Abstract

Multiple Bragg nanograting stop bands are reported for the first time in single and multi-mode optical waveguides generated by femtosecond laser direct writing in bulk fused silica glass. The stop bands observed in the guided broadband light spectra originated with the orthogonal alignment of volume nanogratings co-generated with the waveguides. Rapid shifting of stop bands across the near UV and visible spectrum was sensitively controlled by laser exposure and sample scanning direction. Bragg periods anticipated from the observed stop bands concurred with the nanograting structural pitches revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The spectroscopic characterization of nanogratings along macroscopic-scale (12.5 mm long) waveguide sections constitutes a non-destructive, convenient and sensitive approach to examine long-range order and uniformity of the self-organized periodic structures that may assist to unravel the laser-glass interaction physics of nanograting formation.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

S. Ho, P. R. Herman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures: recent approaches to explain their sub-wavelength periodicities,” Proc. SPIE7994, 79940M (2011).

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits,” Opt. Express19(19), 18294–18301 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-19-18294 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2008

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, J.-C. Poulin, and S. Ani-Joseph, “Non reciprocal writing and chirality in femtosecond laser irradiated silica,” Opt. Express16(22), 18354–18361 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-22-18354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Nanograting formation on the surface of silica glass by scanning focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2713–2715 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, A. R. Libertun, and R. Piestun, “Polarization selective computer-generated holograms realized in glass by femtosecond laser induced nanogratings,” Opt. Express14(9), 3785–3791 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-14-9-3785 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=116350 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1983

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, “Laser induced periodic surface structure on solids: a universal phenomenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.49(26), 1955–1958 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. E.

Aitchison, J. S.

S. Ho, P. R. Herman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits,” Opt. Express19(19), 18294–18301 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-19-18294 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ani-Joseph, S.

Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A. Y.

Backus, S.

Baumberg, J. J.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bellouard, Y.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Block, E.

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures: recent approaches to explain their sub-wavelength periodicities,” Proc. SPIE7994, 79940M (2011).

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=116350 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bricchi, E.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=116350 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Cavallotti, P. L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Corkum, P. B.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Döring, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dreisow, F.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Eaton, S. M.

Fernandes, L. A.

Grenier, J. R.

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, F.

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, M.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S.

S. Ho, P. R. Herman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kazansky, P. G.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=116350 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keil, R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleinfeld, D.

Korovin, A. V.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures: recent approaches to explain their sub-wavelength periodicities,” Proc. SPIE7994, 79940M (2011).

Lancry, M.

Laporta, P.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, F.

Liao, Y.

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Libertun, A. R.

Magagnin, L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Marques, P. V.

Maselli, V.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Midorikawa, K.

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mills, J. D.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Miura, K.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piestun, R.

Poulin, J.-C.

Poumellec, B.

Preston, J. S.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, L. P. R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures: recent approaches to explain their sub-wavelength periodicities,” Proc. SPIE7994, 79940M (2011).

Sakakura, M.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, “Laser induced periodic surface structure on solids: a universal phenomenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.49(26), 1955–1958 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

Sugioka, K.

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnermann, A.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, “Laser induced periodic surface structure on solids: a universal phenomenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.49(26), 1955–1958 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vitek, D. N.

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Xu, Z.

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=116350 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, “Laser induced periodic surface structure on solids: a universal phenomenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.49(26), 1955–1958 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B.

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

S. Ho, P. R. Herman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, Y. Liao, F. He, B. Zeng, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Tuning etch selectivity of fused silica irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses by controlling polarization of the writing pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.109(5), 053114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=116350 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits,” Opt. Express19(19), 18294–18301 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-19-18294 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, A. R. Libertun, and R. Piestun, “Polarization selective computer-generated holograms realized in glass by femtosecond laser induced nanogratings,” Opt. Express14(9), 3785–3791 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-14-9-3785 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, J.-C. Poulin, and S. Ani-Joseph, “Non reciprocal writing and chirality in femtosecond laser irradiated silica,” Opt. Express16(22), 18354–18361 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-22-18354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Vitek, E. Block, Y. Bellouard, D. E. Adams, S. Backus, D. Kleinfeld, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express18(24), 24673–24678 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/fulltext.cfm?uri=oe-18-24-24673&id=207185 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, “Laser induced periodic surface structure on solids: a universal phenomenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.49(26), 1955–1958 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures: recent approaches to explain their sub-wavelength periodicities,” Proc. SPIE7994, 79940M (2011).

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Birefringent elements based on femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings,” Proc. SPIE7589, 758919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic arrangement for transmission spectral characterization of nanograting embedded waveguides written in fused silica glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmission spectra of waveguides formed with –Y (a-d, black traces), + Y (d, blue trace), + X (e-h, black traces), and –X (h, blue trace) directional scanning at 0.25-mm/s (a-c, e-g) and 0.1-mm/s (d, h) speed and 75-nJ (a, e), 50-nJ (b, d, f, h), and 30-nJ (c, g) laser pulse energy. Red dashed lines were simulated for each spectrum following 1/λ4 scaling of Rayleigh scattering loss. The blue dashed trace in (b) shows the fast Fourier transform spectrum as derived from the corresponding nanograting SEM images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bragg stop band peak wavelength observed as a function of sample scanning speed from nanograting waveguides formed at the labeled pulse energy and + (red) or – (black) scanning directions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of nanograting waveguides formed with 75-nJ (a), 50-nJ (b, d) and 30- nJ (c) laser pulse energy and 0.25-mm/s scanning speed along –Y (a, b, c) and + X (d) directions. The side scales have periods of 145 nm (red), 125 nm (green), 165 nm (yellow) and 118 nm (blue).

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