Abstract

Liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers and optofluidic devices require infiltration with a variety of liquids whose linear optical properties are still not well known over a broad spectral range, particularly in the near infrared. Hence, dispersion and absorption properties in the visible and near-infrared wavelength region have been determined for distilled water, heavy water, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, ethanol, carbon disulfide, and nitrobenzene at a temperature of 20 °C. For the refractive index measurement a standard Abbe refractometer in combination with a white light laser and a technique to calculate correction terms to compensate for the dispersion of the glass prism has been used. New refractive index data and derived dispersion formulas between a wavelength of 500 nm and 1600 nm are presented in good agreement with sparsely existing reference data in this wavelength range. The absorption coefficient has been deduced from the difference of the losses of several identically prepared liquid filled glass cells or tubes of different lengths. We present absorption data in the wavelength region between 500 nm and 1750 nm.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (5)

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature (London)442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, J. Teipel, and H. Giessen, “Theoretical design of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express14, 6800–6812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Samoc, “Dispersion of refractive properties of solvents: Chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 6167–6174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water: II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt.36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

K. C. Kao and T. W. Davies, “Spectrophotometric studies of ultra low loss optical glasses 1: single beam method,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.1, 1063–1068 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

Baron, A.

Bethge, J.

Bi, Y. F.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.107, 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carl Zeiss, AG

AG Carl Zeiss, Engineering drawing for the measuring prism 7, Oberkochen, Germany.

AG Carl Zeiss, Correction tables for the Abbe rfractometer model A with serial number 7, Oberkochen, Germany.

Curcio, J.

Daimon, M.

Davies, T. W.

K. C. Kao and T. W. Davies, “Spectrophotometric studies of ultra low loss optical glasses 1: single beam method,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.1, 1063–1068 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Delaye, P.

DeSimone, A.

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Frey, R.

Fry, E. S.

Gao, W.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.107, 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

M. Vieweg, S. Pricking, T. Gissibl, Y. V. Kartashov, L. Torner, and H. Giessen, “Tunable ultrafast nonlinear optofluidic coupler,” Opt. Lett.37, 1058–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, Y. V. Kartashov, L. Torner, and H. Giessen, “Spatial solitons in optofluidic waveguide arrays with focusing ultrafast Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Lett.37, 2454–2456 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pricking and H. Giessen, “Generalized retarded response of nonlinear media and its influence on soliton dynamics,” Opt. Express19, 2895–2903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pricking, M. Vieweg, and H. Giessen, “Influence of the retarded response on an ultrafast nonlinear optofluidic fiber coupler,” Opt. Express19, 21673–21679 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Metzger, A. Steinmann, F. Hoos, S. Pricking, and H. Giessen, “Compact laser source for high-power white-light and widely tunable sub 65 fs laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.35, 3961–3963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear optofluidics in selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express18, 25232–25240 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, J. Teipel, and H. Giessen, “Theoretical design of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express14, 6800–6812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, J. Teipel, X. Zhang, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Group velocity dispersion of tapered fibers immersed in different liquids,” Opt. Express12, 1700–1707 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gissibl, T.

Griebner, U.

Hales, J. M.

Herrmann, J.

Hoos, F.

Husakou, A.

Huy, M. C. P.

Kao, K. C.

K. C. Kao and T. W. Davies, “Spectrophotometric studies of ultra low loss optical glasses 1: single beam method,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.1, 1063–1068 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kartashov, Y. V.

Kieu, K.

Köser, J.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lebrun, S.

Li, J. Y.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.107, 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Masumura, A.

Merzlyak, E.

Metzger, B.

Mitschke, F.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nau, D.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

D. N. Nikogosyan, “Chapter 8: Liquids,” in Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials: A Handbook, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1997), pp. 400–495.

Noack, F.

Norwood, R. A.

Perry, J. W.

Petty, C.

Peyghambarian, N.

Pope, R. M.

Pricking, S.

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature (London)442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature (London)442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rheims, J.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, A.

A. Samoc, “Dispersion of refractive properties of solvents: Chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 6167–6174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schneebeli, L.

Schott, AG

AG Schott, Refractive index of SF 13, Mainz, Germany.

Steinmann, A.

Steinmeyer, G.

Sun, D.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.107, 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Teipel, J.

Torner, L.

Vieweg, M.

Wang, Y. L.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.107, 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Section 5: Liquids,” in Handbook of Optical Materials, (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2003), pp. 373–393.

Wriedt, T.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. C.

