Abstract

Thin film selenide glasses have emerged as an important material for integrated photonics due to its high refractive index, mid-IR transparency and high non-linear optical indices. We prepared high-quality As2Se3 glass films using spin coating from ethylenediamine solutions. The physio-chemical properties of the films are characterized as a function of annealing conditions. Compared to bulk glasses, as-deposited films possess a distinctively different network structure due to presence of Se-Se homo-polar bonds and residual solvent. Annealing partially recovers the As-Se3 pyramid structure and brings the film refractive indices close to the bulk value. Optical loss in the films measured at 1550 nm wavelength is 9 dB/cm, which was attributed to N-H bond absorption from residual solvent.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

M. Waldmann, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Structural properties of solution processed Ge23Sb7S70 glass materials,” J. Mater. Chem.22(34), 17848–17852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Lin, Z. Yi, and J. J. Hu, “Double resonance 1-D photonic crystal cavities for single-molecule mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy: theory and design,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1304–1306 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

S. S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys.103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Exploration of waveguide fabrication from thermally evaporated Ge-Sb-S glass films,” Opt. Mater.30(10), 1560–1566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Mikla and V. V. Mikla, “Effect of thermal evaporation conditions on structural changes in amorphous AsxS1-x films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun.1(6), 272–276 (2007).

M. Krbal, T. Wagner, T. Kohoutek, P. Nemec, J. Orava, and M. Frumar, “The comparison of Ag-As33S67 films prepared by thermal evaporation (TE), spin-coating (SC) and a pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids68(5-6), 953–957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1437–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Kohoutek, T. Wágner, M. Vlček, M. Vlček, and M. Frumar, “Spin-coated As33S67-xSex thin films: the effect of annealing on structure and optical properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1563–1566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lucas, “Energy landscape and photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(24), 5629–5638 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, S. J. Madden, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformations in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Kohoutek, T. Wágner, M. Vlček, M. Vlček, and M. Frumar, “Physico-chemical properties of spin-coated Ag-As-Sb-S films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(27-29), 2205–2209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.16(10), 633–643 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, and S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties,” Vacuum76(2-3), 191–194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. Kovanda, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure of As-Se and As-P-Se glasses studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 88–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 6–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.3(2), 142–148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, S. Rosenwaks, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

T. Guiton and C. Pantano, “Solution/gelation of arsenic trisulfide in amine solvents,” Chem. Mater.1(5), 558–563 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical-constants of amorphous-silicon,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum.16(12), 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous-chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hayes, and R. A. Street, “Thermally induced effects in evaporated chalcogenide films. 1. structure,” Phys. Rev. B18(12), 6900–6914 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Exploration of waveguide fabrication from thermally evaporated Ge-Sb-S glass films,” Opt. Mater.30(10), 1560–1566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 6–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anheier, N. C.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, K.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arcondo, B.

M. Erazú, J. Rocca, M. Fontana, A. Urena, B. Arcondo, and A. Pradel, “Raman spectroscopy of chalcogenide thin films prepared by PLD,” J. Alloy. Comp.495(2), 642–645 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. B.

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.3(2), 142–148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudies, J.

S. S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brandily-Anne, M. L.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Exploration of waveguide fabrication from thermally evaporated Ge-Sb-S glass films,” Opt. Mater.30(10), 1560–1566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charpentier, F.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Charrier, J.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. C.

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous-chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chrissanthopoulos, A.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys.103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Connell, G. A. N.

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hayes, and R. A. Street, “Thermally induced effects in evaporated chalcogenide films. 1. structure,” Phys. Rev. B18(12), 6900–6914 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dua, J.

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erazú, M.

M. Erazú, J. Rocca, M. Fontana, A. Urena, B. Arcondo, and A. Pradel, “Raman spectroscopy of chalcogenide thin films prepared by PLD,” J. Alloy. Comp.495(2), 642–645 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fejfar, A.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1437–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

Fontana, M.

