Abstract

Making materials that display angle-independent structural color requires control over both scattering and short-range correlations in the refractive index. We demonstrate a simple way to make such materials by packing core-shell colloidal particles consisting of high-refractive-index cores and soft, transparent shells. The core-shell structure allows us to control the scattering cross-section of the particles independently of the interparticle distance, which sets the resonance condition. At the same time, the softness of the shells makes it easy to assemble disordered structures through centrifugation. We show that packings of these particles display angle-independent structural colors that can be tuned by changing the shell diameter, either by using different particles or simply by varying the concentration of the suspension. The transparency of the suspensions can be tuned independently of the color by changing the core diameter. These materials might be useful for electronic displays, cosmetics, or long-lasting dyes.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. J. V. Sanders, “Colour of precious opal,” Nature204, 1151–1153 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals: Status and prospects,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.48, 6212–6233 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).
  5. R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, “Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs,” Nature396, 28–29 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, J. M. Mendez-Alcaraz, J. J. Sáenz, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 073903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. D. García, R. Sapienza, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Photonic glass: A novel random material for light,” Adv. Mater.19, 2597–2602 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. D. García, R. Sapienza, and C. López, “Photonic glasses: A step beyond white paint,” Adv. Mater.22, 12–19 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, P. Spahn, and T. Ruhl, “Nanoparticle-tuned structural color from polymer opals,” Opt. Express15, 9553–9561 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. J. Baumberg, O. L. Pursiainen, and P. Spahn, “Resonant optical scattering in nanoparticle-doped polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B80, 201103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. P. Velikov, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 49–51 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Ueno, A. Inaba, Y. Sano, M. Kondoh, and M. Watanabe, “A soft glassy colloidal array in ionic liquid, which exhibits homogeneous, non-brilliant and angle-independent structural colours,” Chem. Commun. (24), 3603–3605 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Karg, T. Hellweg, and P. Mulvaney, “Self-assembly of tunable nanocrystal superlattices using poly-(NIPAM) spacers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21, 4668–4676 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Bazin and X. X. Zhu, “Understanding the thermo-sensitivity of crystalline colloidal arrays formed by poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) core-shell microspheres,” Soft Matter8, 1909–1915 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Perro, G. Meng, J. Fung, and V. N. Manoharan, “Design and synthesis of model transparent aqueous colloids with optimal scattering properties,” Langmuir25, 11295–11298 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. F. Rojas, C. Urban, P. Schurtenberger, T. Gisler, and H. H. von Grünberg, “Reappearance of structure in colloidal suspensions,” Europhys. Lett.60, 802–808 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho, and R. H. Ottewill, “Studies on the preparation and characterisation of monodisperse polystyrene latices,” Colloid Polym. Sci.252, 464–471 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Dingenouts, C. Norhausen, and M. Ballauff, “Observation of the volume transition in thermosensitive core-shell latex particles by small-angle x-ray scattering,” Macromolecules31, 8912–8917 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “On interaction between two bodies immersed in a solution of macromolecules,” J. Chem. Phys.22, 1255–1256 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “Interaction between particles suspended in solutions of macromolecules,” J. Polym. Sci.33, 183–192 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2004).
  26. M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3, 793–796 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. C. Maxwell Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A203, 385–420 (1904).
    [CrossRef]

2012

G. Bazin and X. X. Zhu, “Understanding the thermo-sensitivity of crystalline colloidal arrays formed by poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) core-shell microspheres,” Soft Matter8, 1909–1915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Karg, T. Hellweg, and P. Mulvaney, “Self-assembly of tunable nanocrystal superlattices using poly-(NIPAM) spacers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21, 4668–4676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, and C. López, “Photonic glasses: A step beyond white paint,” Adv. Mater.22, 12–19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. J. Baumberg, O. L. Pursiainen, and P. Spahn, “Resonant optical scattering in nanoparticle-doped polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B80, 201103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Perro, G. Meng, J. Fung, and V. N. Manoharan, “Design and synthesis of model transparent aqueous colloids with optimal scattering properties,” Langmuir25, 11295–11298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals: Status and prospects,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueno, A. Inaba, Y. Sano, M. Kondoh, and M. Watanabe, “A soft glassy colloidal array in ionic liquid, which exhibits homogeneous, non-brilliant and angle-independent structural colours,” Chem. Commun. (24), 3603–3605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Photonic glass: A novel random material for light,” Adv. Mater.19, 2597–2602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, P. Spahn, and T. Ruhl, “Nanoparticle-tuned structural color from polymer opals,” Opt. Express15, 9553–9561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3, 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, J. M. Mendez-Alcaraz, J. J. Sáenz, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 073903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

