Abstract

We present a study of chalcogenide glass fiber lasers doped with Dy3+, Pr3+ or Tb3+ that would operate in the mid-infrared wavelength range. A set of chalcogenide glass samples doped with different concentrations of rare earth ions is fabricated. The modeling parameters are directly extracted from FTIR absorption measurements of the fabricated bulk glass samples using Judd-Ofelt, Füchtbauer–Ladenburg theory and McCumber theory. The modeling results show that, for all the dopants considered, an efficient mid-infrared laser action is possible if optical losses are kept at the level of 1dB/m or below.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Toupin, L. Brilland, J. Trolès, and J. Adam, “Small core Ge-As-Se microstructured optical fiber with single-mode propagation and low optical losses,” Opt. Mater. Express2(10), 1359–1366 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev.136(4A), A954–A957 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(4), 471–478 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. M. Walsh, “Dual wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys.20(3), 622–634 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “The effect of the nature of the rare earth additive on chalcogenide glass stability,” Proc. SPIE7912, 79121F (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(4), 471–478 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

B. M. Walsh, “Dual wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys.20(3), 622–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sujecki, L. Sojka, E. Beres-Pawlik, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and T. M. Benson, “Modelling of a simple Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser for mid-infrared light generation,” Opt. Quantum Electron.42(2), 69–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. Bachmann, K. Rosa, P. A. da Ana, D. M. Zezell, A. F. Craievich, and G. Kellermann, “Crystalline structure of human enamel irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(2), 159–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy:chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(2), 123–125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2772–2787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. A. King, A. G. Clare, and W. C. Lacourse, “Laboratory preparation of highly pure As2Se33 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids181(3), 231–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev.136(4A), A954–A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev.127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys.37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.

Adam, J. L.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.-L.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy:chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(2), 123–125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, L.

L. Bachmann, K. Rosa, P. A. da Ana, D. M. Zezell, A. F. Craievich, and G. Kellermann, “Crystalline structure of human enamel irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(2), 159–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2772–2787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “The effect of the nature of the rare earth additive on chalcogenide glass stability,” Proc. SPIE7912, 79121F (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sujecki, L. Sojka, E. Beres-Pawlik, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and T. M. Benson, “Modelling of a simple Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser for mid-infrared light generation,” Opt. Quantum Electron.42(2), 69–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beres-Pawlik, E.

S. Sujecki, L. Sojka, E. Beres-Pawlik, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and T. M. Benson, “Modelling of a simple Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser for mid-infrared light generation,” Opt. Quantum Electron.42(2), 69–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brilland, L.

P. Toupin, L. Brilland, J. Trolès, and J. Adam, “Small core Ge-As-Se microstructured optical fiber with single-mode propagation and low optical losses,” Opt. Mater. Express2(10), 1359–1366 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Canat, G.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Churbanov, M. F.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clare, A. G.

W. A. King, A. G. Clare, and W. C. Lacourse, “Laboratory preparation of highly pure As2Se33 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids181(3), 231–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Craievich, A. F.

L. Bachmann, K. Rosa, P. A. da Ana, D. M. Zezell, A. F. Craievich, and G. Kellermann, “Crystalline structure of human enamel irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(2), 159–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

da Ana, P. A.

L. Bachmann, K. Rosa, P. A. da Ana, D. M. Zezell, A. F. Craievich, and G. Kellermann, “Crystalline structure of human enamel irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(2), 159–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Desevedavy, F.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Devyotykh, G. G.

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Di Bartolo, B.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2772–2787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drlík, P.

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duverger-Arfuso, C.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, W. B.

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Furniss, D.

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “The effect of the nature of the rare earth additive on chalcogenide glass stability,” Proc. SPIE7912, 79121F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sujecki, L. Sojka, E. Beres-Pawlik, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and T. M. Benson, “Modelling of a simple Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser for mid-infrared light generation,” Opt. Quantum Electron.42(2), 69–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gadret, G.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerasimenko, V. V.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Houizot, P.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
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H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(4), 471–478 (2011).
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H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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W. A. King, A. G. Clare, and W. C. Lacourse, “Laboratory preparation of highly pure As2Se33 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids181(3), 231–237 (1995).
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H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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Kokta, M. R.

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
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M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
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Koranda, P.

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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Kubecek, V.

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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W. A. King, A. G. Clare, and W. C. Lacourse, “Laboratory preparation of highly pure As2Se33 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids181(3), 231–237 (1995).
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Li, J.

S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(4), 471–478 (2011).
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M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
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Matsuura, Y.

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
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Moncorge, R.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neate, N. C.

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2453–2462 (2011).
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Nemec, M.

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
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Niu, Y.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
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Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys.37(3), 511–520 (1962).
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Pitois, S.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plotinchenko, V. G.

