Abstract

Five different chiral metamaterials in the terahertz (THz) regime, fabricated on fully flexible polyimide substrates, are comparatively studied via numerical calculations and experimental measurements. The chiral properties of these metamaterials, which are discussed based on their optical activity, circular dichroism, and the retrieved effective parameters, show pronounced pure optical activity (larger than 300°/wavelength), as well as important circular polarization generation and filtering capabilities. Negative refractive index is also obtained for all the considered designs.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (3)

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Novitsky, V. M. Galynsky, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: microscopic Lorentz-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. B86(7), 075138 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Zhukovsky, C. Kremers, and D. N. Chigrin, “Plasmonic rod dimers as elementary planar chiral meta-atoms,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2278–2280 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(12), 13044–13050 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B81, 075119 (2010).

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 235126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A82(5), 053811 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (11)

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. V. Novitsky, and V. M. Galynsky, “Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1988–1990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wegener and S. Linden, “Giving light yet another new twist,” Physics2, 3–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (6)

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.32(7), 856–858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alici, K. B.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

Andryieuski, A.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Y.-J.

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B81, 075119 (2010).

Caglayan, H.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheville, R. A.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chigrin, D. N.

Chowdhury, D. R.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Colak, E.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

Dong, J.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 235126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galynsky, V. M.

A. V. Novitsky, V. M. Galynsky, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: microscopic Lorentz-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. B86(7), 075138 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. V. Novitsky, and V. M. Galynsky, “Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 1988–1990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Jylhä, L.

S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. W.

Koch, M.

Koschny, T.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 235126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kremers, C.

Kriegler, C. E.

Kwon, D. H.

Lavrinenko, A.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A82(5), 053811 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153104 (2009).
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S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wegener and S. Linden, “Giving light yet another new twist,” Physics2, 3–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.32(7), 856–858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malureanu, R.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, C.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A82(5), 053811 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153104 (2009).
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V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 167401 (2006).
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S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
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A. V. Novitsky, V. M. Galynsky, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: microscopic Lorentz-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. B86(7), 075138 (2012).
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J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
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W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B81, 075119 (2010).

Plum, E.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153104 (2009).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rho, J.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A82(5), 053811 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogacheva, A. V.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
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V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
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S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
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R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(12), 13044–13050 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 235126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.-H.

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B81, 075119 (2010).

Svirko, Y.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
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M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
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S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vallius, T.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023811 (2007).
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V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.10(4), 509–514 (1968).
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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B81, 075119 (2010).

Wegener, M.

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wegener and S. Linden, “Giving light yet another new twist,” Physics2, 3–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.32(7), 856–858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

Werner, P. L.

Wiltshire, M. C.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the unit cell of the chiral metamaterials under consideration: (a) two relatively rotated layers of four U-SRRs, (b) and (c) two relatively rotated layers of Z-type crosses with φ = 90° and φ = 60°, respectively, (d) two relatively rotated layers of cross-wires and (e) design based on two relatively rotated squares. The metal (yellow-color) thickness tm and the dimensions ax, ay, L, w, a, d and φ, for each design are presented in Table 1. The wave propagation is along the z direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated (left column) and measured (right column) magnitude of the transmission components (Txx: solid lines, Txy: dashed lines), for the chiral metamaterials under consideration and for linearly polarized incident wave. The insets show the correspond designs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left column: Simulated magnitude of the transmission coefficients for the right circularly polarized, ∣T++∣ (solid lines), and the left circularly polarized, ∣T−−∣ (dashed lines), electromagnetic wave, for all the designs studied here. The middle column shows the simulated azimuth rotation angle, θ, for each of the designs and the right column the corresponding simulated ellipticity, η. The insets show the corresponding design, while black stars indicate the points where η≈0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieved effective parameters of the chiral metamaterials under consideration. Left column: Real parts of the refractive index n (solid blue lines) and the chirality κ (dashed red lines). The insets show the corresponding design. Right column: Real parts of the refractive indices for RCP (solid grey lines) and LCP waves (dashed magenta lines).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dimensions (in microns) of chiral metamaterials under consideration (see Fig. 1)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Pure optical activity (optical activity with η≈0) in some frequency range for each of the chiral structures under consideration, as shown in Fig. 3

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( T ++ T + T + T )= 1 2 ×( ( T xx + T yy )+i( T xy T yx ) ( T xx T yy )i( T xy + T yx ) ( T xx T yy )+i( T xy + T yx ) ( T xx + T yy )i( T xy T yx ) ),

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