K. P. Velikov, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 49–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Rojas, C. Urban, P. Schurtenberger, T. Gisler, and H. H. von Grünberg, “Reappearance of structure in colloidal suspensions,” Europhys. Lett.60, 802–808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, “Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs,” Nature396, 28–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Dingenouts, C. Norhausen, and M. Ballauff, “Observation of the volume transition in thermosensitive core-shell latex particles by small-angle x-ray scattering,” Macromolecules31, 8912–8917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho, and R. H. Ottewill, “Studies on the preparation and characterisation of monodisperse polystyrene latices,” Colloid Polym. Sci.252, 464–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964

J. V. Sanders, “Colour of precious opal,” Nature204, 1151–1153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1958

S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “Interaction between particles suspended in solutions of macromolecules,” J. Polym. Sci.33, 183–192 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1954

S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “On interaction between two bodies immersed in a solution of macromolecules,” J. Chem. Phys.22, 1255–1256 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1904

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, S.

S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “Interaction between particles suspended in solutions of macromolecules,” J. Polym. Sci.33, 183–192 (1958).
[CrossRef]

S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “On interaction between two bodies immersed in a solution of macromolecules,” J. Chem. Phys.22, 1255–1256 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ballauff, M.

N. Dingenouts, C. Norhausen, and M. Ballauff, “Observation of the volume transition in thermosensitive core-shell latex particles by small-angle x-ray scattering,” Macromolecules31, 8912–8917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3, 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. J. Baumberg, O. L. Pursiainen, and P. Spahn, “Resonant optical scattering in nanoparticle-doped polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B80, 201103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, P. Spahn, and T. Ruhl, “Nanoparticle-tuned structural color from polymer opals,” Opt. Express15, 9553–9561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazin, G.

G. Bazin and X. X. Zhu, “Understanding the thermo-sensitivity of crystalline colloidal arrays formed by poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) core-shell microspheres,” Soft Matter8, 1909–1915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bin Imran, A.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanco, Á.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Photonic glass: A novel random material for light,” Adv. Mater.19, 2597–2602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2004).

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinkmann, R.

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals: Status and prospects,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dingenouts, N.

N. Dingenouts, C. Norhausen, and M. Ballauff, “Observation of the volume transition in thermosensitive core-shell latex particles by small-angle x-ray scattering,” Macromolecules31, 8912–8917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dufresne, E. R.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyck, J.

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, “Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs,” Nature396, 28–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Nieves, A.

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, J. D.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froufe-Pérez, L. S.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fung, J.

A. Perro, G. Meng, J. Fung, and V. N. Manoharan, “Design and synthesis of model transparent aqueous colloids with optimal scattering properties,” Langmuir25, 11295–11298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galisteo-López, J. F.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

García, P. D.

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, and C. López, “Photonic glasses: A step beyond white paint,” Adv. Mater.22, 12–19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Photonic glass: A novel random material for light,” Adv. Mater.19, 2597–2602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gisler, T.

L. F. Rojas, C. Urban, P. Schurtenberger, T. Gisler, and H. H. von Grünberg, “Reappearance of structure in colloidal suspensions,” Europhys. Lett.60, 802–808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, J. W.

J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho, and R. H. Ottewill, “Studies on the preparation and characterisation of monodisperse polystyrene latices,” Colloid Polym. Sci.252, 464–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Harun-Ur-Rashid, M.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hearn, J.

J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho, and R. H. Ottewill, “Studies on the preparation and characterisation of monodisperse polystyrene latices,” Colloid Polym. Sci.252, 464–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hellweg, T.

M. Karg, T. Hellweg, and P. Mulvaney, “Self-assembly of tunable nanocrystal superlattices using poly-(NIPAM) spacers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21, 4668–4676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, C. C.

J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho, and R. H. Ottewill, “Studies on the preparation and characterisation of monodisperse polystyrene latices,” Colloid Polym. Sci.252, 464–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2004).

Ibisate, M.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, A.

K. Ueno, A. Inaba, Y. Sano, M. Kondoh, and M. Watanabe, “A soft glassy colloidal array in ionic liquid, which exhibits homogeneous, non-brilliant and angle-independent structural colours,” Chem. Commun. (24), 3603–3605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).

