Abstract

We demonstrate CVD in situ doping of Ge by utilizing phosphorus delta-doping for the creation of a high dopant diffusion source. Multiple monolayer delta doping creates source phosphorous concentrations above 1 × 1020cm−3, and uniform activated dopant concentrations above 4 × 1019cm−3 in a 600-800nm thick Ge layer after in-diffusion. By controlling dopant out-diffusion, near-complete incorporation of phosphorus diffusion source is shown.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon2(1), 1–6 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Kasper, M. Oehme, T. Aguirov, J. Werner, M. Kittler, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band gap emission from Ge p-i-n heterojunction photodiodes,” in Proceedings of Group IV Photonics 2010 (2010).
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  7. S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 µm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 679–681 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and T. L. Koch, “Band-engineered Ge as gain medium for Si-based laser,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (IPNRA) Topical Meeting, (Boston, MA, USA, 2008).
  12. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Sun, “Ge-on-Si light-emitting materials and devices for silicon photonics,” Ph.D. dissertation (MIT, 2009).
  14. S. Brotzmann and H. Bracht, “Intrinsic and extrinsic diffusion of phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Optical bleaching of thin film Ge on Si,” ECS Trans.16, 881–889 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. J. Bass, “Silicon and germanium doping of epitaxial gallium arsenide grown by the trimethylgallium-arsine method,” J. Cryst. Growth47(5-6), 613–618 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. E. C. Wood, G. Metze, J. Berry, and L. F. Eastman, “Complex free-carrier profile synthesis by ‘atomic-plane’ doping of MBE GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 383–387 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. C. T. Lee, and M. Y. Simmons, “Ultradense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 162106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, and M. Y. Simmons, “Dual-temperature encapsulation of phosphorus in germanium delta layers toward ultra-shallow junctions,” J. Cryst. Growth316(1), 81–84 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S.-M. Jang, K. Liao, and R. Reif, “Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon-germanium from silane and germane. II. In situ boron, arsenic, and phosphorus doping,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(10), 3520–3527 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, J. Bessette, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” submitted (2012).
  26. R. Olesinski, N. Kanani, and G. Abbaschian, “The Ge−P (germanium-phosphorus) system,” J. Phase Equilibria6, 262–266 (1985).

2012

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, and M. Y. Simmons, “Dual-temperature encapsulation of phosphorus in germanium delta layers toward ultra-shallow junctions,” J. Cryst. Growth316(1), 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 µm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. C. T. Lee, and M. Y. Simmons, “Ultradense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 162106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Brotzmann and H. Bracht, “Intrinsic and extrinsic diffusion of phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Optical bleaching of thin film Ge on Si,” ECS Trans.16, 881–889 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

S.-M. Jang, K. Liao, and R. Reif, “Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon-germanium from silane and germane. II. In situ boron, arsenic, and phosphorus doping,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(10), 3520–3527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. Olesinski, N. Kanani, and G. Abbaschian, “The Ge−P (germanium-phosphorus) system,” J. Phase Equilibria6, 262–266 (1985).

1980

C. E. C. Wood, G. Metze, J. Berry, and L. F. Eastman, “Complex free-carrier profile synthesis by ‘atomic-plane’ doping of MBE GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 383–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

S. J. Bass, “Silicon and germanium doping of epitaxial gallium arsenide grown by the trimethylgallium-arsine method,” J. Cryst. Growth47(5-6), 613–618 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abbaschian, G.

R. Olesinski, N. Kanani, and G. Abbaschian, “The Ge−P (germanium-phosphorus) system,” J. Phase Equilibria6, 262–266 (1985).

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aniel, F.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bass, S. J.

S. J. Bass, “Silicon and germanium doping of epitaxial gallium arsenide grown by the trimethylgallium-arsine method,” J. Cryst. Growth47(5-6), 613–618 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, G.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, A.

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berry, J.

C. E. C. Wood, G. Metze, J. Berry, and L. F. Eastman, “Complex free-carrier profile synthesis by ‘atomic-plane’ doping of MBE GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 383–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, T.

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bracht, H.

S. Brotzmann and H. Bracht, “Intrinsic and extrinsic diffusion of phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brotzmann, S.

S. Brotzmann and H. Bracht, “Intrinsic and extrinsic diffusion of phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Capellini, G.

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, and M. Y. Simmons, “Dual-temperature encapsulation of phosphorus in germanium delta layers toward ultra-shallow junctions,” J. Cryst. Growth316(1), 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. C. T. Lee, and M. Y. Simmons, “Ultradense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 162106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.-L.

Clarysse, T.

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Kersauson, M.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, R.

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

C. E. C. Wood, G. Metze, J. Berry, and L. F. Eastman, “Complex free-carrier profile synthesis by ‘atomic-plane’ doping of MBE GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 383–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

El Kurdi, M.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gossmann, H.

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, D. C.

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jakomin, R.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S.-M.

S.-M. Jang, K. Liao, and R. Reif, “Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon-germanium from silane and germane. II. In situ boron, arsenic, and phosphorus doping,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(10), 3520–3527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Janssens, T.

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanani, N.

R. Olesinski, N. Kanani, and G. Abbaschian, “The Ge−P (germanium-phosphorus) system,” J. Phase Equilibria6, 262–266 (1985).

Kimerling, L. C.

