoy, N. Peltekis, S. Kumar, E. Rezvani, H. Nolan, G. P. Keeley, W. J. Blau, and G. S. Duesberg, “Synthesis and analysis of thin conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” Carbon50(3), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

V. Sgobba and D. M. Guldi, “Carbon nanotubes—electronic/electrochemical properties and application for nanoelectronics and photonics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 165–184 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

T. Kaplas and Y. Svirko, “Direct deposition of semitransparent conducting pyrolytic carbon films,” J. Nanophotonics6(1), 061703 (2012).

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, “Nonlinear absorption and refractive index measurements of silver nanorods by the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Commun.171(1-3), 145–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “Characterization of optical and nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in various liquids,” Opt. Commun.240(4-6), 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Rönn, L. Karvonen, S. Kujala, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by two-step ion exchange in glass,” Proc. SPIE8434, 84341K (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

L. Karvonen (Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland), J. Rönn, S. Kujala, Y. Chen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen are preparing a manuscript to be called “Nonlinear optical properties of glass doped with Ag nanoparticles”.

H. O. Pierson, “Pyrolytic graphite,” in Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond and Fullerenes: Properties, Processing and Applications (Noyes Publications, 1993).

M. Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M. S. Rafique, K. Siraj, S. Shahid, M. S. Anwar, and H. Faiz, “Theoretical and experimental comparison of splashing in different materials,” in 31st EPS Conference on Plasma Phys. London ECA (2004), Vol. 28G, P-2.049.

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E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” in Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials, M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1998), pp. 655–692.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The transmittance of the films decreases as the films are thicker. (b) Transmittance at the wavelength of 800 nm as a function of the film thickness follows the Beer–Lambert law.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of the real (a) and imaginary (b) parts of the complex refractive index of deposited PyC films. Data for graphite [15] (a collection from different experiments) are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical setup for the Z–scan experiment. Laser light is divided with a beam–splitter into reference and transmission arms and focused by a lens L into the sample. The transmission of the sample S is monitored by a photodiode D. An aperture A is placed in front of D for closed aperture measurements. A small part of the input intensity is monitored by another photodiode Dref and the ratio D/Dref is recorded as a function of the sample position z [20,21].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The closed aperture Z–scan transmittance as a function of the sample position at different sample thicknesses. Solid lines show guide for eyes. (b) The calculated from Eq. (4) nonlinear refractive index as a function of the PyC film thickness.

Equations (4)

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T(z,Δϕ)=1 4xΔϕ ( x 2 +1)( x 2 +9) ,
Δϕ= 2π n 2 I L eff /λ ,
L eff = (1 e αL ) /α ,
n 2 = 2 λΔ T pv 0.406 (1S) 0.27 2π L eff I 0 ,

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