M. Erazú, J. Rocca, M. Fontana, A. Urena, B. Arcondo, and A. Pradel, “Raman spectroscopy of chalcogenide thin films prepared by PLD,” J. Alloy. Comp.495(2), 642–645 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frumar, M.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys.103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1437–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Krbal, T. Wagner, T. Kohoutek, P. Nemec, J. Orava, and M. Frumar, “The comparison of Ag-As33S67 films prepared by thermal evaporation (TE), spin-coating (SC) and a pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids68(5-6), 953–957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wágner, M. Vlček, M. Vlček, and M. Frumar, “Spin-coated As33S67-xSex thin films: the effect of annealing on structure and optical properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1563–1566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wágner, M. Vlček, M. Vlček, and M. Frumar, “Physico-chemical properties of spin-coated Ag-As-Sb-S films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(27-29), 2205–2209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, and S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties,” Vacuum76(2-3), 191–194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

Guin, J. P.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guiton, T.

T. Guiton and C. Pantano, “Solution/gelation of arsenic trisulfide in amine solvents,” Chem. Mater.1(5), 558–563 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, T. M.

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hayes, and R. A. Street, “Thermally induced effects in evaporated chalcogenide films. 1. structure,” Phys. Rev. B18(12), 6900–6914 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hnatowitz, V.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, and S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties,” Vacuum76(2-3), 191–194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J. J.

Jain, H.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Kovanda, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure of As-Se and As-P-Se glasses studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 88–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, and S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties,” Vacuum76(2-3), 191–194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S. O.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1437–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Exploration of waveguide fabrication from thermally evaporated Ge-Sb-S glass films,” Opt. Mater.30(10), 1560–1566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klebanov, M.

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, S. Rosenwaks, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kohoutek, T.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys.103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1437–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Krbal, T. Wagner, T. Kohoutek, P. Nemec, J. Orava, and M. Frumar, “The comparison of Ag-As33S67 films prepared by thermal evaporation (TE), spin-coating (SC) and a pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids68(5-6), 953–957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wágner, M. Vlček, M. Vlček, and M. Frumar, “Spin-coated As33S67-xSex thin films: the effect of annealing on structure and optical properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1563–1566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wágner, M. Vlček, M. Vlček, and M. Frumar, “Physico-chemical properties of spin-coated Ag-As-Sb-S films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(27-29), 2205–2209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, and S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties,” Vacuum76(2-3), 191–194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinova, O.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys.103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kovanda, V.

V. Kovanda, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Structure of As-Se and As-P-Se glasses studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 88–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krbal, M.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1437–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Krbal, T. Wagner, T. Kohoutek, P. Nemec, J. Orava, and M. Frumar, “The comparison of Ag-As33S67 films prepared by thermal evaporation (TE), spin-coating (SC) and a pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids68(5-6), 953–957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lauks, I.

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous-chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys.53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lhermite, H.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. Y.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. T.

Lopez, C.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P.

P. Lucas, “Energy landscape and photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(24), 5629–5638 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

R. P. Wang, S. J. Madden, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformations in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyubin, V.

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, S. Rosenwaks, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mackova, A.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, and S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties,” Vacuum76(2-3), 191–194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S. J.

R. P. Wang, S. J. Madden, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformations in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

Mates, T.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1437–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikla, V. I.

V. I. Mikla and V. V. Mikla, “Effect of thermal evaporation conditions on structural changes in amorphous AsxS1-x films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun.1(6), 272–276 (2007).

Mikla, V. V.

V. I. Mikla and V. V. Mikla, “Effect of thermal evaporation conditions on structural changes in amorphous AsxS1-x films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun.1(6), 272–276 (2007).

Miller, A. C.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreac, A.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mujagic, E.

Musgraves, J. D.

M. Waldmann, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Structural properties of solution processed Ge23Sb7S70 glass materials,” J. Mater. Chem.22(34), 17848–17852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Myneni, S.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nemanich, R. J.

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hayes, and R. A. Street, “Thermally induced effects in evaporated chalcogenide films. 1. structure,” Phys. Rev. B18(12), 6900–6914 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, P.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J. L. Adam, P. Nemec, H. Lhermite, M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, and A. Moreac, “Sputtering and pulsed laser deposition for near- and mid-infrared applications: a comparative study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 amorphous thin films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Krbal, T. Wagner, T. Kohoutek, P. Nemec, J. Orava, and M. Frumar, “The comparison of Ag-As33S67 films prepared by thermal evaporation (TE), spin-coating (SC) and a pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids68(5-6), 953–957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orava, J.