Johnson, S. G.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).

Karg, M.

M. Karg, T. Hellweg, and P. Mulvaney, “Self-assembly of tunable nanocrystal superlattices using poly-(NIPAM) spacers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21, 4668–4676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kondoh, M.

K. Ueno, A. Inaba, Y. Sano, M. Kondoh, and M. Watanabe, “A soft glassy colloidal array in ionic liquid, which exhibits homogeneous, non-brilliant and angle-independent structural colours,” Chem. Commun. (24), 3603–3605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liew, S. F.

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López, C.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, and C. López, “Photonic glasses: A step beyond white paint,” Adv. Mater.22, 12–19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Photonic glass: A novel random material for light,” Adv. Mater.19, 2597–2602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, V. N.

A. Perro, G. Meng, J. Fung, and V. N. Manoharan, “Design and synthesis of model transparent aqueous colloids with optimal scattering properties,” Langmuir25, 11295–11298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marlow, F.

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals: Status and prospects,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mattsson, J.

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxwell Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).

Mendez-Alcaraz, J. M.

L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, J. M. Mendez-Alcaraz, J. J. Sáenz, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 073903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendive, C.

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals: Status and prospects,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meng, G.

A. Perro, G. Meng, J. Fung, and V. N. Manoharan, “Design and synthesis of model transparent aqueous colloids with optimal scattering properties,” Langmuir25, 11295–11298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, K.

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mochrie, S. G. J.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moroz, A.

K. P. Velikov, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 49–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muldarisnur,

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals: Status and prospects,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mulvaney, P.

M. Karg, T. Hellweg, and P. Mulvaney, “Self-assembly of tunable nanocrystal superlattices using poly-(NIPAM) spacers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21, 4668–4676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, H.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norhausen, C.

N. Dingenouts, C. Norhausen, and M. Ballauff, “Observation of the volume transition in thermosensitive core-shell latex particles by small-angle x-ray scattering,” Macromolecules31, 8912–8917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Hern, C. S.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oosawa, F.

S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “Interaction between particles suspended in solutions of macromolecules,” J. Polym. Sci.33, 183–192 (1958).
[CrossRef]

S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “On interaction between two bodies immersed in a solution of macromolecules,” J. Chem. Phys.22, 1255–1256 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ottewill, R. H.

J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho, and R. H. Ottewill, “Studies on the preparation and characterisation of monodisperse polystyrene latices,” Colloid Polym. Sci.252, 464–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-G.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perro, A.

A. Perro, G. Meng, J. Fung, and V. N. Manoharan, “Design and synthesis of model transparent aqueous colloids with optimal scattering properties,” Langmuir25, 11295–11298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prum, R. O.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, “Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs,” Nature396, 28–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pursiainen, O. L.

J. J. Baumberg, O. L. Pursiainen, and P. Spahn, “Resonant optical scattering in nanoparticle-doped polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B80, 201103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pursiainen, O. L. J.

Reichman, D. R.

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojas, L. F.

L. F. Rojas, C. Urban, P. Schurtenberger, T. Gisler, and H. H. von Grünberg, “Reappearance of structure in colloidal suspensions,” Europhys. Lett.60, 802–808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rojas-Ochoa, L. F.

L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, J. M. Mendez-Alcaraz, J. J. Sáenz, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 073903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruhl, T.

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3, 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sáenz, J. J.

L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, J. M. Mendez-Alcaraz, J. J. Sáenz, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 073903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, J. V.

J. V. Sanders, “Colour of precious opal,” Nature204, 1151–1153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Sano, Y.

K. Ueno, A. Inaba, Y. Sano, M. Kondoh, and M. Watanabe, “A soft glassy colloidal array in ionic liquid, which exhibits homogeneous, non-brilliant and angle-independent structural colours,” Chem. Commun. (24), 3603–3605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sapienza, R.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, and C. López, “Photonic glasses: A step beyond white paint,” Adv. Mater.22, 12–19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Photonic glass: A novel random material for light,” Adv. Mater.19, 2597–2602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saranathan, V.

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheffold, F.

L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, J. M. Mendez-Alcaraz, J. J. Sáenz, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 073903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreck, C. F.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurtenberger, P.