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Optical bleaching of thin film Ge on Si,” ECS Trans.16, 881–889 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klesse, W. M.

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, and M. Y. Simmons, “Dual-temperature encapsulation of phosphorus in germanium delta layers toward ultra-shallow junctions,” J. Cryst. Growth316(1), 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. C. T.

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. C. T. Lee, and M. Y. Simmons, “Ultradense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 162106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, K.

S.-M. Jang, K. Liao, and R. Reif, “Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon-germanium from silane and germane. II. In situ boron, arsenic, and phosphorus doping,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(10), 3520–3527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Optical bleaching of thin film Ge on Si,” ECS Trans.16, 881–889 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Luan, H.-C.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luftman, H. S.

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Metze, G.

C. E. C. Wood, G. Metze, J. Berry, and L. F. Eastman, “Complex free-carrier profile synthesis by ‘atomic-plane’ doping of MBE GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 383–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Meuris, M.

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Optical bleaching of thin film Ge on Si,” ECS Trans.16, 881–889 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

Olesinski, R.

R. Olesinski, N. Kanani, and G. Abbaschian, “The Ge−P (germanium-phosphorus) system,” J. Phase Equilibria6, 262–266 (1985).

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N.

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poate, J. M.

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rafferty, C. S.

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reif, R.

S.-M. Jang, K. Liao, and R. Reif, “Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon-germanium from silane and germane. II. In situ boron, arsenic, and phosphorus doping,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(10), 3520–3527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Sagnes, I.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K.

Satta, A.

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scappucci, G.

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, and M. Y. Simmons, “Dual-temperature encapsulation of phosphorus in germanium delta layers toward ultra-shallow junctions,” J. Cryst. Growth316(1), 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. C. T. Lee, and M. Y. Simmons, “Ultradense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 162106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shambat, G.

Simmons, M. Y.

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, and M. Y. Simmons, “Dual-temperature encapsulation of phosphorus in germanium delta layers toward ultra-shallow junctions,” J. Cryst. Growth316(1), 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. C. T. Lee, and M. Y. Simmons, “Ultradense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 162106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simoen, E.

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Optical bleaching of thin film Ge on Si,” ECS Trans.16, 881–889 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Unterwald, F. C.

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vandervorst, W.

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vredenberg, A. M.

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

Wada, K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wood, C. E. C.

C. E. C. Wood, G. Metze, J. Berry, and L. F. Eastman, “Complex free-carrier profile synthesis by ‘atomic-plane’ doping of MBE GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 383–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.-Y.

Zerounian, N.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. C. T. Lee, and M. Y. Simmons, “Ultradense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 162106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

ECS Trans.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Optical bleaching of thin film Ge on Si,” ECS Trans.16, 881–889 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. E. C. Wood, G. Metze, J. Berry, and L. F. Eastman, “Complex free-carrier profile synthesis by ‘atomic-plane’ doping of MBE GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 383–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Brotzmann and H. Bracht, “Intrinsic and extrinsic diffusion of phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

S. J. Bass, “Silicon and germanium doping of epitaxial gallium arsenide grown by the trimethylgallium-arsine method,” J. Cryst. Growth47(5-6), 613–618 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, and M. Y. Simmons, “Dual-temperature encapsulation of phosphorus in germanium delta layers toward ultra-shallow junctions,” J. Cryst. Growth316(1), 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

S.-M. Jang, K. Liao, and R. Reif, “Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon-germanium from silane and germane. II. In situ boron, arsenic, and phosphorus doping,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(10), 3520–3527 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phase Equilibria

R. Olesinski, N. Kanani, and G. Abbaschian, “The Ge−P (germanium-phosphorus) system,” J. Phase Equilibria6, 262–266 (1985).

Nat. Photonics

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Silicon

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, T. Aguirov, J. Werner, M. Kittler, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band gap emission from Ge p-i-n heterojunction photodiodes,” in Proceedings of Group IV Photonics 2010 (2010).

P. Velha, K. Gallacher, D. C. Dumas, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, and D. J. Paul, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-doped germanium diode,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW1L.7.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and T. L. Koch, “Band-engineered Ge as gain medium for Si-based laser,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (IPNRA) Topical Meeting, (Boston, MA, USA, 2008).

X. Sun, “Ge-on-Si light-emitting materials and devices for silicon photonics,” Ph.D. dissertation (MIT, 2009).

R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, J. Bessette, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” submitted (2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the growth layers. The dopant reservoir are alternating layers of Ge and P. Dopant concentration in Ge increases dramatically in the dopant reservoir without being linear due to slow diffusion into the intrinsic undoped Ge used in the layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of (a) in situ doped Ge and (b) delta doped Ge grown with source grown at 400C. Notice difference in surface roughness which indicates the arrest of epitaxial growth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SIMS profiles of as-grown P delta doped Ge, with P deltas grown at (a) 400°C and (b) 450°C. Dopant diffusion from delta source increases the concentration of P in the underlying high temperature Ge region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SIMS profiles of dopant redistribution from delta doped Ge grown at 400°C. The diffusion of the dopant is time and temperature dependent, becoming more uniform at higher temperatures but limited by outdiffusion at longer times.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of P solid solubility [26] in Ge and observed maximum active carrier concentration of delta doping at different temperatures.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Photoluminescence at RT of Delta Doped Ge Samples under Different RTA Conditions

Metrics