M. Krbal, T. Wagner, T. Kohoutek, P. Nemec, J. Orava, and M. Frumar, “The comparison of Ag-As33S67 films prepared by thermal evaporation (TE), spin-coating (SC) and a pulsed laser deposition (PLD),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids68(5-6), 953–957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1437–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, and S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties,” Vacuum76(2-3), 191–194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pantano, C.

T. Guiton and C. Pantano, “Solution/gelation of arsenic trisulfide in amine solvents,” Chem. Mater.1(5), 558–563 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Perina, V.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, and S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties,” Vacuum76(2-3), 191–194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Exploration of waveguide fabrication from thermally evaporated Ge-Sb-S glass films,” Opt. Mater.30(10), 1560–1566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, M. C.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, A.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pradel, A.

M. Erazú, J. Rocca, M. Fontana, A. Urena, B. Arcondo, and A. Pradel, “Raman spectroscopy of chalcogenide thin films prepared by PLD,” J. Alloy. Comp.495(2), 642–645 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, H. A.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, K.

M. Waldmann, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Structural properties of solution processed Ge23Sb7S70 glass materials,” J. Mater. Chem.22(34), 17848–17852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Exploration of waveguide fabrication from thermally evaporated Ge-Sb-S glass films,” Opt. Mater.30(10), 1560–1566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater.59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. C.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J.

M. Erazú, J. Rocca, M. Fontana, A. Urena, B. Arcondo, and A. Pradel, “Raman spectroscopy of chalcogenide thin films prepared by PLD,” J. Alloy. Comp.495(2), 642–645 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

R. P. Wang, S. J. Madden, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformations in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosenwaks, S.

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, S. Rosenwaks, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 6–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

W. Y. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seal, S.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-view images of spin-coated As2Se3 films: (a) optical micro graph of the as-deposited As2Se3 films annealed in the ambient atmosphere (b) SEM image of a self-assembled AsOx crystal formed on films annealed in the ambient atmosphere; (c) films annealed in vacuum showing a smooth, featureless surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Thickness and surface roughness of spin coated As2Se3 glass films annealed at different conditions. (b)-(h) AFM surface profiles (2µm × 2µm) of glass films annealed at various conditions: (b) as-deposited film; (c) film annealed at 80 °C for 4 hours; (d) film annealed at 80 °C for 8 hours; (e) film annealed at 80 °C for 16 hours; (f) film annealed at 110 °C for 16 hours; (g) film annealed at 140 °C for 16 hours; (h) film annealed at 170 °C for 16 hours.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional SEM image of spin-coated As2Se3 films after annealing. Annealing leads to a dense, defect-free film microstructure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Raman spectra of spin coated As2Se3 films under different annealing conditions; the spectra are vertically offset for clarity; (b) Raman spectra from an as-deposited film and a film annealed at 170 °C for 16 hours were fitted by keeping the position of the peaks constant; (c) The peak area ratio, as determined by the area of AsSe3 pyramidal unit peaks over the area of peaks corresponding to As4Se4 unit, Se-Se chain and Se-Se ring, as a function of annealing conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) FTIR absorption spectra of EDA-derived As2Se3 films vacuum annealed at conditions. (b) Peak absorbance at 1580, 3140 and 3310 cm−1 (due to N-H stretching modes) of EDA-derived As2Se3 films. The decrease of peak absorbance indicates progressive solvent removal during annealing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) UV-Vis transmission spectra of spin-coated As2Se3 films from EDA solution with different annealing conditions. The spectra are not corrected for Fresnel reflection. (b) Effect of annealing on film refractive indices measured at 1500 nm wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic process flow of As2Se3 inverted ridge waveguides. (b) A cross-sectional SEM image of an inverted ridge waveguide from spin coated As2Se3 glass

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Total insertion loss of the As2Se3 waveguides plotted as a function of wavelength lengths. The slopes of the curves yield the propagation loss in the waveguides, while the intercepts with the vertical axis give the coupling loss. The three curves correspond to waveguides of three different widths.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 EDX composition analysis of spin-coated As2Se3 films annealed in non-oxygen and oxygen-containing environment

Tables Icon

Table 2 Raman peak position and peak assignments

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