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature (London)442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Zhang, X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.107, 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Samoc, “Dispersion of refractive properties of solvents: Chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 6167–6174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. C. Kao and T. W. Davies, “Spectrophotometric studies of ultra low loss optical glasses 1: single beam method,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.1, 1063–1068 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature (London)442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (6)

D. N. Nikogosyan, “Chapter 8: Liquids,” in Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials: A Handbook, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1997), pp. 400–495.

M. J. Weber, “Section 5: Liquids,” in Handbook of Optical Materials, (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2003), pp. 373–393.

AG Carl Zeiss, Correction tables for the Abbe rfractometer model A with serial number 7, Oberkochen, Germany.

AG Carl Zeiss, Engineering drawing for the measuring prism 7, Oberkochen, Germany.

AG Schott, Refractive index of SF 13, Mainz, Germany.

Thorlabs, Bandpass filter, http://www.thorlabs.de/navigation.cfm?Guide_ID=2210 .

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: CSV (27 KB)     
» Media 2: CSV (25 KB)     
» Media 3: CSV (28 KB)     
» Media 4: CSV (23 KB)     
» Media 5: CSV (28 KB)     
» Media 6: CSV (28 KB)     

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Beam path in the Abbe refractometer: in transmission mode (solid line) the incoming light passes the illumination prism and is scattered in all directions at the rough surface. However, the light is only transmitted into the measuring prism if the incident angle is below the angle of total reflection αT. The image displays a sharp separation between the bright and dark range. The image is observed with a telescope and the point of intersection of the reticle has to be adjusted to this separation line. One can then read the measured refractive index nliq from a scale of the refractometer; in reflection mode (dotted line) the measuring prism is directly illuminated and the incoming light is only reflected in the angular range above the angle of total reflection. Hence, the bright and the dark range are interchanged which does not affect the deflection angle β which has a fixed geometrical relationship to the measured refractive index (see Eq. (5)). ϕ is the prism apex angle which is 63 °in our case.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion of refractive index of the measuring prism made of SF13. The data points (diamonds) are listed in the datasheet from the glass manufacturer Schott [25]. The calculated Cauchy dispersion formula (blue line) is given in Eq. (7).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The calculated correction term Δnliq (blue line) for our Abbe refractometer from Eq. (6) as a function of the measured refractive index nliq at a wavelength of (a) 500 nm and (b) 680 nm in comparison with original data (dashed line) from a correction table provided by Carl Zeiss AG [23].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absolute values of the calculated correction terms Δnliq for our Abbe refractometer from Eq. (6) as a function of the measured refractive index nliq for different wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental setup for refractive index measurements with the Abbe refractometer in the visible and near-infrared in transmission mode. In reflection mode one directly illuminates the measuring prism. (b) Abbe refractometer model A from Carl Zeiss.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

White light spectra of (a) a Ti:Sapphire laser with a 2.5μm thick tapered fiber and (b) a PolarOnyx laser with a 3.0μm thick tapered fiber with 80 mm waist length.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Experimental setup for absorption measurements in the visible and near-infrared. (b) Glass cells and stainless steel tubes enclosed with glass plates.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dispersion of the linear refractive index of liquid water at a temperature of 20 °C. Diamonds represent the experimental data listed in Table 1; the solid red curve is the calculated Sellmeier dispersion formula given in Table 3; for comparison we also plotted the reference data as squares and the corresponding dispersion curve (dashed black line) from Ref. [18]. Circles are published data extracted from Refs. [16, 21].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dispersion of the linear refractive index of liquid heavy water at a temperature of 20 °C. Diamonds represent the experimental data listed in Table 1; the solid red curve represents the calculated Sellmeier dispersion formula given in Table 3; for comparison we also plotted the reference data as squares and the corresponding dispersion curve (dashed black line) from Ref. [21].

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dispersion of the linear refractive index of liquid chloroform at a temperature of 20 °C. Diamonds represent the experimental data listed in Table 2; the solid red curve is the calculated Sellmeier dispersion formula given in Table 3; also shown is for comparison the reference data from Ref. [22] as squares.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dispersion of the linear refractive index of liquid carbon tetrachloride at a temperature of 20 °C. Diamonds represent the experimental data listed in Table 2; the solid red curve is the calculated Cauchy dispersion formula given in Table 3; for comparison we show the reference data from Refs. [16, 21, 22] as squares.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dispersion of the linear refractive index of liquid toluene at a temperature of 20 °C. Diamonds represent the experimental data listed in Table 1; the solid red curve is the calculated Cauchy dispersion formula given in Table 4; for comparison we also plotted the reference data from Refs. [16, 22] as squares as well as the dispersion curve (dashed black line) from Ref. [15].

