Abstract

Bulk laser damage variability in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals is well known and makes online conditioning of multiple-beam laser systems difficult to optimize. By using an empirical model, called Absorption Distribution Model (ADM), we were able to map the damage variability of the crystals (boule to boule as well as within same boule) in terms of defect population variations. The defect population variation was found to coalesce into two distinct groupings that can be identified by the defect population in the late growth region of the boule. This result allows us to optimize the conditioning protocol for an arbitrary number of beams with crystals of differing damage quality.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).
  4. M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 348 (2001).
  5. M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 408 (2000).
  6. A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).
  7. S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031S (2007).
  11. M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).
  12. C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2008).
  14. Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Spaeth, “Absorption distribution model,” LLNL Internal Presentation (2007).
  16. C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–82 (2003).
  18. J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910X (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).
  20. M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).
  21. C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. Z. M. Liao, J. Huebel, J. Trenholme, K. Manes, and C. W. Carr, “Modeling max-of-N fluence distribution using measured shot-to-shot beam contrast,” Appl. Opt. 50(20), 3547–3552 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2008).

2007 (2)

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031S (2007).

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910X (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–82 (2003).

2002 (1)

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 348 (2001).

2000 (2)

M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 408 (2000).

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).

1999 (1)

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

1982 (1)

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[Crossref]

Adams, J.

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2008).

Adams, J. J.

Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).

Auerbach, J.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 348 (2001).

Bertussi, B.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biesiada, T.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bruere, J.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

Bude, J. D.

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burnham, A.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 348 (2001).

Burnham, A. K.

M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 408 (2000).

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).

Capoulade, J.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carman, M. L.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).

Carr, C. W.

Z. M. Liao, J. Huebel, J. Trenholme, K. Manes, and C. W. Carr, “Modeling max-of-N fluence distribution using measured shot-to-shot beam contrast,” Appl. Opt. 50(20), 3547–3552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).

Damiani, D.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

De Yoreo, J.

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

De Yoreo, J. J.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[Crossref]

DeMange, P.

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031S (2007).

Demos, S. G.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031S (2007).

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[Crossref]

DeYoreo, J.

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dixit, S.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feit, M.

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2008).

Feit, M. D.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910X (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–82 (2003).

Hackel, R. P.

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2008).

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).

Hahn, D.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).

Huebel, J.

Hutcheon, I.

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jarboe, J. A.

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2008).

Lawson, J.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liao, Z. M.

Manes, K.

Mathis, H.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

Menapace, J.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Milam, D.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[Crossref]

Natoli, J. Y.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

Neeb, K.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 348 (2001).

Negres, R. A.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031S (2007).

Nostrand, M.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

Nostrand, M. C.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Parham, T.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Piombini, H.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pommiès, M.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

Radousky, H. B.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rainer, F.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910X (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–82 (2003).

Runkel, M.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 348 (2001).

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).

M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 408 (2000).

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

Sell, W.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

Spaeth, M. L.

Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).

Staggs, M.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 348 (2001).

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stokowski, S.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[Crossref]

Swain, J.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[Crossref]

Swift, D.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Torres, R.

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

Torres, R. A.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).

Trenholme, J.

Trenholme, J. B.

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910X (2005).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weiland, T.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

Whitman, P.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Whitman, P. K.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).

Williams, W.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Woods, B.

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

Zaitseva, N.

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

Zaitseva, N. P.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031S (2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (13)

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–82 (2003).

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910X (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 4392, 405 (2002).

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2008).

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031S (2007).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 211 (1997).

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2966, 11–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265 (2004).

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 348 (2001).

M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 408 (2000).

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 373 (2000).

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Spaeth, “Absorption distribution model,” LLNL Internal Presentation (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a DKDP boule with growth regions and an illustration of precursor defects with different sizes (a) and densities (α). Filled-in circles denote Type 1 precursors and open circles denote Type 2 precursors (see theory section).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Damage probability measurement (S/1-circle, R/1-filled dot) (a) and corresponding parameters of Type 1 and Type 2 absorption distribution as extracted by ADM model (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Damage density ρ(ϕ) measurement with ADM prediction (a) and corresponding precursor density distribution used by ADM (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Defect parameter histogram for absorption mean (μ) on left (a) and for absorption standard deviation (σ) on (b) for both Type 1 (filled) and Type 2 (not-filled) precursor types.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Plot of Type 1 vs. Type 2 absorption parameters (mean, μ - open symbol, standard deviation, σ - filled symbol) for all data on all boules. (b) grouped plot of Type 1 vs. Type 2 absorption parameter for FG (circle) and LG for LL16 boule only.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of Type 1 vs. Type 2 defect mean absorption for each boule and the relationship between the FG and LG as indicated by the direction of the arrow.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Type 1 defect mean absorption (μ1) vs. precursor density N for Group A boules (data – circular blue, fit blue line) and Group B boules (data – red square, fit red line). Data from ungrouped boules (lack of LG data) were marked as green triangles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contour plot of the conditioning map showing the number of damage initiations (in log units) for a nominal boule from Group A (left graph) vs. the worst outlier boule from Group B (right graph), the optimal conditioning sequence to reach 8 J/cm2 for each boule is shown in red solid line.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Boule samples with various damage testing data

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ρ(ϕ,a)= α x (ϕ,a) f(α) dα
f(α)= 1 σ 2π e (αμ) 2 2 σ 2
ρ(ϕ)= a min a max n(a)Ρ(ϕ,a)da
n(a)= N(b1) a b ( a min 1b a max 1b )
N( μ 1 )={ 7 10 4 e 0.194 μ 1 Type A 8 10 3 e 0.194 μ 1 Type B
X( ϕ OP , ϕ C ) =V ρ( ϕ OP ; ϕ C )f(ϕ; ϕ OP , ϕ σ )dϕ

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