L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, J. M. Mendez-Alcaraz, J. J. Sáenz, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 073903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Rojas, C. Urban, P. Schurtenberger, T. Gisler, and H. H. von Grünberg, “Reappearance of structure in colloidal suspensions,” Europhys. Lett.60, 802–808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharifi, P.

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals: Status and prospects,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spahn, P.

J. J. Baumberg, O. L. Pursiainen, and P. Spahn, “Resonant optical scattering in nanoparticle-doped polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B80, 201103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, P. Spahn, and T. Ruhl, “Nanoparticle-tuned structural color from polymer opals,” Opt. Express15, 9553–9561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeoka, Y.

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, R. H.

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, “Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs,” Nature396, 28–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, K.

K. Ueno, A. Inaba, Y. Sano, M. Kondoh, and M. Watanabe, “A soft glassy colloidal array in ionic liquid, which exhibits homogeneous, non-brilliant and angle-independent structural colours,” Chem. Commun. (24), 3603–3605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urban, C.

L. F. Rojas, C. Urban, P. Schurtenberger, T. Gisler, and H. H. von Grünberg, “Reappearance of structure in colloidal suspensions,” Europhys. Lett.60, 802–808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Blaaderen, A.

K. P. Velikov, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 49–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Velikov, K. P.

K. P. Velikov, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 49–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Viel, B.

von Grünberg, H. H.

L. F. Rojas, C. Urban, P. Schurtenberger, T. Gisler, and H. H. von Grünberg, “Reappearance of structure in colloidal suspensions,” Europhys. Lett.60, 802–808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

K. Ueno, A. Inaba, Y. Sano, M. Kondoh, and M. Watanabe, “A soft glassy colloidal array in ionic liquid, which exhibits homogeneous, non-brilliant and angle-independent structural colours,” Chem. Commun. (24), 3603–3605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, S.

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, “Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs,” Nature396, 28–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, H.

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).

Wyss, H. M.

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X. X.

G. Bazin and X. X. Zhu, “Understanding the thermo-sensitivity of crystalline colloidal arrays formed by poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) core-shell microspheres,” Soft Matter8, 1909–1915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3, 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

M. Karg, T. Hellweg, and P. Mulvaney, “Self-assembly of tunable nanocrystal superlattices using poly-(NIPAM) spacers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21, 4668–4676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Photonic glass: A novel random material for light,” Adv. Mater.19, 2597–2602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. D. García, R. Sapienza, and C. López, “Photonic glasses: A step beyond white paint,” Adv. Mater.22, 12–19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater.23, 30–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, R. O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, and H. Cao, “How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers,” Adv. Mater.22, 2871–2880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Forster, H. Noh, S. F. Liew, V. Saranathan, C. F. Schreck, L. Yang, J.-G. Park, R. O. Prum, S. G. J. Mochrie, C. S. O’Hern, H. Cao, and E. R. Dufresne, “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration,” Adv. Mater.22, 2939–2944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals: Status and prospects,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. P. Velikov, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, “Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 49–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun.

K. Ueno, A. Inaba, Y. Sano, M. Kondoh, and M. Watanabe, “A soft glassy colloidal array in ionic liquid, which exhibits homogeneous, non-brilliant and angle-independent structural colours,” Chem. Commun. (24), 3603–3605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem

M. Harun-Ur-Rashid, A. Bin Imran, T. Seki, M. Ishii, H. Nakamura, and Y. Takeoka, “Angle-independent structural color in colloidal amorphous arrays,” ChemPhysChem11, 579–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colloid Polym. Sci.

J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho, and R. H. Ottewill, “Studies on the preparation and characterisation of monodisperse polystyrene latices,” Colloid Polym. Sci.252, 464–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

L. F. Rojas, C. Urban, P. Schurtenberger, T. Gisler, and H. H. von Grünberg, “Reappearance of structure in colloidal suspensions,” Europhys. Lett.60, 802–808 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “On interaction between two bodies immersed in a solution of macromolecules,” J. Chem. Phys.22, 1255–1256 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci.