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dispersion of the linear refractive index of liquid ethanol at a temperature of 20 °C. Diamonds represent the experimental data listed in Table 1; the solid red curve is the calculated Sellmeier dispersion formula given in Table 4; for comparison we also plotted the reference data as squares from Refs. [16, 21, 22] and the dispersion curve (dashed black line) from Ref. [16].

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dispersion of the linear refractive index of liquid carbon disulfide at a temperature of 20 °C. Diamonds represent the experimental data listed in Table 2; the solid red curve is the calculated Cauchy dispersion formula given in Table 4; for comparison we also plotted the dispersion curve (dashed black line) from Ref. [15].

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Dispersion of the linear refractive index of liquid nitrobenzene at a temperature of 20 °C. Diamonds represent the experimental data listed in Table 2; the solid red curve is the calculated Cauchy dispersion formula given in Table 4; for comparison we also plotted the reference data from Ref. [22] as squares.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Measured absorption coefficient of liquid distilled water at a temperature of 20 °C on (a) linear and (b) logarithmic scale as a function of wavelength. For comparison to our measured values (solid red line) we also plotted linearised reference data (dashed black line) from Ref. [22] ( Media 1).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Measured absorption coefficient of liquid heavy water at a temperature of 20 °C on (a) linear and (b) logarithmic scale as a function of wavelength ( Media 2).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Measured absorption coefficient of liquid chloroform at a temperature of 20 °C on (a) linear and (b) logarithmic scale as a function of wavelength ( Media 3).

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Measured absorption coefficient of liquid carbon tetrachloride at a temperature of 20 °C on (a) linear and (b) logarithmic scale as a function of wavelength ( Media 4).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Measured absorption coefficient of liquid toluene at a temperature of 20 °C on (a) linear and (b) logarithmic scale as a function of wavelength ( Media 5).

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Measured absorption coefficient of liquid ethanol at a temperature of 20 °C on (a) linear and (b) logarithmic scale as a function of wavelength ( Media 6).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental values of the refractive index of distilled water, heavy water, ethanol, and toluene at a temperature of 20 °C.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental values of the refractive index of carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and nitrobenzene at a temperature of 20 °C.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Constants of Sellmeier and Cauchy formula of distilled water, heavy water, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride at a temperature of 20 °C.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Constants of Sellmeier and Cauchy formula of toluene, ethanol, carbon disulfide, and nitrobenzene at a temperature of 20 °C.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n liq = n pr sin α T .
n liq ( λ , T ) = sin ϕ n pr 2 ( λ ) sin 2 β ( λ , T ) cos ϕ sin β ( λ , T ) .
n liq ( λ , T ) = n liq ( λ , T ) + Δ n liq ( λ , n liq ) .
n liq ( λ D , T ) = sin ϕ n pr 2 ( λ D ) sin 2 β ( λ D , T ) cos ϕ sin β ( λ D , T ) .
sin β ( λ , T ) = sin ϕ n pr 2 ( λ D ) n liq 2 ( λ , T ) n liq ( λ , T ) cos ϕ .
n liq ( λ , T , n liq ) = sin ϕ [ n pr 2 ( λ ) ( sin ϕ n pr 2 ( λ D ) n liq 2 ( λ , T ) n liq ( λ , T ) cos ϕ ) 2 ] 1 / 2 cos ϕ ( sin ϕ n pr 2 ( λ D ) n liq 2 ( λ , T ) n liq ( λ , T ) cos ϕ ) .
n pr = 1.70708 + 10943.47279 λ 2 + 2.54416 × 10 8 λ 4 + 3.46802 × 10 13 λ 6 2.93242 × 10 9 λ 2 .
I ( L ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( α L ) .
I liq ( L 1 , λ ) I empty ( L 1 , λ ) I empty ( L 2 , λ ) I liq ( L 2 , λ ) = exp ( α ( L 2 L 1 ) ) .
α ( λ ) = ln ( I liq ( L 1 , λ ) I liq ( L 2 , λ ) I empty ( L 2 , λ ) I empty ( L 1 , λ ) ) L 2 L 1 .
Δ n liq = | n liq n pr | Δ n pr + | n liq n liq | Δ n liq .
n 2 ( λ ) = 1 + A 1 λ 2 λ 2 B 1 + A 2 λ 2 λ 2 B 2 ,
n 2 ( λ ) = 1 + A 1 λ 2 λ 2 B 1 1 + A 1 ( 1 + B 1 λ 2 + B 1 2 λ 4 ) = C 0 + C 1 λ 2 + C 2 λ 4 .
n 2 ( λ ) = C 0 + C 1 λ 2 + C 2 λ 4 + C 3 λ 2 .

Metrics