Abstract

Five different chiral metamaterials in the terahertz (THz) regime, fabricated on fully flexible polyimide substrates, are comparatively studied via numerical calculations and experimental measurements. The chiral properties of these metamaterials, which are discussed based on their optical activity, circular dichroism, and the retrieved effective parameters, show pronounced pure optical activity (larger than 300°/wavelength), as well as important circular polarization generation and filtering capabilities. Negative refractive index is also obtained for all the considered designs.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (3)

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. Novitsky, V. M. Galynsky, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: microscopic Lorentz-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. B 86(7), 075138 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 075108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. V. Zhukovsky, C. Kremers, and D. N. Chigrin, “Plasmonic rod dimers as elementary planar chiral meta-atoms,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2278–2280 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13044–13050 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075119 (2010).

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(23), 235107 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 235126 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053811 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (11)

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151112 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114003 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. V. Novitsky, and V. M. Galynsky, “Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1988–1990 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103602 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wegener and S. Linden, “Giving light yet another new twist,” Physics 2, 3–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (6)

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 856–858 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023811 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[Crossref]

Alici, K. B.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

Andryieuski, A.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(23), 235107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bao, Y.-J.

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075119 (2010).

Caglayan, H.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheville, R. A.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chigrin, D. N.

Chowdhury, D. R.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Colak, E.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

Dong, J.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 075108 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 235126 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103602 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
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B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. V. Novitsky, V. M. Galynsky, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: microscopic Lorentz-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. B 86(7), 075138 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. V. Novitsky, and V. M. Galynsky, “Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1988–1990 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Jylhä, L.

S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kafesaki, M.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114003 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
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M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
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Klein, M. W.

Koch, M.

Koschny, T.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koschny, Th.

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 075108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 235126 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114003 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103602 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kremers, C.

Kriegler, C. E.

Kwon, D. H.

Lavrinenko, A.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(23), 235107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(23), 235107 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053811 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wegener and S. Linden, “Giving light yet another new twist,” Physics 2, 3–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 856–858 (2007).
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Liu, N.

Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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Malureanu, R.

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(23), 235107 (2010).
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Menzel, C.

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053811 (2010).
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A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(23), 235107 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mladyonov, P. L.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novitsky, A. V.

A. V. Novitsky, V. M. Galynsky, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: microscopic Lorentz-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. B 86(7), 075138 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. V. Novitsky, and V. M. Galynsky, “Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1988–1990 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, R.-W.

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075119 (2010).

Plum, E.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, J.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053811 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(23), 235107 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rogacheva, A. V.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruther, M.

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwanecke, A. S.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
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Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
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Sihvola, A.

S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13044–13050 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 075108 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 235126 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114003 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151112 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103602 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.-H.

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075119 (2010).

Svirko, Y.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S.

S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Turunen, J.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023811 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vallius, T.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023811 (2007).
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V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151112 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075119 (2010).

Wegener, M.

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wegener and S. Linden, “Giving light yet another new twist,” Physics 2, 3–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 856–858 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

Werner, P. L.

Wiltshire, M. C.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
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Zhao, R.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 075108 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
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R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 235126 (2010).
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R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
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R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103602 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114003 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151112 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103602 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhukovsky, S. V.

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, “Negative index materials: new frontiers in optics,” Adv. Mater. 18(15), 1941–1952 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Wang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat Commun (1)

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola, and L. Jylhä, “Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3(2-3), 107–115 (2005).
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Phys. Rev. A (2)

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023811 (2007).
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C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053811 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. B (10)

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Sun, Y.-J. Bao, M. Wang, and R.-W. Peng, “C. Sun X. Lu, J. Shao, Z-F. Li, and N-B. Ming, “Construction of a chiral metamaterial with a U-shaped resonator assembly,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075119 (2010).

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104(R) (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Andryieuski, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, R. Malureanu, F. Lederer, and A. Lavrinenko, “Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(23), 235107 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Comparison of chiral metamaterial designs for repulsive Casimir force,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 235126 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 075108 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Novitsky, V. M. Galynsky, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: microscopic Lorentz-theory approach,” Phys. Rev. B 86(7), 075138 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103602 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physics (1)

M. Wegener and S. Linden, “Giving light yet another new twist,” Physics 2, 3–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the unit cell of the chiral metamaterials under consideration: (a) two relatively rotated layers of four U-SRRs, (b) and (c) two relatively rotated layers of Z-type crosses with φ = 90° and φ = 60°, respectively, (d) two relatively rotated layers of cross-wires and (e) design based on two relatively rotated squares. The metal (yellow-color) thickness tm and the dimensions ax, ay, L, w, a, d and φ, for each design are presented in Table 1. The wave propagation is along the z direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated (left column) and measured (right column) magnitude of the transmission components (Txx: solid lines, Txy: dashed lines), for the chiral metamaterials under consideration and for linearly polarized incident wave. The insets show the correspond designs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left column: Simulated magnitude of the transmission coefficients for the right circularly polarized, ∣T++∣ (solid lines), and the left circularly polarized, ∣T−−∣ (dashed lines), electromagnetic wave, for all the designs studied here. The middle column shows the simulated azimuth rotation angle, θ, for each of the designs and the right column the corresponding simulated ellipticity, η. The insets show the corresponding design, while black stars indicate the points where η≈0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieved effective parameters of the chiral metamaterials under consideration. Left column: Real parts of the refractive index n (solid blue lines) and the chirality κ (dashed red lines). The insets show the corresponding design. Right column: Real parts of the refractive indices for RCP (solid grey lines) and LCP waves (dashed magenta lines).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dimensions (in microns) of chiral metamaterials under consideration (see Fig. 1)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Pure optical activity (optical activity with η≈0) in some frequency range for each of the chiral structures under consideration, as shown in Fig. 3

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( T ++ T + T + T )= 1 2 ×( ( T xx + T yy )+i( T xy T yx ) ( T xx T yy )i( T xy + T yx ) ( T xx T yy )+i( T xy + T yx ) ( T xx + T yy )i( T xy T yx ) ),

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