S. Asakura and F. Oosawa, “Interaction between particles suspended in solutions of macromolecules,” J. Polym. Sci.33, 183–192 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

A. Perro, G. Meng, J. Fung, and V. N. Manoharan, “Design and synthesis of model transparent aqueous colloids with optimal scattering properties,” Langmuir25, 11295–11298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromolecules

N. Dingenouts, C. Norhausen, and M. Ballauff, “Observation of the volume transition in thermosensitive core-shell latex particles by small-angle x-ray scattering,” Macromolecules31, 8912–8917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3, 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

J. Mattsson, H. M. Wyss, A. Fernandez-Nieves, K. Miyazaki, Z. Hu, D. R. Reichman, and D. A. Weitz, “Soft colloids make strong glasses,” Nature462, 83–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Prum, R. H. Torres, S. Williamson, and J. Dyck, “Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs,” Nature396, 28–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Sanders, “Colour of precious opal,” Nature204, 1151–1153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. J. Baumberg, O. L. Pursiainen, and P. Spahn, “Resonant optical scattering in nanoparticle-doped polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B80, 201103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, J. M. Mendez-Alcaraz, J. J. Sáenz, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 073903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soft Matter

G. Bazin and X. X. Zhu, “Understanding the thermo-sensitivity of crystalline colloidal arrays formed by poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) core-shell microspheres,” Soft Matter8, 1909–1915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the system showing all components and refractive indices at 500 nm (PS: polystyrene, poly(NIPAM-co-AAc): poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic-acid), water). (b) Differential interference contrast micrograph of an amorphous aggregate of core-shell particles. The hydrodynamic diameter of the cores is 230 nm and that of the shells is 2100 nm (here the shells are compressed). (c) Schematic of the apparatus for spectral transmission measurements. Only one of the two rotation stages is shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Confocal microscope images (left) and azimuthally-averaged, 2D spatial power spectra of the images (right) for an amorphous, dense suspension of core-shell particles with hydrodynamic core and shell diameter (δ, d) = (230 nm, 2500 nm). The inset on the right is the average of the power spectra of a z-stack of confocal images with depth 19 μm. (b) Same as (a), but for a suspension of core-shell particles with hydrodynamic core and shell diameter (δ, d) = (180 nm, 940 nm). The inset on the right is the power spectrum of the image on the left. The peaks in frequency space correspond to a characteristic length scale of 897 nm in (a) and 322 nm in (b). In both insets we have masked the values around zero wavevector and we have set a threshold to the dynamic range for better contrast. The bars correspond to 10 μm−1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photographs of amorphous packings made from particles with various core and shell diameters, showing the range of appearances that can be produced. The field of view for each sample is 2 mm × 2 mm. (b),(c) Transmission spectra of two amorphous packings of core-shell particles with different shell diameters, at various angles. The hydrodynamic diameter of the shells is 430 nm in (b) and 640 nm in (c), and the diameter of the cores is 180 nm in both cases. The angles are measured between the axis of illumination-detection and the normal to the sample surface. Insets show photographs of samples with a 1 mm × 1 mm field of view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Azimuthal averages of the power spectra of a z-stack of confocal images taken for two amorphous aggregates of core-shell particles. The depth of the stack was 6 μm in both cases. The 2D power spectra are shown in the insets, where we have masked the values around zero wavevector and we have set a threshold to the dynamic range of the image for better contrast. The bars are 10 μm−1. The hydrodynamic core and shell diameters are (δ, d) = (180 nm, 940 nm) for the upper green curve and (140 nm, 1400 nm for the lower blue curve. The samples have a peak in spatial frequency at 20.3 μm−1 (green) and 20.2 μm−1 (blue). (b) Transmission spectra through the samples shown in (a) as a function of wavelength (upper x-axis) and wavevector q (lower x-axis). The values for q were calculated using n = 1.35. The sample thickness was about 130 μm in both cases. Inset:−lnT/σs (see text).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra through core-shell suspensions in which (a) the particles have crystallized and (b) the particles have formed a disordered packing. Both samples were prepared using a depletion attraction. The crystalline sample was prepared from a monodisperse suspension of particles with hydrodynamic core and shell diameters (δ, d) = (180 nm, 430 nm), whereas the amorphous sample was prepared from a bidisperse suspension of particles with hydrodynamic core and shell diameters (δ, d) = (180 nm, 430 nm) and (180 nm, 640 nm). Insets show photographs of the samples with a 2 mm × 2 mm field of view.

Equations (3)

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ln T / σ s = ρ l
4 π n / λ r = 2 π / a r = q
n = n water 2 n water 2 + n PS 2 + 2 ϕ ( n PS 2 n water 2 ) 2 n water 2 + n PS 2 ϕ ( n PS 2 n water 2 )

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