Abstract

Bulk laser damage variability in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals is well known and makes online conditioning of multiple-beam laser systems difficult to optimize. By using an empirical model, called Absorption Distribution Model (ADM), we were able to map the damage variability of the crystals (boule to boule as well as within same boule) in terms of defect population variations. The defect population variation was found to coalesce into two distinct groupings that can be identified by the defect population in the late growth region of the boule. This result allows us to optimize the conditioning protocol for an arbitrary number of beams with crystals of differing damage quality.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(4), 350–352 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).
  4. M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).
  5. M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 408 (2000).
  6. A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).
  7. S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE6403, 64031S (2007).
  11. M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).
  12. C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE6720, 672014 (2008).
  14. Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Spaeth, “Absorption distribution model,” LLNL Internal Presentation (2007).
  16. C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B82(18), 184304 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5273, 74–82 (2003).
  18. J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE5991, 59910X (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).
  20. M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).
  21. C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. M. Liao, J. Huebel, J. Trenholme, K. Manes, and C. W. Carr, “Modeling max-of-N fluence distribution using measured shot-to-shot beam contrast,” Appl. Opt.50(20), 3547–3552 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2008

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE6720, 672014 (2008).

2007

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE6403, 64031S (2007).

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE5991, 59910X (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).

2003

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5273, 74–82 (2003).

2002

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

2001

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).

2000

M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 408 (2000).

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).

1999

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

1982

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J.

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE6720, 672014 (2008).

Adams, J. J.

Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).

Auerbach, J.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).

Bertussi, B.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biesiada, T.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruere, J.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

Bude, J. D.

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B82(18), 184304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, A.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).

Burnham, A. K.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).

M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 408 (2000).

Capoulade, J.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carman, M. L.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).

Carr, C. W.

Z. M. Liao, J. Huebel, J. Trenholme, K. Manes, and C. W. Carr, “Modeling max-of-N fluence distribution using measured shot-to-shot beam contrast,” Appl. Opt.50(20), 3547–3552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B82(18), 184304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).

Damiani, D.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Yoreo, J.

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

De Yoreo, J. J.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DeMange, P.

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B82(18), 184304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE6403, 64031S (2007).

Demos, S. G.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE6403, 64031S (2007).

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DeYoreo, J.

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE6720, 672014 (2008).

Feit, M. D.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE5991, 59910X (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5273, 74–82 (2003).

Hackel, R. P.

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE6720, 672014 (2008).

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).

Hahn, D.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).

Huebel, J.

Hutcheon, I.

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jarboe, J. A.

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE6720, 672014 (2008).

Lawson, J.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Z. M.

Manes, K.

Mathis, H.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J. Y.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neeb, K.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).

Negres, R. A.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE6403, 64031S (2007).

Nostrand, M.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

Nostrand, M. C.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parham, T.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piombini, H.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pommiès, M.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE5991, 59910X (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5273, 74–82 (2003).

Runkel, M.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).

M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 408 (2000).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sell, W.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

Spaeth, M. L.

Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).

Staggs, M.

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stokowski, S.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Swain, J.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Swift, D.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torres, R.

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torres, R. A.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).

Trenholme, J.

Trenholme, J. B.

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE5991, 59910X (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiland, T.

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

Whitman, P.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, P. K.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).

Williams, W.

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B.

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

Zaitseva, N.

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zaitseva, N. P.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE6403, 64031S (2007).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B82(18), 184304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5273, 74–82 (2003).

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE5991, 59910X (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).

J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE6720, 672014 (2008).

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE6403, 64031S (2007).

M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).

M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).

M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).

M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 408 (2000).

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).

P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Spaeth, “Absorption distribution model,” LLNL Internal Presentation (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a DKDP boule with growth regions and an illustration of precursor defects with different sizes (a) and densities (α). Filled-in circles denote Type 1 precursors and open circles denote Type 2 precursors (see theory section).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Damage probability measurement (S/1-circle, R/1-filled dot) (a) and corresponding parameters of Type 1 and Type 2 absorption distribution as extracted by ADM model (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Damage density ρ(ϕ) measurement with ADM prediction (a) and corresponding precursor density distribution used by ADM (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Defect parameter histogram for absorption mean (μ) on left (a) and for absorption standard deviation (σ) on (b) for both Type 1 (filled) and Type 2 (not-filled) precursor types.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Plot of Type 1 vs. Type 2 absorption parameters (mean, μ - open symbol, standard deviation, σ - filled symbol) for all data on all boules. (b) grouped plot of Type 1 vs. Type 2 absorption parameter for FG (circle) and LG for LL16 boule only.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of Type 1 vs. Type 2 defect mean absorption for each boule and the relationship between the FG and LG as indicated by the direction of the arrow.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Type 1 defect mean absorption (μ1) vs. precursor density N for Group A boules (data – circular blue, fit blue line) and Group B boules (data – red square, fit red line). Data from ungrouped boules (lack of LG data) were marked as green triangles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contour plot of the conditioning map showing the number of damage initiations (in log units) for a nominal boule from Group A (left graph) vs. the worst outlier boule from Group B (right graph), the optimal conditioning sequence to reach 8 J/cm2 for each boule is shown in red solid line.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Boule samples with various damage testing data

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ρ(ϕ,a)= α x (ϕ,a) f(α) dα
f(α)= 1 σ 2π e (αμ) 2 2 σ 2
ρ(ϕ)= a min a max n(a)Ρ(ϕ,a)da
n(a)= N(b1) a b ( a min 1b a max 1b )
N( μ 1 )={ 7 10 4 e 0.194 μ 1 Type A 8 10 3 e 0.194 μ 1 Type B
X( ϕ OP , ϕ C ) =V ρ( ϕ OP ; ϕ C )f(ϕ; ϕ OP , ϕ σ )dϕ

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