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(4), 471–478 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pushkin, A. A.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pyrkov, Y. N.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy:chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(2), 123–125 (2008).
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W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys.49(10), 4412 (1968).
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Rosa, K.

L. Bachmann, K. Rosa, P. A. da Ana, D. M. Zezell, A. F. Craievich, and G. Kellermann, “Crystalline structure of human enamel irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(2), 159–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy:chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(2), 123–125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “The effect of the nature of the rare earth additive on chalcogenide glass stability,” Proc. SPIE7912, 79121F (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sujecki, L. Sojka, E. Beres-Pawlik, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and T. M. Benson, “Modelling of a simple Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser for mid-infrared light generation,” Opt. Quantum Electron.42(2), 69–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaposhnikov, R. M.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy:chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(2), 123–125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.-W.

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiryaev, V. S.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skipachev, I. V.

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smolnikov, I. V.

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Snopatin, G. E.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotinchenko, Y. N. Pyrkov, I. V. Smolnikov, S. A. Koleskin, G. G. Devyotykh, M. F. Churbanov, G. E. Snopatin, I. V. Skipachev, and R. M. Shaposhnikov, “Single-mode As–S glass fibers,” Inorg. Mater.39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sojka, L.

S. Sujecki, L. Sojka, E. Beres-Pawlik, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and T. M. Benson, “Modelling of a simple Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser for mid-infrared light generation,” Opt. Quantum Electron.42(2), 69–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suchkov, A. I.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, “High-purity As–S–Se and As–Se–Te glasses and optical fibers,” Inorg. Mater.43(4), 441–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sujecki, S.

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “The effect of the nature of the rare earth additive on chalcogenide glass stability,” Proc. SPIE7912, 79121F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sujecki, L. Sojka, E. Beres-Pawlik, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and T. M. Benson, “Modelling of a simple Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser for mid-infrared light generation,” Opt. Quantum Electron.42(2), 69–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Šulc, J.

H. Jelínková, O. Kőhler, M. Němec, P. Koranda, J. Šulc, V. Kubeček, P. Drlík, M. Miyagi, Y.-W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. R. Kokta, P. Hrabal, and M. Jelinek, “Comparison of mid infrared lasers effect on ureter tissue,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(3), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z.

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “The effect of the nature of the rare earth additive on chalcogenide glass stability,” Proc. SPIE7912, 79121F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(11-13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sujecki, L. Sojka, E. Beres-Pawlik, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and T. M. Benson, “Modelling of a simple Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser for mid-infrared light generation,” Opt. Quantum Electron.42(2), 69–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thielen, P. A.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toupin, P.

Troles, J.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga–Ge–Sb–S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater.31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, “Dual wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys.20(3), 622–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2772–2787 (1998).
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Zezell, D. M.

L. Bachmann, K. Rosa, P. A. da Ana, D. M. Zezell, A. F. Craievich, and G. Kellermann, “Crystalline structure of human enamel irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(2), 159–162 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Terbium doped chalcogenide glass rod bulk sample. b) Terbium doped chalcogenide glass sample ready for FTIR measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The spectral dependence of the emission and absorption cross section for a) Dy 3+ b) Pr3+ and c) Tb3+.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified energy level diagram showing cascade laser transitions of a) Dy 3+ b) Pr3+ and c) Tb3+ to the ground state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated dependence of the output signal power on the fiber length with different pump power for a) Dy 3+ b) Pr3+ and c) Tb3+.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated dependence of the output signal power on the fiber length with different levels of fiber optical losses for a) Dy 3+ b) Pr3+ c) Tb3+.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Judd-Ofelt parameters for Ge16.5As16Ga3Se64.5 glass doped with Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated fluorescence branching ratio and radiative lifetime of Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+, in Ge16.5As16Ga3Se64.5 glass

Equations (8)

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band k( λ ) dλ= 8 π 3 e 2 3hc Nλ ( 2J+1 ) n 2 [ n ( n 2 +2 ) 2 9 S jj' ed + n 3 S jj' md ]
S JJ' ed = t=2,4,6 Ω t | 4 f n [ S,L ]J U t 4 f n ' [ S ' L ' ] J ' | 2
Ω= ( M ' M ) 1 M ' S jj' ed
S jj' md =( 2mc ) f n [ SL ]J L+2S f n [ S ' L ' ] J ' 2
A JJ' ed = 64 π 4 e 2 3h( 2J+1 ) λ 3 n ( n 2 +2 ) 2 9 S JJ' ed
A JJ' md = 64 π 4 e 2 3h( 2J+1 ) λ 3 n 3 S JJ' md
A J = J ' A J J '
β JJ' = A J J ' A J

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